15 Feb 2010

Essays on Common Sense

When pursuing their academic ambitions, students are often called upon to prepare written documents on a wide variety of topics.  These topics are frequently discussions and evaluations of written documents, in particular ones dealing with the philosophical standpoint of historic figures.  Common Sense is one of the most frequently overlooked of such documents, giving insight into the thinking of those who founded our nation.

Common Sense was written anonymously by Thomas Paine in the era prior to the American Revolution.  Paine wrote Common Sense and published it, even though he knew the consequences of his identity coming to the attention of the presiding British officers would, at very least, result in his imprisonment.  The fact that it was written anonymously in this environment reflects several things about Paine.  First, Paine believed what he wrote and second, he knew such thoughts to be dangerous in light of the political climate.

With Common Sense, Paine incorporated a format that is used in academic circles widely today, over two hundred years later.  He began by establishing his beliefs that though intertwined, Government and Society were independent from one another.  He then began giving examples of how his beliefs applied to the crisis facing the colonists.  During this time, the King of England held absolute control not only over the governance of the colonies, but also to the economic relations of the colonies.  Under the Stamp Act (1765), the colonies were placed under a heavy tax burden, which was protested by the colonies.  Though the Stamp Act was withdrawn in short order, the Declaratory Act (1766) was issued within which Parliament declared its legal right to tax the colonies.

Paine argued that Governments were created to protect the rights of Society’s members and to protect them from the vices of other members of Society.  In this argument, Paine established the idea that Governments should be limited in their powers and that the bulk of power should always lay with the general public.  He associated this line of thinking to the biblical aversion to “kings” and the subsequent deleterious effects kings had on the Hebrew tribes.  As evidence of this, he draws an image of the British constitution itself being penned by those of nobility who were more interested in protecting their personal power.  In this he argued that it is only through participation that the needs of the people can be protected.  Paine concluded by presenting the ramifications of this environment, showing how it had led to a state of oppressiveness that could only result in revolution.

Understanding Common Sense requires not only an understanding of literature, but of the historical events surrounding its publication.  As such, the essay potential of the work is considerable, such as the analysis of how social and political events shape the writings of various authors throughout history.  At times, these analogies and understandings escape all but the most seasoned of writers, such as those who work for our company.  Fully versed in the techniques necessary to critically analyze literature, science and history, our writers can easily address any topic, ranging from simple literary analysis to complex doctoral dissertations.  All we need to get started is your order.

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09 Feb 2010

Sample Essay: Globalization Of Chanel

“Fashion has to do with ideas, the way we live, what is happening.”

Gabrielle “Coco” Chanel

History of the Chanel Brand

The success of Chanel as one of the leading luxury brands in the world could be traced back to the humble beginnings of its namesake’s founder, Gabrielle “Coco” Chanel. She had revolutionized fashion and had literally liberated women from restrictive clothing and ostentatious accessories through introducing a whole new look that she had started from her own sense of style and freedom. Her designs have greatly appealed to several women from high societies in all ages – but were likewise much imitated by the lower class. She popularized the use of jersey as an haute couture material and her name later on became one of the prominent symbols of elitism, wealth and class[1].

The success of the luxury brand could be attributed both with the manner for which it has adapted to the changing modes of the society and with the way it stood ground and faithful to the original meaning of Chanel “classics,” and in remaining true to the fact that fashion is a conglomeration of ideas – an apt reflection of the way people live and of the events that inspired such way of life. It is not an entity to stand for itself; it is not with the promotion of downright ostentatiousness, but rather with the celebration of femininity and fluidity of motion.

Competition with Other Brands through the Years:

The years 1914 to 1918 saw several socio-economic changes during the First World War There was a growing recognition on the changing roles of women in the Parisian society and the flamboyant manner of dressing became seemingly inappropriate after the onset of war. Thus, Chanel’s introduction of the “flapper style” in the 1920s became in tune with the growing social consciousness that was evidently resulted from the Parisians’ war experiences. Women were finally liberated from their corsets and short sleek hair became the fashion for women who were already asserting their newly found freedom. Chanel became the epitome of the 20s style as the masculine, flat-chest silhouette of couture became synonymous to style and liberation[2]. Much of Chanel’s success was likewise attributed to her partnership with Pierre Wertheimer and to the introduction of Parfums Chanel in the luxury market.

However, the female form returned in the 1930s through the introduction of clothing from Madeleine Vionnet and Mainbocher. Chanel perfume likewise found a very stiff competition with the advent of a new line of perfumery from Elsa Schiaparelli. Yet, Chanel managed to prevail as she was chosen to dress the most influential women of that period – Katharine Hepburn, Grace Kelly, and Elizabeth Taylor. Coco Chanel established a successful fashion studio near the museum of Louvre in Paris, France. Coco Chanel also started her set of jewelry line that was initially used for her daytime sportswear collection[3].

The Chanel perfume line likewise thrived as Chanel No. 5 became the dynamic equivalent of upper class fragrance in the late 1920s. In 1929, Chanel’s partner, Pierre Wertheimer introduced Soir de Paris to gain access to a much general market. This partnership has thrived and became one of the leading industries of the upscale market in spite of the growing differences of the personal relationships of Wertheimer and Chanel. Chanel felt that the Wertheimers were exploiting her talent through not adequately providing her with her fair share in the income of the company. The Wertheimers however, maintained that they have solely financed Chanel’s business ventures and were it not for their help; Chanel would not be able to gain prominence and wealth[4].

