08 Sep 2012

Essay Topic: Examining the Conflict of Good Versus Evil in Young Goodman Brown

Nathaniel Hawthorne’s short story entitled Young Goodman Brown is about a man who takes a journey to the forest and attends a congregation, but he does not know what is waiting him there. Goodman Brown, the narrative’s protagonist believes that his faith is consistent, true, and immovable, but as he takes his journey to the forest, readers realize that the main character’s faith is too shallow. He himself creates evil thoughts, which makes his faith weaker. As he walks to the forest, he becomes attached to evil and makes his belief disrupted. The conflict of good versus evil is depicted through Goodman Brown’s unstable mind, inconsistent faith, and distrust to the people around him.

The conflict of good versus evil emerges through Goodman Brown’s unstable mind—and only his wife, Faith, is trying to keep his faith still. When Young Goodman Brown is about to leave, his wife said: “Then God bless you! And may you find all well when you come back” (Hawthorne 190). Goodman Brown’s journey is for the benefit of evil, but Faith is trying to restrict her husband to continue his travel. When Goodman Brown wants to pursue his travel, the only think that Faith can do is to bless him and ask for his return. However, though Goodman Brown is blessed by his wife in his journey, he knows that evil exists because on his way to the forest, he said: “There may be a devilish Indian behind every tree. What if the devil himself should be at my very elbow!” (191) Due to his unstable mind, Goodman Brown is prone to evil thoughts. Even if he has a faith and belief in his religion, he cannot stop thinking of negativity because his path leads him to evil.

Conflict between good and evil exists when Goodman Brown begins his distrust to the people around him. As he thinks about the devil and his wife, Goodman Brown asked the traveler: “Friend, my mind is made up. Not another step will I budge on this errand. What if a wretched old woman do choose to go to the devil when I thought she was going to heaven: is that any reason why I should quit my dear Faith and go after her?” (195) As Goodman Brown walks into the forest, he encounters different people taking their journey to the congregation. They are the respected and prayerful individual in his community. As he sees them, he starts distrusting them, which makes him think of going back to his wife. Goodman Brown does not know how to identify the difference between good and evil in the middle of his journey, so when he sees Faith into the congregation, he said: “My Faith is gone! There is no good on earth; and sin is but a name. Come, devil; for to thee is this world given” (197). Faith is not only the protagonist’s wife, but also his belief in his religion. When he says his Faith is gone, it means that his faith to his community is gone because evil builds a devilish thought against people around him.

Goodman Brown experiences conflict of good versus evil due to his inconsistent faith. The forest is a symbolism of evil because there is “no church had ever been gathered or solitary Christian prayed” (196)—and Goodman Brown takes this path as a sign of his union with the devil. Despite of his wife’s disapproval, the protagonist continues his journey, which proves his inconsistent faith to his religion. When he is about to see the congregation and feel the evil spirit within his midst, Goodman Brown shouted: “With heaven above and Faith below, I will yet stand firm against the devil!” (196) The protagonist is trying to use his faith to keep him away from harm, but his soul is offered to the evil. Seeing his community being part of the congregation is a justification of his inconsistent faith because he does not trust anyone around him, even his faith that should only be his source of strength. As he demonstrates his inconsistent faith, his evil attacks his body, mind, and soul.

Goodman Brown is a good man, but he fails to bring his faith in his journey to the forest. The conflict of good versus evil emerges when he decides to leave Faith and takes his journey alone. He leaves his faith in his house and thinks that he can overcome any obstacle in his path, but he is unsuccessful because unstable mind, inconsistent faith, and distrust to the people around him become the instrument of evil to own his mind, body, and soul. As a result, Goodman Brown’s mind, body, and soul is eaten by the evil—and no matter how he try to keep his faith, he cannot return from his belief because the evil lies within his wholeness.

Work Cited

Hawthorne, Nathaniel. “Young Goodman Brown.” 190-203.

