11 Nov 2012

Sample Essay: Affirmative Action: Ethics and Colleges


The practices of different institutions for giving priority to the ethnic minorities, women, or students are known as Affirmative Action. This action can be related to the recruitment of employees in different organizations or admitting students in various colleges or universities (Daigle). The affirmative action was designed for providing benefits to those people that do not have the advantage to take admission in any specific college due to their background. Affirmative action works on the assumption that if minority applicants were striving to take admission in colleges, then there would be some limitations or constraints attached with the applicants. Therefore, a system in which an additional weight granted to applicants for their race or ethnicity was made. At the initial stage of this system, it only involved racial quotes but now it has been considering different factors such as gender, sexual status, and economic backgrounds (Moore).

The two US states that are considered as a pioneer for implementing affirmative actions are Texas and California, because they have forcefully implemented affirmative action in their system. The basic problem for affirmative action is that most of the people relate this system with individual’s color, despite the fact that admission granted to the applicant is based on other considerations. The people against and in favor of this system have valid reasons to support their arguments (Moore). Some people argue that this system is not fair for all the students, where other think that people having disadvantages for their race, color or gender should be provided certain advantage for taking admission in colleges. There is no proper measurement of evaluating and calculating opinions of the people regarding affirmative action, and this is the reason that there are issues and reservations for this system (Daigle).

Background and History

The affirmative action can be evaluated based on its wider context, but history of this system is only documented for education and academic terms. The President of USA signed an executive order in 1961, where affirmative action used as a term related to civil rights. The reference of affirmative action initially made for dealing with the contractors, but with the passage of time, this system further moved forward. US President signed another Act in which discrimination in education towards racism was strictly prohibited (Anderson).

The Supreme Court heard a case of “Odegaard and DeFunis” in 1974, but the timing of this case made it debatable, and this is the reason that no comment was given on racial preference in this case. Another case of “Bakke and Regents of the University of California” commenced in Supreme Court in which decision was given that no minority candidate can be judged separately. This ruling was not helpful to reach diversity for racism considerations, as this case carried for more than 20 years. An appeal court gave a decision for “Texas and Hopwood” case in 1996, where order was given that admission on racism cannot be granted at “Texas University Law School” (Sherpa).

Florida State in 2000 prohibits admissions in the state colleges based on racial preferences, and students were only allowed to take admission based on their percentages. Nevertheless, it was revealed that the intended outcomes of these programs were not according to expectations of the authorities. The Supreme Court heard another two cases related to affirmative action in 2003, where the first case was between “Bollinger and Gratz”, while other case was “Bollinger and Grutter”. For the first case, decision was made that policies of affirmative actions were not constitutional, and they must be abandoned, whereas other case gave judgment that minority students should be given preference for getting admission in law school (Sherpa).

People against Affirmative Actions

Thomas Sowell wrote the book “Affirmative Action around the World” in which he has criticized that affirmative action does not work according to the intention of authorities, and it causes harm to a society (Anderson). He further states that if one individual or group get benefits from this system, the other individual or group will be damaged, which means that this system is damaging for the society as a whole. Ward Connerly, founder of American Civil Rights Institute, wrote in his bio that affirmative action is responsible for increasing discrimination and racial disparity in US, no matter this system is made for helping those people who have faced racial discrimination in US. An associate justice named Clarence Thomas said that his law degree was not valuable in front of the employees, because he was black. According to a South African judge, significance of law degree from Yale was different for black people and different for white people. Carol Costello points out that there are many people thinking that this is the right time to end affirmative action because it is not suitable for the society (Dworkin).

People in Favor of Affirmative Actions

Deidre Bowen conducted a research in 2009 in which benefits of affirmative action are explained. He stated that this system is useful to eliminate discrimination for the admissions in colleges, as racism is prevailing in the education system, and students of color have to face difficulties for getting admission in colleges (Sherpa). Anthony Marx, president of Amherst College stated that high-class colleges are not superior nor terrible, because they do not admit lower income students. The co-director of Civil Rights Projects Gary Orfield argued that affirmative action is useful for the people, but policymakers need to listen to the court verdict. Gary found out that he is not a part of the region where racial problems are common, but he feels that this system has many strong benefits related to the education of students. Michael Martinson supported affirmative action that this system did not affect white students to get admission in colleges and universities, and it is useful for black students who have faced discrimination for getting admission in their desired colleges (Sherpa).