The onset of World War II and the invasion of the Nazi forces to France prompted Chanel to close her shop. As the Wertheimers fled to the United States, Chanel tried to gain full control to Parfums Chanel but has failed to do so as the Wertheimers had already anticipated that move.

In the 1940s, Chanel went into exile in Switzerland after France gained victory over the Nazi forces. Chanel allegedly had an affair with Nazi officer Hanz Gunther von Dincklage. Because Frenchwomen who were said to have been supporters of the Nazi forces received unjust social stigma, Chanel decided to go to Switzerland and temporarily continue the closing of her shop[5].

At this time, it was said that one of Chanel’s fragrance engineers, Beaux invented a series of perfumes then called, “Mademoiselle Chanel.” As Chanel attempted to ship the perfumes to the US, Wertheimer was forced to settle into an agreement with her. Mademoiselle Chanel thus disappeared after this alleged agreement.

The 1950s saw the emergence of a new fashion voice from the teen-ager groups, who – prior to 1950s have been following the fashion trends of the middle aged population. There was also a dramatic increase in the population due to several pregnancies after the war. At this time, Marks and Spencer’s ready to wear items were much in vogue as well as Christian Dior’s post-war opulent fashion. Different from the resulting reactions of the public after the World War I, the women at this period felt the need to dress more ostentatiously after experiencing deprivation on fabrics and rich and fashionable clothes during the war. Chanel was angered when she saw this change upon her return from self-exile in Switzerland. She felt that fashion should not be regressing but must continue to embody the fluidity of motion that comes with the passage of time, particularly during the post-war years. But because of the rise of the number of pregnant women, Chanel’s shapeless designs regained its popularity[6].

Chanel asked for financial backing from Wertheimer in exchange of the rights to the Chanel products, which would no longer be exclusively confined to perfumes. This proved to be an excellent business decision as Chanel was able to regain its competitive edge in the luxury market. With the successful inclusion of the classic Chanel 2.55 bag and the Chanel suits, Chanel once again secured its position in the market of the upper echelons of society.

In the 1960s, the television played a major role in the course of the fashion industry. The Beatles and rock and roll provided heavy influences in the manner for which the younger generations dress themselves. The concept of mod fashion was introduced and skirts have dramatically diminished their lengths. Pierre Cardin and Paco Robanne became the leading stylists of this era. Chanel, however, resented this. She felt that the ugliest part of a female body is her knees and must therefore be covered for most of the times. At the end of 1960s, floor length “Maxi” dresses became the fashion rave[7].

Chanel re-engineered classical fashion through the innovations that she introduced in her Chanel suits and pillbox hats. As a matter of fact, there has been no other suit that could rival then first lady Jackie Kennedy’s famous pink Chanel woolen suit, which embodied her feminine style and power.

Chanel’s death in 1971 ended Coco Chanel’s reign as Chanel’s chief designer. She was replaced by Karl Lagerfeld, who were said to have introduced significant changes in the Chanel line while at the same time remained faithful to Chanel’s definition of elite classicism. In 1974, the house of Chanel launched a new eau de toilette, Cristalle which was designed when Coco Chanel was still alive. When Jacques Wertheimer took over in 1974, Chanel No. 5 was starting to be regarded as an outdated perfume and was less favored than Yves St. Laurent’s Opium. He then started to change this conception by banking on the brand’s classicism and exclusivity. The sales of Chanel No. 5 dramatically increased through high-caliber endorsements from the likes of Catherine Deneuve in 1970, renewing the Marilyn Monroe classic endorsement of Chanel No. 5 in the 1950s[8].

In the 1980s, Princess Diana gained prominence as a fashion icon and thus powered dressing and tailored look became the prescribed mode of style. Aside from this, shoulder pads became the latest trends and the TV soaps Dynasty and Dallas became the most influential dictators of fashion. Chanel responded into this by launching the Chanel line of brocade jackets and just above-knee short straight skirts. Quilted Chanel bags became the representatives for vogue clutch bags with colors that match the footwear[9].

The early 1990s was a period of recession. However, Chanel remained to be a global leader in terms of fragrance and in marketing. In the mid-1990s, Chanel further undertook boutique expansions and ventured on skin care line, sunglasses and watches.

In the 2000s, Chanel was able to acquire assets and businesses in the luxury business. Its acquisition of A. Michel et Cie, an exclusive hat maker complemented the company’s existing fashion industry holdings on flowers, feathers and buttons.

Marketing Strategies and Further Expansions:

The company has ventured further as a 2,400-square-foot Chanel boutique was opened in Hongkong , and paying nearly $50 million for a building in Japan’s Ginza shopping district. With the present economic recession, this proved to be a wise venture as the shifting economic trends are now being centered to Asian countries such as Japan, China and India.

Chanel’s legacy on upper-classicism and elitism became one of the reasons why it did not lose its competitive edge against upper-class rivals like Bvlgari, Cartier, Christian Dior, Versace, Louis Vuitton, Tiffany & Co., Gucci and Prada. Time Magazine had several features accounting Coco Chanel’s success and the empire that she has left, that managed to stand amidst periods of global economic crises and recessions[10]. Much of Chanel’s success is due to her unwavering personal style and an adamant refusal to be dictated and be reduced as a mere follower of societal norms, without losing sight of the inherent timelessness in her designs.

In the same manner, Chanel was also able to free the women from the shackles of restrictive clothing without compromising class and elegance and at the same time popularized her clothing philosophy among the masses that could easily imitate her designs. Though imitations, these prove to be Chanel’s measurement of success and further helped the company gained further international recognition.