18 Jan 2010

Sample Essay: New Zealand

The Silver Fern is a reflection of New Zealand’s acceptance and celebration of nature in their everyday life. It acts as an unofficial national emblem being used in lieu of various national emblems such as the Coat of Arms and the New Zealand One Dollar Coin. It is also used by various sports teams such as the Silver Ferns and All Blacks. It is a part of the New Zealand national identity and a readily identifiable symbol in New Zealand.

Agriculture is an important part of the traditional New Zealand economics.  Carried out primarily by the Maoris, Agriculture was a primary occupation of the pre-European New Zealand.  When the first settlers of Captain Cook arrived, the natives were willing to embrace them due to the reason that the latter would provide New Zealand with a new social and political perspective in the modern world.

The tribes of New Zealand respect their history and are firmly devout; they have a certain respect regarding agriculture. They have remained steadfast in their efforts to sustain a healthy economy and lifestyle, and religion and agriculture have been their means for attaining their goal.  They were able to enhance their farming and hunting capabilities.  It was not until the first settlers had arrived, that they were finally introduced to a new perspective of the need for diversity of having a new economy with foreign investors. Furthermore, they realized that they would be able to interact with traders in order to have an adequate relationship with their agricultural background.

For example, from the standpoint of a farmer, he would be able to have a new agenda from obtaining good returns on his crops which would lead to the eventual prosperity of his family. Instead of being happy with the meager returns from traditional avenues, they would have a new government which would establish a new treatment of his or her land, and bring in good and just trade and barter policies, which are necessary to sustain a beneficial economy.  The merchants for example, in the 18th century, had wanted to utilize their land, not for the prosperity of New Zealand, but to use it as an import and export industry, in order to benefit from certain agricultural phenomena which were exotic to the merchants and the Europeans. Furthermore, the settlers began to realize that New Zealand could in fact be a frontier in which it could setup colonies, and treat it as if it were the British Isles.

An author explains this situation and its impact on New Zealand in its future relations with the foreign market:

‘New Zealand welcomes and encourages foreign investment without discrimination. The Overseas Investment Commission (OIC) must give consent to foreign investments that would control 25% or more of businesses or property worth more than NZ$ 50 million.’

In this respect, we can see that New Zealanders had a new inspiration with which they were to view this rise in their economy and population growth. There was also intermarriage, between natives and settlers which had promoted a new way of adapting to this society, and being able to establish relationships with foreign settlers. This is an important aspect to realize, because New Zealand would have a new diversity which played a role in providing for the proper form of education and urban planning.  With regard to economics, it would establish a foundation for their land to prosper alongwith the industries which had embraced the frontier of New Zealand.

In 2007, New Zealand has experienced a rise in their population growth – for example, the increase in the number of immigrants which has been imperative, since the 18th century, for the establishment and growth of their economy. However, since the settlers’ arrival in New Zealand, the trade industry has still remained an industry which these people have used, as their main identity and asset, in establishing relationships with other foreign countries; and from these relationships, they have been able to have a new policy on New Zealand’s agenda.

We can see this agenda as a new form of understanding in the social and political stance. Yet, they have still remained aggressive in their handling of political agenda and in its relationship with foreign currency in order to better their economics.  They have a different approach in analyzing the ways in which this could be interpreted.  Once again, from this standpoint, we can see these people have a new agenda in which they were able to carry forth and not be hassled by the strict rigors of their economic agenda which have marred the import and export industry.  In recent times, they have tried to expend their capital by including other industries which would help to establish New Zealand as a country which has a diversified revenue portfolio. Furthermore, they have still been able to handle their import and export industry, which is native to the prosperity of this island-nation.

New Zealand’s economy presently suffers from huge deficits year after year, a sure cause of concern to those who hold the reigns of this bustling economy. According to a public source:

‘The large current account deficit, which stood at more than 8% of GDP in 2000, has been a constant source of concern for New Zealand policymakers.  The rebound in the export sector is expected to help narrow the deficit to lower levels’.

New Zealand still relies on to this day, on its import and export industry because of its locality. The country has been able to cultivate its land in order to raise the market value of their agricultural heritage.  Author Fredrick Wood, in his book Understanding New Zealand (Wood) explains:

‘From the country’s earliest days, for instance, saw-milling has been an important industry; and many sawmill workers rarely see a town, great or small.  They pursue timber in receding forests up the sides of mountains.’