Attempts for addressing this Issue

This system is a continuous debate for policymaking decision regarding admission in the education system. The authorities and policymakers have previously used many approaches to increase the number of lawsuits and proposals that have been rejected for affirmative action (Moore). Some policymakers try to increase minority students in their colleges by applying different methods, in which the most common method is to guarantee a particular percentage of students to get admission in their colleges. In some colleges, students gaining top marks are guaranteed to get admission as they deserve to get admission in their desired colleges or universities. Many states such as Texas, California, and New York have tried to decrease racism in education, as many policies regarding black students have been made and implemented. In some states, this system has been successful, but there are many colleges in different states of US where many people have criticized affirmative action (Doverspike, Taylor and Arthur).


The discrimination in education is still a common issue in USA, and strong policies are required that would be helpful to eliminate discriminatory admission practices by different colleges. The best argument for the usage of affirmative action is to promote different students groups so that level of education can be increased (Daigle). The current way of practicing affirmative action is not suitable for many people, as racism cannot be eliminated by overlooking other students that deserve to get admission in colleges. Moreover, if one individual is admitted to the college by affirmative action, then it is evident that the student who has been ignored will suffer from this system. Therefore, the government should take serious measures to address this issue, because discrimination in education can damage future of the students.

Works Cited

Anderson, E. “Integration, affirmative action and strict scrutiny.” NYU Law Review 77 (2002): 1195-1271.

Daigle, S. Affirmative action legality, fairness, and ethical use in college admission in both the graduate and undergraduate levels of federally funded programs. Research Report. Florida: Florida Atlantic University, 2004.

Doverspike, P, M Taylor and W Arthur. Psychological Perspective on Affirmative Action . New York: Nova Science Publishers Inc., 2006.

Dworkin, R. Affirmative Action: Does it work? Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2002.

Moore, J. Race And College Admissions: A Case For Affirmative Action. New York: McFarland, 2005.

Sherpa, T. Is Affirmative Action in College Admissions Ethical? Research Report. Miami: International Center of Ethics, Justice, and Public Life, 2011.

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11 Dec 2011

Sample Essay: The Influence of Smoking on Hiring Decisions

Employers always find themselves in a dilemma when conducting recruitment drives. This dilemma becomes further complicated when ethical standards and values such as smoking and nonsmoking are imported into the recruitment exercise. As others remain undecided about the prospects of restricting the recruitment exercise to nonsmokers, the gains to be accrued from such a consideration are becoming increasingly apparent. It is becoming clearer that preferring nonsmokers to smokers in employment is more advantageous than being ambivalent towards the idea.

In the first place, Dalsey and Park (2009) quote the Center for American Progress, which was released in 2006 to explain that employers who do not hire smokers will have dramatically lower health care and health insurance costs. This is because; smoking increases the risks of respiratory infections yet the organization may have to settle the medical bills of the clients. This will heighten the organization’s expenditure.  The same development allays even the claims of rebuttals who maintain that adopting an indiscriminate recruitment approach ensures multiplicity of talents and skills.

Conversely, Dewees and Daniels refer to Tomkowicz and Lessack report of 2006 to argue that it is apparent that employers who do not hire smokers are motivated by their ability to reduce the resentment of smokers by non-smokers arising from the perception that smokers take breaks that are more frequent at work and increase the health care burden on non-smokers. The gravity behind this above claim is verified by the fact that smoking divides the personnel into two camps: while the nonsmokers will feel that, they are being polluted and being exposed to the dangers of passing smoking, the smoker will always see the assertion that he walks away when smoking as a needless bother. This eventually brews discord in an organization and eventually interferes with organizational performance. The smoke that lingers around the smoker will also widen this chasm further, as nonsmokers and the smoker will differ on the idea that the smoker remains outside for some minutes after smoking.