Marketing strategies that are more aggressive compared to other companies provided the company with a fat profit margin – particularly in the industry of perfumery. In 2005, Nicole Kidman became the face of Chanel No. 5 and more recently, Audrey Tautou became the powerful embodiment of the Chanel credo. The company was willing to take risks and infused so much capital, even at times of economic difficulties. This provided them with positive results and further enabled them to expand to other high-end product lines. Aside from this, the company had successfully shifted its market focus and that proved to be adaptive and expansive in nature. In the late 1980s, Chanel focused on dominating the US market. Presently, Chanel is already focusing its market strategies to Asian countries, which now have the bigger capacity to pay for high-end products.

Chanel became the first perfume company to treat advertising as a project comparable to the making of a film. As a matter of fact, Chanel has its series of short films that effectively brings the viewers into context while at the same time advertise their products. These proved to be an effective as well as an original strategy. Chanel’s short films were oftentimes depicted through the lives of the rich and the famous – banking on the notion that every woman’s dream is to attain what Coco Chanel has attained in her lifetime – prominence and wealth and the desire of whoever men she has chosen. As in every short film, the journey of brining the viewers in the context also marked the beginning of a romantic and an escapist fantasy. The choices of models that would perfectly advertise the brands, which include Marilyn Monroe (1950s), Catherine Deneuve (1970), Nicole Kidman (2005) and Audrey Tautou (2009), were an embodiment of feminine beauty and sensuality. Who would ever forget Marilyn Monroe’s classical Chanel No. 5 advertisement, as it gained similar fame and prominence as Marilyn Monroe herself? Chanel No. 5 became a symbol for certain facets common to all women – exquisiteness, timelessness and even the difficulty of attainment. Choosing Audrey Tautou as a present endorser may have been a symbol for Chanel to finally asserting its Parisian uniqueness and slowly abandoning its all-American imagery.

In 15 August 2002, Media Business published that Chanel shifted its market to target women in younger age brackets through the launching of its new fragrance – Chance. Chance has received “the biggest marketing push in the company’s history – with an introductory budget of more than $12 million. Chanel therefore found new competition in this line with the already established Happy by Clinique and CK One of Calvin Klein. This effort is apart from the launching of Allure in 1996 and Coco Mademoiselle soon after, which was targeted for the younger population too. This maybe attributed to the growing number of wealth distribution in the younger ages.

Businessweek, in its January 29, 2007 issue published that Chanel is taking aggressive measures to appeal to a younger set of consumers further by selling Chanel products in independent high-end boutiques such as Jeffrey’s in New York and Maxfield’s in Los Angeles. These aggressive marketing measures were even more heightened upon the launching of Chanel No. 5’s internet film campaign in 2005, with its new style icon, Audrey Tautou.

Compared to other brands like Louis Vuitton and Gucci, Chanel provides autonomy to its regional heads and is more decentralized in order to maximize its marketing potentials amidst competition.

Chanel made an Asian statement when it erected a 10 floor retail facility in the Ginza district in Tokyo, Japan. This is Chanel’s largest store in the world which showcases not only retail stores but high-end restaurants in conjunction to the classic Chanel theme. It also showcases a hall for concerts and exhibitions to further provide rich cultural experiences to the shoppers. Chanel would be opening its new Shanghai boutique after it has received strong sales in China for the past years. The first Chanel store in mainland China was opened in 1999 in Beijing[11].

Presently, Chanel operates 42 boutiques in the Asia-Pacific – 8 in Hongkong and 5 in mainland China making a total of 151 Chanel boutiques worldwide, while one of its closest competitions, Gucci, has 425 stores[12].

Chanel in Times of Recession

In spite of the seeming invincibility of Chanel, its resiliency is being tested by the present financial crises. Chanel had to downsize in order to adjust with poor economic gains. Its much funded worldwide tour was postponed into an indefinite period of time in order to offset losses[13]. However, Chanel managed to retain its status through marketing strategies that promoted its products “as luxurious yet attainable investments, while all the while trying to remain above the scrum of middle-class consumer culture”[14]. As a matter of fact, Chanel continued to promote itself as the embodiment of Parisian elegance through bringing Coco Chanel’s history come to life, in spite of the fact that its highest selling store was situated not in Paris but in a shopping mall in Waikiki, Hawaii.

Fighting Product Imitations:

Though earlier, Chanel said that she does not want to undertake any effort to combat the piracy of her products, the company today already took a stand against such piracies, owing to the fact that products are already gaining their respective “investment” statuses. Like any luxury brands, Chanel products were now bought not only for their functionalities but also for their promised uniqueness and exclusivity.

These changing perspectives may have been derived from the growing efficiencies on technological breakthroughs. Right now – particularly in developed countries such as the United States of America, France and England, with the growing affluence of the middle class in Asia, consumers already find it relatively easy to obtain the products that they need. They now seek for uniqueness and for exclusiveness – for the opportunity to own something that others could not readily obtain. This has undoubtedly paved further prominence of luxury items – particularly of Chanel, which from viewing history remained “different” from the fashion addiction of the mainstream public. As a matter of fact, Chanel recently placed serials in all of their products to further promote the “uniqueness” of one product from the other.

This “exclusivity” may have been affected by the counterfeit Chanel products and may be one of the reasons why Chanel already took a stand against piracy. However, as with any other products, the existence of counterfeit items becomes one of the primary bases for measuring the products’ success and popularity.