We can see that New Zealanders have the advantage of having an exotic frontier, and have learned over their history to utilize their natural resources in establishing a new perspective on how to formulate their trade policy.  For example, foreign relations currently is the most important aspect for their economy to maintain a proper market value, because they rely on this in order to strengthen their import industry.  We can see this has an effect on the surplus of immigrants who have been able to reside in New Zealand the last ten years.

Furthermore, New Zealand has been able to sustain a new mindset in which they could be seen as establishing a healthy wave of influence in this political arena.  For example, the rules and regulations on the basis of which they have been able to diversify their growth and still maintain a coherent national and international identity is indeed noteworthy, considering that there has been little room for them to have prosperity in this region.

Because of their relationships with other countries, they have been able to consider a new perspective in establishing a foreign policy. Furthermore, under these circumstances, New Zealanders have been able to have a new understanding with which they would be able to set forth new social and political goals, establish a different agenda and have a new platform on which they should conduct their business when dealing with other foreign nations. Jason Wai from BERL explains in Immigration delivers government $3bn surplus:

‘BERL determined that migrants contributed $8.1 billion in income tax, GST and excise duties whereas they consumed $4.8 billion of education, health and welfare.’

If New Zealanders will learn from their tradition and understand what these traditions mean in themselves and for the ethos of the business policy, we can see them begin to have a development in which they will be able to expand their trade policy and incorporate their trade policy in order to strengthen their economy. The Economist explains the importance of the New Zealand:

‘A strong currency can be a curse for exporters, however. In New Zealand’s case, the carry trade has given the kiwi dollar an extra upward push. With the yen nearing five-year lows against the American dollar this week, such trades may well continue… As rising interest rates in some countries exacerbate the differences between high-yielding currencies and low-yielding ones, such as Japan’s, New Zealand’s predicament may become more familiar. Most nations with strong currencies should refrain from following its lead. After all, peashooters are of little use against a determined foe.’

New Zealanders have lately discovered their new international identity, and they would be willing to have this identity reflect their own procedure and their trade policies. According one author, this implies that New Zealand must diversify its trade policy in order to conduct business and reach the business decisions that will come to influence them.

If we talk of turnkey projects, we are able to see the numerous appeals which New Zealand would have on private investors in developed countries – a venture capital firm in America could be considered an example. One of the main reasons they would have this appeal is because New Zealand has already set up its own identity as a place which cultivates exotic things which are only found in this country. Because New Zealanders have learned to embrace the history of their culture, they have used this as an advantage in establishing themselves with their agriculture and being able to have a trade industry which is self-sufficient and reliable without the support of other countries. Jason Wai from BERL explains:

‘BERL’s report shows a defined fiscal impact of New Zealand’s resident migrants on a set of government activities, and gives comparable figures for the New Zealand-born population. The report also summarizes the fiscal impact of migrant subgroups by the duration of residence, region of birth and region of residence.  The study examines occupational and study characteristics of migrants, and considers migrants’ long-run impacts on the economy.’

We can see that New Zealand’s economy would grow from these relationships and industries which they have cultivated. However, a new political goal has transpired in New Zealand in the last two years; though New Zealand has had the lowest employment rate, a country that must deal with a rise in population, must also reconfigure its trade policy in order to establish itself and not have a problem with new employees of this industry – for example, a political demonstration or a labor union strike is more probable as their rise in population has transpired. Wood explains, the current standing of New Zealand, and its government:

‘The British Common­wealth is a developing institution and is governed by custom and personal understandings rather than by law. Its habits can be changed overnight to meet new needs. It has many sides, and looks different when observed from the different dominion capitals.’