At the same time, while referring to the Arizona Republic and Sulzberger 2011 report, McShulskis (2011) waxes polemical that it must be remembered by employers that they can provide a safer and healthier workplace for all employees by ensuring the workplace will be smoke-free. Although opponents of this idea are likely to cite discrimination and the contravention of the rights of the smoker, yet, it remains an indisputable fact that by keeping smokers away from recruitment exercise, the entire workplace is guaranteed of fresh air and is totally freed from the dangers that accost passive smoking.

Greenberg (2009) remains poignant that as is elaborated by Center for American Progress (2006), Sulzberger (2011), and the Proactive Employer (2011), it has been discovered that employers who do not hire smokers will benefit from higher productivity among workers. In the first place, the time spent by smoking employees as they excuse themselves out of the working area for a smoking session will have been totally extirpated.  Similarly, the ability of smoking to drive a wedge between smoking and nonsmoking employees will have entirely been annulled. On the other hand, there is no benefit that can be accrued, by incorporating smokers into the recruitment exercise. While the positive attributes that are extant among smokers can be found among nonsmokers, the positive attributes that are spotted among nonsmokers cannot be found in smokers.


Any reason that would be advanced to gainsay the standpoint above cannot stand, given that all the propositions are feasible. Likewise, citing the locking out of smokers during recruitment drives as being tantamount to discrimination is in itself a fallacy since smoking is not a disability. Smokers can make resolutions to emancipate themselves from addictions, since smoking is a habit that can be both learned and unlearned.


Dalsey, Elizabeth & Park, H. Sun. “Implication of Organizational Health Policy on  Organizational Attraction,” Health Communication. 24 No. 1 (2009): 71-81.

Dewees, N. Donald and Daniels, J. Ronald. The Cost of Protecting Occupational Health, Journal  of Human Resources, 21 No. 3 (2010): 381-396.

Greenberg, Mark. Center for American Progress (CAP). Congressional Digest, 88 No. 7 (2009):   200-208.

McShulskis, Elaine. Workplace bans help employees quit. HRMagazine, 41 No. 8 (2011): 20.

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07 Jun 2011

Sample essay: Biracial Originality and Its Effects on Racial Views

The originality of a person largely contributes to his or her perceptions on social and cultural elements, which are found to be dominant in almost all societies. According to various American psychologists, the originality of a person significantly contributes to the social class in which the person finds himself or herself. In American societal settings, there are a number of races which clearly distinct themselves from each other. The races include; the whites, African Americans, the Hispanics and the Indian Americans to mention but a few.

Basing on surveys which have been conducted in the United States, people from the same race is much likely to interact, socialize and collaborate in certain activities as compared to individuals from different races. For instance, African American children have been demonstrating a higher degree of collaboration among themselves than when juggled among other races. Previous and even current societies have molded society members to be accommodative to people from their own race. As a consequence, the rule seems to favor mono-racial or individuals whose mother and father are from the same race as compared to multiracial children.

Basing on the article by David Brunsma on interracial families, biracial element has an effect on the racial classification of a person. A study which was carried out in longitudinal study of early childhood showed that children from a biracial background are more biased to identify themselves with the race which is dominant in that society. For example, a child whose father and mother is from Hispanic and a white respectively is more likely to identify him or herself with the mother’s race as compared to that of the father. In American societal settings, Hispanics are less dominant hence more prone to discrimination and other negative race-linked practices. Conversely, white are more dominant and classified at a higher social status in comparison to Hispanics. According to Brunsma, being a biracial child will accrue a negative perception on one of the races while favoring the dominant (Brunsma 5).

Biracial children are more prone to behavioral problems which are linked to racial lineage. This creates a clear picture that the originality of a person distinctively determines his or her acceptability in a given society. According to Udry and Hendrickson-Smith, biracial children are much likely to engage in drug abuse, premature sex or even suicidal attempts. In addition, such children have recorded poor scores in their class work in comparison to mono-racial children. These factors are linked to complexity and technicality of self-identification. In such children, race is a major cause of social problems exhibited in American societies (Udry 3).