While the black market could be tolerated, the gray market poses a bigger threat to luxury products such as Chanel. The gray market tends to sell genuine products through non-affiliated and non-endorsed channels at a much cheaper rate. This ultimately damages the brand’s high-end image – particularly to the upper class, which patronizes these products most.

Projected Sales and Performance[15]:

Chanel has been very discrete in revealing its annual revenues and its over-all performance. As a matter of fact, because of its non-disclosure, it was not included in the Forbes Magazine’s most recent to 2000 companies of the world. However, one could be able to arrive at the closest estimates by looking at Chanel products’ performance compared to its other competitors such as Christian Dior. Presently, the owner of the Chanel fashion house – Alain and Gerard Wertheimers of Paris hold a tight rein in the over-all management of the company. In spite of the company’s reluctance to reveal its over-all finances, its owners – Alain and Gerard Wertheimers ranked 55th in Forbes’ 2009 list of world billionaires with a net worth of $8 billion.  According to Gilbert Harrison and Robin Andrea Harris, founder and vice-president of the fashion industry investment firm Financo, and Mitch Hara, managing director in Peter J. Solomon Co.’s merger and acquisitions groups in an interview entitled, “Buying Chanel (All of it),” published in www.portfolio.com and written by William Dutge (2008), Chanel’s 151 boutiques worldwide may be worth $10.3 billion to $14.8 billion.

In arriving at this assumption, Harrison, Harris and Hara looked at Chanel’s performance in the fashion business, in its perfume lines and its other acquisitions. According to them Chanel’s annual revenue runs between $2.3 billion and $3 billion in terms of its fashion products sales making its estimated value between $5.6 billion to $7.7 billion. In the lines of perfume and cosmetics, considering that it has an average performance compared to its competitors – Clarins, Estee Lauder, and L’Oreal, its annual revenue may range from $180 million to $240 million making its added value $3.1 billion to $4.1 billion. In spite of the fact that the average luxury-goods stock is off 40 percent due to economic recessions, it is deemed that Chanel is able to hold up better than other high-fashion lines. This added value may range from $2.2 billion to $3 billion.

Forbes magazine recently published a list of most desirable luxury brands using the online survey of Nielsen in 48 countries worldwide. Chanel came in second to the list while Dior came in fifth. As Dior announced its revenue of around $6.5 billion in the first quarter of 2008, posting an average of 5% growth, Forbes estimated that Chanel maybe earning a total of $8.67 billion[16].

Presently, Chanel No. 5 holds 6 percent of the worldwide fragrance market share[17]. A variant of Chanel perfume, Coco Mademoiselle holds 3 percent of the market shares in Britain, which is indicative of how Chanel survived the changes in the upper market preferences through the years. The launching of the movie “Coco Avant Chanel” starred by its endorser Audrey Tautou undeniably educated the new consumers about the exquisiteness of Chanel and its namesake designer.


These developments would provide the reasonable conclusion that Chanel has survived the market and has been globally recognized because the company, as a whole kept on re-inventing itself without losing sight of its real identity. Chanel continues to dominate the market in spite of increasing competition and changing preferences, because, as Coco Chanel herself pointed out, it is an embodiment of woman of the world.


Coco avant Chanel. Dir. Anna Fontaine. With Audrey Tautou, Benoit Poelvoorde, and Alessandro Nivola., May 2009

“Chanel.” Accessed 10 December 2009 from www.referenceforbusiness.com

“Chanel to Open New Shanghai Boutique.” 12 October 2009. Accessed 07 December 2009 from www.luluscouture.com

“International Directory of Company Histories.” Vol. 49, St. James Press, 2003

“The World’s Billionaires.” Forbes’ Magazine. March 11, 2009. Accessed 10 December 2009 from www.forbes.com

Betts, Kate. “Coco Chanel.” Time Europe. 13 November 2006. Accessed 07 December 2009 from www.time.com

Davies, Lizzy. “Chanel Sheds 200 Jobs as Sales of Luxury Items Decline.” The Guardian. December 2008. Accessed 07 December 2008 from www.guardian.co.uk

Dutge, William. “Buying Chanel (All of It).” May 2008. Accessed 10 December 2009 from www.portfolio.com

Weston-Thomas, Pauline. “Flapper Fashion 1920s.” 2007 Accessed 07 December 2009 from www.fashion-era.com

Weston-Thomas, Pauline. “1930s Fashion History, Costume Images and Social History.” 2007 Accessed 07 December 2009 from www.fashion-era.com

Weston-Thomas, Pauline. “1940s Utility Clothing.” 2007. Accessed 07 December 2009 from www.fashion-era.com

Weston-Thomas, Pauline. “1950s Fashion History, Costume History and 50s Social History.” 2007. Accessed 07 December 2009 from www.fashion-era.com

Weston-Thomas, Pauline. “1960-1980 Fashion History.” 2007. Accessed 07 December 2009 from www.fashion-era.com

[1] “International Directory of Company Histories.” Vol. 49, St. James Press, 2003

[2] Weston-Thomas, Pauline. “Flapper Fashion 1920s.” 2007 Accessed 07 December 2009 from www.fashion-era.com

[3] Weston-Thomas, Pauline. “1930s Fashion History, Costume Images and Social History.” 2007 Accessed 07 December 2009 from www.fashion-era.com

[4] “International Directory of Company Histories.” Vol. 49, St. James Press, 2003

[5] Weston-Thomas, Pauline. “1940s Utility Clothing.” 2007. Accessed 07 December 2009 from www.fashion-era.com

[6] Weston-Thomas, Pauline. “1950s Fashion History, Costume History and 50s Social History.” 2007. Accessed 07 December 2009 from www.fashion-era.com