Therefore, New Zealand must establish firmer labor unions and have numerous divisions which are justified to shoulder responsibility in handling these affairs. From this context we can see them have a new division with the help of which they would be able to have a grasp of the facets in labor regulations and still maintain their economy and currency. Also, from the example of China, we can see that this nation has let its currency fall, in order for it to have a stronger export industry because the price of manufacturing would have competitive rate with other nations in this world. It is uncertain if New Zealand would like to venture here, because they have to maintain a strong enough economy, by establishing their relationships with other nations in order to promote the quality of their export industry.

In recent times, China which has been used as an example, is having their export industry back fire on them, because of their low labor and manufacturing cost has caused the quality of its work to suffer.  Furthermore, in this argument, we can see that New Zealand has had to deal with international relations in order to establish itself as a nation which has impacted the global export industry, which then could be seen in connection with their consumer goods.

New Zealanders have been able to maintain the market value from the trade industry, therefore they will have to continue establishing new relationships with the foreign market, in order to see their economy maintain its value, and not necessarily increase.  An example of this could be seen in the tendency to have a new policy and reinforcing that this policy does not conflict with the future of New Zealand’s market of export goods, which it would have to sustain from keeping their currency competitive from the likes of China and India.

In this predicament, New Zealanders have been able to remain on their own, by cultivating the natural resources in order to further their economy and keeping their inflation rate at a competitive level. If New Zealand’s government is planning to expand the export industry into a new frontier, than it would have to be mindful of having to divide the classifications of labor or lower classes with the median earned income, because this could result in a demonstration if the workers are against certain conditions which the government have chosen to disregard.  There is statistical evidence of the climb of income which New Zealand has experienced, and its relation to other developed countries, most notably the U.S.A.  This evidence of the average income in New Zealand is relative to their export industry, because it proves the correlation between a rise in their economy, and also the rise in the price of manufacturing and goods.

New Zealand business is affected by two types of cycles – the classical cycle and the growth cycle. The classical cycle concentrates on the fluctuations in the absolute levels of economic activity, whereas growth business cycle concentrates on fluctuations in the relative economic activity. (Kim, Buckle, Hall)

As New Zealand has enabled itself to have a new agenda in its political stance on trade policy, we can see their economy grow with the numerous facets which would influence its relations with foreign investors.  Furthermore, now that they have been able to forward this policy, in order to incorporate their identity with the quality of manufacturing, we can see this economy begin to have a social and political structure.

In the light of this evidence, we are able to see New Zealand have a social impact in the ways in which it would begin to develop its industry through the use of trade and also from attempting to raise their currency in order to ensure not only diplomatic relationships but also those with private investors and venture capitals from other countries for the sake of their export industry.

We are able to understand the international relationship in which they have been able to resurrect and in which they have been able to safeguard by increasing the quality of the environment. New Zealand has had to develop as a country; they have been able to sustain their healthy economy through their trade policy. With regard to their trade policy, we can see this demographic have a new social order. Their currency value would have to be safeguarded in order to maintain its international relations.

David Norman in his article US & Australia continue to grow, explains New Zealand’s current labor situation:

‘Previous reports of the loss of 4,000 jobs in the US in August have turned out to be erroneous. Revised figures indicate that in fact 89,000 jobs were added during this period, almost as many as the 93,000 in July. September job growth is even better, up 100,000. Unemployment is flat at 4.7%, with growth in health care, food services, and professional and technical services, and declines in manufacturing and construction.’

New Zealand has started carving its identity, the New Zealanders were also willing to have this identity not conflict with other policies, which would have caused it to have a new approach and interpretation in the ways in which it could be seen resolving the issues of its trade policy. We come to the conclusion that they have been able to sustain a new ground of cause and justification. We are able to reach the conclusion as to what this economy has now implied, and in this reference, we can see their economy have a different factor and an economical trend.

Ultimately, so far as we are able to have a new agenda in this regard, we are able to see their economy grow with the numerous aspects as to what this may now imply.  Furthermore, now that they have been able to forward their economy, we can see this trend begin to have a social and political agenda. New Zealand has been able to aid its economy growth by maintaining a structure and trade policy and the growth is poised to continue.

Works Cited

Björn, Bjerke. Business Leadership and Culture: National Management Styles in the Global Economy. Edward Elgar: London, 1999.

Kim, Buckle, Hall. “Key Features of New Zealand Business Cycles.” Economic Record, Vol. 70, 1994.

Norman, David. “US & Australia continue to grow” BERL. Retrieved on 14 December, 2007. Available on <http://www.berl.co.nz/content/worldeconomy/unitedstates/896/australia-continue.aspx>

Wood, Frederick. Understanding New Zealand. Coward-McCann: New York, 1944.

“A Warning Shot.” The Economist. Updated on June 14th 2007. Retrieved on 14 December, 2007. Available on <http://www.economist.com/displayStory.cfm?story_id=9340724>

05 Oct 2009

Sample Essay: The Politics, Economy, and Liberal Cosmopolitanism of Venice

Justice and Mercy in “The Merchant of Venice”

The Merchant of Venice is one of the most frequently performed plays of Shakespeare. Written between 1594 and 1598 in Elizabethan England where the playwright lived, the play is thematically rich. The themes of mercy, religion (Christianity and anti-Semitism), love and revenge, law and justice are all inextricably interwoven into the plot lending it the complexity that is characteristic of human emotions and relationships. The inexplicable unfolding of these underlying emotions and ideas contribute to the drama. One school of critics are of the opinion that the play is fundamentally allegorical, addressing such themes as the victory of mercy over justice, New Testament forgiveness over Old Testament law and love over money. Shakespeare also portrays the economic trends of the Renaissance period, the growing power of money and emerging capitalism in Merchant of Venice.

The dramatist has interwoven the ideas of justice and mercy throughout the plot, rendering them one of the prominent themes. The Christian merchant Antonio was forced to enter into a contract with Jewish usurer Shylock when he had to borrow money from him to help his friend. His friend was Bassanio, who was living in debt, but required the funds to travel to Belmont and woo Portia, a rich heiress. Because most of Antonio’s money is tied up in his ships, he cannot help Bassanio, but agrees to post his property as collateral so Bassanio can obtain a loan. Bassanio borrows money from Shylock who had reason to hate Antonio and his Christian friends as they often ridiculed him. Antonio had treated Shylock disdainfully, had spat upon him and had threatened his livelihood by lending money to others without interest, Shylock insists on the condition that if funds were not returned in three months, Antonio must forfeit a pound of flesh. Antonio agrees to this strange condition, confident that his ships will return with merchandise soon and he will be able to repay the loan. Meanwhile when Shylock’s daughter Jessica elopes with Bassanio’s friend Lorenzo, taking with her jewels and gold and converts to Christianity, Shylock’s hatred for Antonio and his friends intensifies. This is depicted in Act 2, Scene 8, when Salanio and Salarino exchange news in a Venetian street. They inform him that Antonio’s ships are lost and ask him if he will exact the forfeit of his bond. Shylock answers that he will as he was always ill treated by Antonio and his friends. His sentiments are evident in the following extracts:

“I am a Jew. Hath not a Jew eyes? Hath not a Jew hands, organs, dimensions, senses, affections, passions? Fed with the same food, hurt with the same weapons, subject to the same diseases, healed by the same means, warmed and cooled by the same winter and summer, as a Christian is? If you prick us, do we not bleed? If you tickle us, do we not laugh? If you poison us, do we not die? And if you wrong us, shall we not revenge? (3. 1. 23)”

“…if it will feed nothing else, it will feed my revenge; he hath disgraced me, and hinder’d me half a million, laughed at my losses, mock’d at my gains, scorned my nation, thwarted my bargains, cooled my friends, heated mine enemies – and what’s his reason? I am a Jew.” (3. 1. 47-52)

The multiple themes of justice and mercy, love and revenge, Christianity and anti-Semitism all come to a climax in the court room scene in Act 4, Scene 1.