[7] Weston-Thomas, Pauline. “1960-1980 Fashion History.” 2007. Accessed 07 December 2009 from www.fashion-era.com

[8] Weston-Thomas, Pauline. “1960-1980 Fashion History.” 2007. Accessed 07 December 2009 from www.fashion-era.com

[9] Weston-Thomas, Pauline. “1960-1980 Fashion History.” 2007. Accessed 07 December 2009 from www.fashion-era.com

[10] Betts, Kate. “Coco Chanel.” Time Europe. 13 November 2006. Accessed 07 December 2009 from www.time.com

[11] “Chanel to Open New Shanghai Boutique.” 12 October 2009. Accessed 07 December 2009 from www.luluscouture.com

[12] “Chanel.” Accessed 10 December 2009 from www.referenceforbusiness.com

[13] Davies, Lizzy. “Chanel Sheds 200 Jobs as Sales of Luxury Items Decline.” The Guardian. December 2008. Accessed 07 December 2008 from www.guardian.co.uk

[14] Weston-Thomas, Pauline. “1960-1980 Fashion History.” 2007. Accessed 07 December 2009 from www.fashion-era.com

[15] Dutge, William. “Buying Chanel (All of It).” May 2008. Accessed 10 December 2009 from www.portfolio.com

[16] “The World’s Billionaires.” Forbes’ Magazine. March 11, 2009. Accessed 10 December 2009 from www.forbes.com

[17] Weston-Thomas, Pauline. “1960-1980 Fashion History.” 2007. Accessed 07 December 2009 from www.fashion-era.com

18 Jan 2010

Sample Essay: New Zealand

The Silver Fern is a reflection of New Zealand’s acceptance and celebration of nature in their everyday life. It acts as an unofficial national emblem being used in lieu of various national emblems such as the Coat of Arms and the New Zealand One Dollar Coin. It is also used by various sports teams such as the Silver Ferns and All Blacks. It is a part of the New Zealand national identity and a readily identifiable symbol in New Zealand.

Agriculture is an important part of the traditional New Zealand economics.  Carried out primarily by the Maoris, Agriculture was a primary occupation of the pre-European New Zealand.  When the first settlers of Captain Cook arrived, the natives were willing to embrace them due to the reason that the latter would provide New Zealand with a new social and political perspective in the modern world.

The tribes of New Zealand respect their history and are firmly devout; they have a certain respect regarding agriculture. They have remained steadfast in their efforts to sustain a healthy economy and lifestyle, and religion and agriculture have been their means for attaining their goal.  They were able to enhance their farming and hunting capabilities.  It was not until the first settlers had arrived, that they were finally introduced to a new perspective of the need for diversity of having a new economy with foreign investors. Furthermore, they realized that they would be able to interact with traders in order to have an adequate relationship with their agricultural background.

For example, from the standpoint of a farmer, he would be able to have a new agenda from obtaining good returns on his crops which would lead to the eventual prosperity of his family. Instead of being happy with the meager returns from traditional avenues, they would have a new government which would establish a new treatment of his or her land, and bring in good and just trade and barter policies, which are necessary to sustain a beneficial economy.  The merchants for example, in the 18th century, had wanted to utilize their land, not for the prosperity of New Zealand, but to use it as an import and export industry, in order to benefit from certain agricultural phenomena which were exotic to the merchants and the Europeans. Furthermore, the settlers began to realize that New Zealand could in fact be a frontier in which it could setup colonies, and treat it as if it were the British Isles.

An author explains this situation and its impact on New Zealand in its future relations with the foreign market:

‘New Zealand welcomes and encourages foreign investment without discrimination. The Overseas Investment Commission (OIC) must give consent to foreign investments that would control 25% or more of businesses or property worth more than NZ$ 50 million.’

In this respect, we can see that New Zealanders had a new inspiration with which they were to view this rise in their economy and population growth. There was also intermarriage, between natives and settlers which had promoted a new way of adapting to this society, and being able to establish relationships with foreign settlers. This is an important aspect to realize, because New Zealand would have a new diversity which played a role in providing for the proper form of education and urban planning.  With regard to economics, it would establish a foundation for their land to prosper alongwith the industries which had embraced the frontier of New Zealand.

In 2007, New Zealand has experienced a rise in their population growth – for example, the increase in the number of immigrants which has been imperative, since the 18th century, for the establishment and growth of their economy. However, since the settlers’ arrival in New Zealand, the trade industry has still remained an industry which these people have used, as their main identity and asset, in establishing relationships with other foreign countries; and from these relationships, they have been able to have a new policy on New Zealand’s agenda.

We can see this agenda as a new form of understanding in the social and political stance. Yet, they have still remained aggressive in their handling of political agenda and in its relationship with foreign currency in order to better their economics.  They have a different approach in analyzing the ways in which this could be interpreted.  Once again, from this standpoint, we can see these people have a new agenda in which they were able to carry forth and not be hassled by the strict rigors of their economic agenda which have marred the import and export industry.  In recent times, they have tried to expend their capital by including other industries which would help to establish New Zealand as a country which has a diversified revenue portfolio. Furthermore, they have still been able to handle their import and export industry, which is native to the prosperity of this island-nation.

New Zealand’s economy presently suffers from huge deficits year after year, a sure cause of concern to those who hold the reigns of this bustling economy. According to a public source:

‘The large current account deficit, which stood at more than 8% of GDP in 2000, has been a constant source of concern for New Zealand policymakers.  The rebound in the export sector is expected to help narrow the deficit to lower levels’.