..    At the Venetian court of justice before the Duke of Venice, the duke asks Shylock to show mercy by giving up his claim for a pound of flesh. Shylock refuses. Bassanio then offers Shylock more than he is owed, but Shylock continues to insist on exacting a pound of flesh. Nerissa, dressed like a law clerk, arrives and introduces the disguised Portia as Bellario, a learned doctor of law. Portia entreats for mercy on behalf of Antonio,

‘The quality of mercy is not strain’d,
It droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven
Upon the place beneath: it is twice bless’d;
It blesseth him that gives and him that takes:
‘Tis mightiest in the mightiest: it becomes
The throned monarch better than his crown;
His sceptre shows the force of temporal power,
The attribute to awe and majesty,
Wherein doth sit the dread and fear of kings;
But mercy is above this sceptred sway;
It is enthroned in the hearts of kings,
It is an attribute to God himself;
And earthly power doth then show likest God’s
When mercy seasons justice.” (4. 1. 180-193)

She tells Shylock mercy cannot be forced from someone; it must be freely given. Ordinary people are seldom asked to display this quality. It is a gift given from kings and rulers. Shakespeare explores the tension between justice and mercy through the attitudes of Shylock and Portia. Portia’s understanding of mercy is based on the way Christians in Shakespeare’s time understood the difference between the Old and New Testaments. According to the writings of St. Paul in the New Testament, the Old Testament depicts God as stern and exacting. The New Testament portrays a God who forgives rather than punishes and offers salvation to those who forgive others.

The theme of mercy also ties in with the theme of religion. Portia says, “it is an attribute to God himself” and refers to the God of the New Testament, who is seen as merciful. The idea that Christians are merciful is repeatedly enforced in the play. In the extract Shylock says that mercy is for fools, or Christians, “I’ll not be made a soft and dull-eyed fool, to Christian intercessors.”

The theme of revenge is linked to the theme of religion as Shylock believes that revenge is a Christian quality (just as Portia believes that mercy is a Christian quality).

“If a Christian wrong a Jew, what should his sufferance be by Christian example? – why revenge!” (3. 1. 63-64)

Shylock seeks revenge by exploiting the power of the law, and Portia manipulates the law to turn it against Shylock.

This theme is also repeated in the scene that Shylock demands his justice by the letter of the law and the forfeit of his bond. Portia lets Shylock have the chance to take the moral path or the letter of his bond. Shylock insists on the penalty, complacent in the knowledge that law and justice is on his side, deaf to appeals for mercy. Then suddenly the balance of power in the trial changes. Portia warns Shylock that when he cuts away the pound of flesh, he must take only flesh, not blood; for the signed agreement calls only for a pound of flesh and nothing else.

‘Then take thy bond, take thou thy pound of flesh;
But, in the cutting it, if thou dost shed
One drop of Christian blood, thy lands and goods
Are, by the laws of Venice, confiscate
Unto the state of Venice.” (4. 1. 308-312)

Portia expounds on mercy, but it is doubtful whether Sherlock was granted this mercy. All his worldly goods were to be divided between his daughter and Antonio, although Antonio gives them back on the condition that he gives up his religion and adopts Christianity.

“The Jew shall have all the justice, soft no haste!

He shall have nothing but the penalty.” (4. 1. 317)

Bloom in “Shakespeare’s Politics” says that Shylock and Antonio act as representatives of Judaism and Christianity, respectively, and that it is Shylock’s absolute deference to the law that necessarily brings about his downfall. In this interpretation, Bloom illustrates the limits of law as to its ability to ultimately protect and maintain justice.     In Tovey’s “The Golden Casket: An Interpretation of the Merchant of Venice”, the play is treated as an allegory relating philosophy and politics.

In “The Merchant of Venice”, justice and mercy are recurring themes, and the interplay between them has a key role in determining the outcome of the play.

Works Cited

1.     Bloom, Allan with Harry V. Jaffa. Shakespeare’s Politics, 3rd ed., Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981. pp. 16

2.     Cummings, Michael J. The Merchant of Venice – A Study Guide, http://www.cummingsstudyguides.net, 2003.

3.     Tovey, Barbara. The Golden Casket: An Interpretation of The Merchant of Venice, pp. 261-287, ISI Books, 2000.

09 Jul 2009

Sample Essay: English Civil War

The English Civil War fought between Parliamentarians and Royalists between 1642 and 1651 which consisted of a succession of armed disagreements and political intrigues. The first and civil wars were potholed the followers of King Charles I against the advocates of the Long Parliament. This paper focuses on the major causes of occurrence of English Civil war. Reason of English Civil war: The English Civil War occurred due to numerous reasons. The English Civil War began in 1642 when Charles I hoisted his royal standard in Nottingham.