New Zealand still relies on to this day, on its import and export industry because of its locality. The country has been able to cultivate its land in order to raise the market value of their agricultural heritage.  Author Fredrick Wood, in his book Understanding New Zealand (Wood) explains:

‘From the country’s earliest days, for instance, saw-milling has been an important industry; and many sawmill workers rarely see a town, great or small.  They pursue timber in receding forests up the sides of mountains.’

We can see that New Zealanders have the advantage of having an exotic frontier, and have learned over their history to utilize their natural resources in establishing a new perspective on how to formulate their trade policy.  For example, foreign relations currently is the most important aspect for their economy to maintain a proper market value, because they rely on this in order to strengthen their import industry.  We can see this has an effect on the surplus of immigrants who have been able to reside in New Zealand the last ten years.

Furthermore, New Zealand has been able to sustain a new mindset in which they could be seen as establishing a healthy wave of influence in this political arena.  For example, the rules and regulations on the basis of which they have been able to diversify their growth and still maintain a coherent national and international identity is indeed noteworthy, considering that there has been little room for them to have prosperity in this region.

Because of their relationships with other countries, they have been able to consider a new perspective in establishing a foreign policy. Furthermore, under these circumstances, New Zealanders have been able to have a new understanding with which they would be able to set forth new social and political goals, establish a different agenda and have a new platform on which they should conduct their business when dealing with other foreign nations. Jason Wai from BERL explains in Immigration delivers government $3bn surplus:

‘BERL determined that migrants contributed $8.1 billion in income tax, GST and excise duties whereas they consumed $4.8 billion of education, health and welfare.’

If New Zealanders will learn from their tradition and understand what these traditions mean in themselves and for the ethos of the business policy, we can see them begin to have a development in which they will be able to expand their trade policy and incorporate their trade policy in order to strengthen their economy. The Economist explains the importance of the New Zealand:

‘A strong currency can be a curse for exporters, however. In New Zealand’s case, the carry trade has given the kiwi dollar an extra upward push. With the yen nearing five-year lows against the American dollar this week, such trades may well continue… As rising interest rates in some countries exacerbate the differences between high-yielding currencies and low-yielding ones, such as Japan’s, New Zealand’s predicament may become more familiar. Most nations with strong currencies should refrain from following its lead. After all, peashooters are of little use against a determined foe.’

New Zealanders have lately discovered their new international identity, and they would be willing to have this identity reflect their own procedure and their trade policies. According one author, this implies that New Zealand must diversify its trade policy in order to conduct business and reach the business decisions that will come to influence them.

If we talk of turnkey projects, we are able to see the numerous appeals which New Zealand would have on private investors in developed countries – a venture capital firm in America could be considered an example. One of the main reasons they would have this appeal is because New Zealand has already set up its own identity as a place which cultivates exotic things which are only found in this country. Because New Zealanders have learned to embrace the history of their culture, they have used this as an advantage in establishing themselves with their agriculture and being able to have a trade industry which is self-sufficient and reliable without the support of other countries. Jason Wai from BERL explains:

‘BERL’s report shows a defined fiscal impact of New Zealand’s resident migrants on a set of government activities, and gives comparable figures for the New Zealand-born population. The report also summarizes the fiscal impact of migrant subgroups by the duration of residence, region of birth and region of residence.  The study examines occupational and study characteristics of migrants, and considers migrants’ long-run impacts on the economy.’

We can see that New Zealand’s economy would grow from these relationships and industries which they have cultivated. However, a new political goal has transpired in New Zealand in the last two years; though New Zealand has had the lowest employment rate, a country that must deal with a rise in population, must also reconfigure its trade policy in order to establish itself and not have a problem with new employees of this industry – for example, a political demonstration or a labor union strike is more probable as their rise in population has transpired. Wood explains, the current standing of New Zealand, and its government:

‘The British Common­wealth is a developing institution and is governed by custom and personal understandings rather than by law. Its habits can be changed overnight to meet new needs. It has many sides, and looks different when observed from the different dominion capitals.’

Therefore, New Zealand must establish firmer labor unions and have numerous divisions which are justified to shoulder responsibility in handling these affairs. From this context we can see them have a new division with the help of which they would be able to have a grasp of the facets in labor regulations and still maintain their economy and currency. Also, from the example of China, we can see that this nation has let its currency fall, in order for it to have a stronger export industry because the price of manufacturing would have competitive rate with other nations in this world. It is uncertain if New Zealand would like to venture here, because they have to maintain a strong enough economy, by establishing their relationships with other nations in order to promote the quality of their export industry.

In recent times, China which has been used as an example, is having their export industry back fire on them, because of their low labor and manufacturing cost has caused the quality of its work to suffer.  Furthermore, in this argument, we can see that New Zealand has had to deal with international relations in order to establish itself as a nation which has impacted the global export industry, which then could be seen in connection with their consumer goods.

New Zealanders have been able to maintain the market value from the trade industry, therefore they will have to continue establishing new relationships with the foreign market, in order to see their economy maintain its value, and not necessarily increase.  An example of this could be seen in the tendency to have a new policy and reinforcing that this policy does not conflict with the future of New Zealand’s market of export goods, which it would have to sustain from keeping their currency competitive from the likes of China and India.