Charles’ Personality:  One of the important causes of outbreak of the English civil war was the persona of Charles I.  The situation of the realm had started to turn down under the control of James I.  Charles had a very dissimilar personality as compared to James. By nature, he was egotistical and strongly believed in the rights of kings. He had observed the bitter affiliation between his father and Parliament and assessed that Parliament was totally imperfect. He had an image that king could not be immoral. His snobbery was ultimately led to execution of war (www.bbc.co.uk). Charles never anticipated becoming King because his elder brother, Henry had to resume the job of king, but when he expired unexpectedly in 1612. He hated having to rule with Parliament. He supposed that he had a capability to rule alone and do whatever he liked. Such views created more conflict between him and the MPs (Russell 1990). Another reason which caused English civil war was lack of funds in Charles monarchy. When his father James died in 1625, Charles came to the throne and at that time he had very little cash. Once Charles became King, the County Faction1 desired him to fight with the Catholics in Spain, so Charles implemented taxes on them to utilize in war. But they rebuffed to pay sufficient. That was great issue and no one stopped the occurrence of war. Parliament blamed the King that he was responsible for the outbreak of war (www.bbc.co.uk)

Marriage of Charles I was also an important ground in the eruption of the civil war. The issue was heated up with marriage of Charles with Henrietta Maria, who was French Catholic. That was objectionable to the Puritan and Parliament became more hardnosed in the new sovereignty. The public, particularly the Puritans were against the marriage and did not want to agree to Catholic as Queen. The quarrel heightened and caused to war.

Dispute between Charles and Parliament:   The split between Charles and Parliament had great disagreement on several issues. No one was willing to back down over the principles that they held and war was predictable to find the solutions of their conflict. The country was divided into two groups. One group consisted of those who advocated the king and another group of those who supported Parliament. Disagreement between Charles and parliament   were continually increasing over many issues. Charles disagreed with parliament mainly on the issues of money and religion in 1625 to 1629. In 1629, Charles followed the tactics of his father. The leaders of the parliamentary party Coke, John Pym, Sir John Eliot, and John Selden wanted ways to limit the powers of the king. The Parliament of 1625 approved him the right to collect taxes. When he failed to raise money without Parliament, he was compelled to call a new one in 1628. The new Parliament drew up the Petition of Right, and Charles accepted it in order to get his financial assistance. He continued to charge customs duties. This act was unacceptable to parliamentarians and they declared unlawful under the Petition of Right. He repudiated to conduct Parliament meet. When Members of Parliament arrived at Westminster they found that the doors were locked with large chains and padlocks. They were locked out for eleven years. Charles ruled by using the Court of Star Chamber. To increase funds for the king, the Court heavily fined those brought before it. Rich men were forced to buy titles. If they refused to pay, they were fined the same amount of money that would have cost for a title anyway. In 1635 Charles ordered that everyone in the country should pay Ship Money. This was previously a tax paid by coastal towns and villages to pay for the maintenance of the navy. The reason for executing such taxes was that coastal areas were most benefited from the navy’s security. Charles determined that everyone in the territory is benefited from the navy’s protection so everyone should pay taxes. Principally, Charles’s step was right, but this issue caused a more squabble between both sides. John Hampden was one of the influential men in the nation. He had been a Member of Parliament. He didn’t follow the order of Charles and refused to pay the new tax as Parliament had not agreed to it. During that time Parliament was also not assembling as Charles had locked the MP’s out. By 1642, relations between Parliament and Charles had worsened (Fletche 1981). The relationship was objectionable to Charles. In 1642, he went to Parliament with 300 soldiers to arrest his five main opponents. The Parliament already had a message in advance about the arrest by someone close to the king. They escaped timely and went to London to hide themselves from the King. Charles had shown his true side. Charles attempted to arrest five Members of Parliament because they challenged his policies. Even Charles sensed that these steps had created disagreement between him and Parliament. After six days, Charles left London and headed to Oxford to raise an army to battle Parliament for control of England. To arrange finance for a final resolution Charles had to call a new Parliament. The Long Parliament sat from 3 November, 1640. This time Charles did not sack Parliament and Parliament played its own tactics. Parliament blamed for what went immoral on the King’s consultants; Charles also tried to mend the gap by signing Strafford’s death warrant, passing a bill that permitted for Parliament not to be dissolved without its own approval, a bill making ship money unlawful and other bills that taken together bulldozed the support of prerogative government. All of these causes led to some important events in 1641 and 1642. It turned out that the implementation of Strafford had been a blunder. Without Strafford to control over Ireland, the Irish revolted in 1641.