In this predicament, New Zealanders have been able to remain on their own, by cultivating the natural resources in order to further their economy and keeping their inflation rate at a competitive level. If New Zealand’s government is planning to expand the export industry into a new frontier, than it would have to be mindful of having to divide the classifications of labor or lower classes with the median earned income, because this could result in a demonstration if the workers are against certain conditions which the government have chosen to disregard.  There is statistical evidence of the climb of income which New Zealand has experienced, and its relation to other developed countries, most notably the U.S.A.  This evidence of the average income in New Zealand is relative to their export industry, because it proves the correlation between a rise in their economy, and also the rise in the price of manufacturing and goods.

New Zealand business is affected by two types of cycles – the classical cycle and the growth cycle. The classical cycle concentrates on the fluctuations in the absolute levels of economic activity, whereas growth business cycle concentrates on fluctuations in the relative economic activity. (Kim, Buckle, Hall)

As New Zealand has enabled itself to have a new agenda in its political stance on trade policy, we can see their economy grow with the numerous facets which would influence its relations with foreign investors.  Furthermore, now that they have been able to forward this policy, in order to incorporate their identity with the quality of manufacturing, we can see this economy begin to have a social and political structure.

In the light of this evidence, we are able to see New Zealand have a social impact in the ways in which it would begin to develop its industry through the use of trade and also from attempting to raise their currency in order to ensure not only diplomatic relationships but also those with private investors and venture capitals from other countries for the sake of their export industry.

We are able to understand the international relationship in which they have been able to resurrect and in which they have been able to safeguard by increasing the quality of the environment. New Zealand has had to develop as a country; they have been able to sustain their healthy economy through their trade policy. With regard to their trade policy, we can see this demographic have a new social order. Their currency value would have to be safeguarded in order to maintain its international relations.

David Norman in his article US & Australia continue to grow, explains New Zealand’s current labor situation:

‘Previous reports of the loss of 4,000 jobs in the US in August have turned out to be erroneous. Revised figures indicate that in fact 89,000 jobs were added during this period, almost as many as the 93,000 in July. September job growth is even better, up 100,000. Unemployment is flat at 4.7%, with growth in health care, food services, and professional and technical services, and declines in manufacturing and construction.’

New Zealand has started carving its identity, the New Zealanders were also willing to have this identity not conflict with other policies, which would have caused it to have a new approach and interpretation in the ways in which it could be seen resolving the issues of its trade policy. We come to the conclusion that they have been able to sustain a new ground of cause and justification. We are able to reach the conclusion as to what this economy has now implied, and in this reference, we can see their economy have a different factor and an economical trend.

Ultimately, so far as we are able to have a new agenda in this regard, we are able to see their economy grow with the numerous aspects as to what this may now imply.  Furthermore, now that they have been able to forward their economy, we can see this trend begin to have a social and political agenda. New Zealand has been able to aid its economy growth by maintaining a structure and trade policy and the growth is poised to continue.

Works Cited

Björn, Bjerke. Business Leadership and Culture: National Management Styles in the Global Economy. Edward Elgar: London, 1999.

Kim, Buckle, Hall. “Key Features of New Zealand Business Cycles.” Economic Record, Vol. 70, 1994.

Norman, David. “US & Australia continue to grow” BERL. Retrieved on 14 December, 2007. Available on <http://www.berl.co.nz/content/worldeconomy/unitedstates/896/australia-continue.aspx>

Wood, Frederick. Understanding New Zealand. Coward-McCann: New York, 1944.

“A Warning Shot.” The Economist. Updated on June 14th 2007. Retrieved on 14 December, 2007. Available on <http://www.economist.com/displayStory.cfm?story_id=9340724>

17 Oct 2009

Sample Essay: Israeli Monarchy and Deuteronomic Theology

The deutronomic theology is presented by the farewell speech made by Moses to the israelites. In deutronomic theology, there is the moral absolutes where the histiorical movemnets and life are worked out in. some of these moral absolutes include the righteousness and unrighteousness, the justice and injustice, and the faithfulness and unfathfulness. The book of deurtonomy is in the old testament and is simply the sermon for the calling of the israelites for them to live faithfully to the covenant presented to them and abide by God’s laws. This book has roots to the traditions in exodus and reminds the israelites of their history. The book reminds the israelites of their harsh treatment they received from egyptians where hard labor was imposed to them and were laso afflicted. They cried to their lord who was the God of their ancestors and he heard their prayers. God got them out of egypt and took them to a fertile land that had undiminishing milk and honey. According to the book of deutronomy, the israelites had to live faithfully where they had to practice social justice for the poor and also observe the religious faithfully. This is the political theology because  the national life was to be shaped according the yahwehs law. For the isralietes to live faithfully they had to obey the law and the obidience here is consindered as religious imperative as well as political imperative.

History of the israel’s monarchy

Initially samuel was the leader of the israelites whose leadership brought spiritula nd physical blessings to the people of his tribe. Later the problems arose as a result of samuel’s sons who were appointed as the judges of israelites. His sons were believed to be evil men and so the israelites could allow such kind of people to judge them. Samuels’ sons were perverts in that they were corrupt, abused power and did not follow justice. Since the these sons had abuse their power the elders demanded for a king from samuel so as to solve the current problem. At this time the israelites had God as their only true king. Samuel respected their decision and also obeyed Lords voice when asked him to do as per the eleders suggestions. He wsa then ready to anoint a king but he felt that the isralites did not want his leadership.