These factors increased an impenetrable problem that who would control the Army, King or run Parliament. John Pym initiated through passing the Militia Bill and the Grand Remonstrance. It included the whole list of wrong activities; the Charles had done in his sovereignty. It was passed by 11 votes, which meant that while most of the Commons had earlier been against him, now almost half of them supported him. it was the King’s a foolish step. On the advice of his Queen Charles decided to detain the five ringleaders. On 4 January, 1642, Charles tried to get into the Commons to arrest the five MPs and found that after he and his guards had battered the door down, the MPs had been cautioned and were not present. This step turned the majority of Parliament members not in favor of him because it was held to infringe of Parliamentary freedom. Then the escaped MPs marched past up and down London protected by the Trained Bands, an army of part-time soldiers. After this, Charles escaped to Nottingham. He raised his standard and a civil war was erupted (Royal 2004).

Conclusion: The English Civil War of the seventeenth century was evidently a progress which virtually no one expected. The English Civil Wars commenced initially as a clash over monetary matters between the Charles I and Parliament.  The other causal issues of that time concerned the religion of the nation which at the time included Scotland, Ireland, and part of North America. The king’s peculiar behavior was major cause for upsurge of English civil war.


1)  FletcheAnthony. The Outbreak of the English Civil War. Publisher: New York University Press. Place of Publication: New York. Publication Year: 1981. Pp: 322.

2)  Royal, Trevor; “Civil War: The Wars of the Three Kingdoms 1638-1660”; Pub Abacus 2006

3)  Russell Conrad. The Causes of the English Civil War. Publisher: Clarendon Press. Place of Publication: Oxford. Publication Year: 1990. Page Number: 185, 161.

4)  The Causes of the English Civil War. http://www.bbc.co.uk.

14 Nov 2008

Research papers on prayer in public schools

Research papers on prayer in public schools is a controversial debate over whether students should pray or not pray in public schools. The Federal Supreme Court banned praying in public schools in Engel Et Al. v. Vitale Et Al. (1962). A New York school district required student to rehearse a phrase, which strictly violated the First Amendment rights of many students that were not of Christian denomination. There is a great deal of information regarding religion in American history. Research papers on prayer in public schools is such a controversial topic, it attracts Christian activists, opposing moderates, policymakers, public entities, and government official

Praying serves an extension of religion. The government provides funds for public school and makes formal policy decision such as the No Child Left Behind Act of 2002. The federal government doesn’t condone any religious acts within any government-operated facility. In addition, they don’t mandate any one religion. Writing service companies know the historical context of praying in public schools. They maintain a core of writers that are willing to take your research papers on prayer in public schools to a higher level.

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The body of research papers on prayer in public schools states the facts. Workers, students and other individuals that experience adverse actions that violate their constitutional rights, they have the option to take their case to the Supreme Court. Cases must go in order: local courts, State Supreme Court and then Supreme Courts. Local and State Courts try to avoid ruling against the Constitutional. Although, there has been instances where court rulings have ruled against the federal government. Research papers on prayer in public schools respond to various cases, issues and workplace treatment.

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