Samuel knew the repulcussions of anointing a new king. He told the israleties that if he anoints the king, he will force some conscirption into his army. He also told them that the king will demand very high taxes and he will also force their children to work for them. After these warnings, the israelites still wanted a king so that can be like other sorrounding nations. They also wanted a king who can judge them instead of samuel’s evil sons and also a king who can fight for them. God then talked to samuel about the first king of israel where he asked him to annoint saul as the king. Samuel annointed soul secretly because he was a young man and was unable to announce the future king to the israelites. One day some of the israelites found soul hiding among some buggages and that is where they got to know their future king. Saul then led his army where they won over the ammorites and then he was to be annointed in public. Samuel had a second thought about this and he rebuked the israeliotes by asing them if he had ever wronged them. He was sure that the israeliotes did not want his leadership and that is why they demnaded for a king. However, samuel ordered the israelites to obey their God for he has led them for many years and got the out of egypt. This then sounded as his farewell speech to the people of israel. According to samuel the israelites were disobeyed God’s law when they demanded for a king and he knew thay someday they will pay for it all.

According to the bible, the israelites have been led by three kings since the day they demanded for one. When saul was annointed he only led the israelites for only two years when God got annoyed with him and annointed a second king. King saul was diobedient in that he did not practice any instructions given by yahweh. The introduction of monarch in israel resulted to a conflict between the israelitres and God. This is because they refused God to be their only King and demnaded for a human king. This conflict then changed the religion of the israelites where the conflicting isues were the rules of yahweh and the rules of the king. The monarch then came up with another rule of of centralizing the governement particularly in jerusalem. David was the second king anointed by God after the disobedience of saul and he became the most difficult king in israel monarchy. Saul then was tryoing his bvest to kill David but he hid himself in the hills. Saul then commited suicide and after his death david came back and became the king of israel. Although saul was a sinner, David was worse than him. This is senn when he commits a gretaer crime by killing a man so that he marry his wife.

David as a king led his millitary and fpought for the israelityes where they won over the Philistines. David’s millitary wanted the israelites kingdom to become the israelites empire so that they can rule over several independent states. David as a king played a major role of uniting the israel tribes under one abosulte monarch. This monarchical governemnt comprised of not ionly the millitary campaigns but also the non-millitary affairs like judiciaries, legislation and also building. David also went ahead to build jerusalem so that it can look like a capital  of other kings. The decorated Jerusalem became rich and very large.

Later solomon was appointed as the third king of israel. He then changed the israel to something elese that was similar to other monarchies in Egypt and Middle East. At first king Solomon was the best king the israelites have ever had until troubles started emerging. King Solomon  built a very wealthy capital that was situtaed at Jerusalem. This capital had a very nice palace and  a very huige temple that was next to the palace. He then committed the greatest crime of marrying  700 wives and taking 300 concubines. In the palace, there weree imported products like the Gold copper and cedar. Due to these expensive products, it the forced him to tax his people heavily so that he can use those taxes to pay for those preoducts. There were some that weere not [paid through taxes and so he pasid them in his people and land. In his payment in land, he ended up giving approximately twenty towns to the foreigners. In his payment in people on the other hand, he paid in slave labor where aaorund 30,000 israelites provided labor as slaves to the king of Tyre. This kind of treatment to the israelites was what Samuel had told them about paying for their demand for a king.

Political influence to the israel’s monarch

The israel’s monarchy formed when a monarchy was introduced to rule israelites tribe. Due to the pressures from the phillistines and other sorrounding tribes, the isreaelites were forced to unite themselves as one state. Israel became a centralized state and some of the factors tha led to the need of a king were the threat of the philistines and also the canaanites had occupied most of the fertile land were dominating the inland trade routes. This is what made the israelites need the millitary cooperation. The nature of liofe influenced the israelites into demanding for a king because they belioeved that herding and agriculture would support the population and so they needed their entire land. The israelites knew that when they get a king they will get the land from the canaanites and herding and agriculture will stabilize the population.

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12 Jan 2009

Essays on The Second Sex

The rapid economic growth of the United State, Great Britain and other developed nations from the late 18th century through the middle of the 20th century began a stage of limited inclusion of women in roles beyond motherhood and laid the first seeds of the feminist movement.  These seeds began to bloom in full force in the aftermath of World War II, during which many women were forced to enter the workforce to support the war effort.  The image of Rosy the Riveter was born, proving women could work in many occupations formerly assumed to be only suitable for men.  Women have not forgotten.


Though Susan B. Anthony’s campaign for women’s suffrage (the right to vote) was much earlier, the formulation of modern feminist thinking can be traced to a remarkable woman in war-torn France: Simone Lucie-Ernestine-Marie-Bertrand de Beauvoir.  In the two-volume set of “The Second Sex,” de Beauvoir sets the stage for understanding the development of women throughout history (Book I – “Facts and Myths) and then evaluates the role of women in her society (Book II – “Woman’s Life Today).  Though these books were written in 1949, they show a clear philosophy which we can recognize as the birth of modern feminism.


In her dissertation, de Beauvoir argues that men and women viewing each other as competitive rivals is unnecessary and unhealthy for our society.  As a man, I have seen women who were Master electricians, police officers, firefighters, and to be honest, some of the greatest managers I have had the pleasure to work under.  I have no doubt in my heart de Beauvoir was right, though I know many still question this philosophy.  To me, this simply proves we still have a lot of work to do.


  • Why did de Beauvoir feel it necessary to begin with the history of women?  Could the context of “Woman’s Life Today” have been established another way?  Would it have been as effective?
  • Compare de Beauvoir’s arguments regarding the potential of women with the standing of women today.  What progress has been made?  What progress is still necessary? 
  • Does de Beauvoir’s depiction of feminism in 1949 reflect the current trends of feminism today?  What are the differences and why might they be present?


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