Nevertheless, according to Barbara Tizard and Ann Phoeniz article, teenagers had a positive notch on the biracial issue. To teenager, biracial factor offered them a ticket to venture or socialize with different people from diverse backgrounds. To them, it cleared the barriers which exist on being a single race or a mono-racial person. According to surveys conducted in United States, cultural and social practices exhibited by these races determined the striking balance of identification. For instance, majority of American teens would like to have parents from either a white or an African American origin or a combination of the two (Phoeniz and Barbara 5).

Margaret Keiley evaluates how biracial factor affects individual’s perception on the issue of race. Children from different races have a problem of clearly identifying themselves in the society as compared to mono-racial children. Some of them have unique physical characteristics which are absent in other society members (Margaret 3). As a consequence, they are sidelined in social activities. In addition, they are frequently mistaken or associated with other distant races which they do not actually originate from.

Works Cited

Brunsma, David L. Interracial Families and the Racial Identifiacation of Mixed-Race Children:            Evidence form the Early Childhood Longtitudinal Study. Social Forces 84.2,            (2005):1131-1157. Print.
Margaret, Keiley K.  Biracial Youth and Families in Therapy: Issues and Interventions. Journal             of Marital and Family Therapy, 26.3, (2000): 305-315. Print.

Phoeniz, Ann, and Barbara, Tizard. The Identity of Mixed Parentage Adolescents. Journal of   Child Psychology, 36.1 (1995): 1399-1410. Print
Udry, Hendrickson-Smith L. Health and Behavior Risks of Adolescents with Mixed
Race Identity. American Journal of Public Health, 93.11, (2003): 1865-1870. Print.

19 Jul 2009

Essays on Ender’s Game

Sometimes one becomes a hero simply doing what they always do.  The classic novel “Ender’s Game” is an excellent example of this.  It is, at its core, a novel about a young boy coming of age, but under extenuating circumstances that are hidden, even from those experiencing them.

In Ender’s Game, all is not well in the universe. An alien menace threatens all of mankind and only one little boy has what it takes to save us all. Ender Wiggin is the third son in a world where procreation has been strictly limited to only two children. An outcast from the moment of his birth, life was never easy for the boy, but being brilliant beyond measure never helps one blend in.

Ender’s siblings, Peter and Valentine mirror his potential but with different emotional states. Peter is a cold and calculating killer while Valentine is soft-hearted and kind. Peter and Valentine make up different ends of a dichotic spectrum, with Ender sitting right in the middle, and spend their time infiltrating the political world.

Orson Scott Card’s story of a young boy’s path from outcast to humanity’s savior is not a kind and gentle stroll through a grassy meadow. It is fortunate that young Ender is made of stern material. From the petty dispersions of “Third!” cast upon him by his classmates to the outright physical attacks he knows must suffer many things and rise above them, but he never understands why. At a time when most children are learning basic math, little Ender is recruited to head off to space to join the Battle School where children are turned into officers.

It is at the Battle School that boys are organized into “armies” and pit against one another in zero gravity combat. Ender quickly assumes command of one such army and leads them to victory after grueling victory – all in preparation for the coming war. At his peak, when he is undefeated, he is taken to a hidden asteroid where he is tossed into ever more complicated simulations against the alien menace. What is never said to him is that these last war games are not simulations at all. A twelve-year old boy is commanding the ships of earth in a great interstellar war against the bug queen.

  • In the story, the reasons for Ender’s rigorous training are, for the most part, hidden from him.  The fact that he is participating in combat training and ends up in actual command of a great fleet are presented to him as more of a high-end contest or game.  Consider the psychology involved and describe it.  Is it realistic?  Could our own government pull off such a feat?
  • Young Ender suffers a great deal of humiliation in his younger days at school.  Describe how this fact is used to develop the character into a realistic personality.  Are other characters in the story as well developed?  Why do you feel this is so?

When in school, students today often associate with characters like young Ender in that they feel almost overwhelmed by what is expected of them.  Like young, Ender, these students frequently band together for mutual support and, should they still feel the need, often seek the assistance of those outside their classroom.  Our company supplies thousands of students with professional writing services, assisting them in their academic endeavors by lightening the burden so many of them encounter.  We also offer writing services to the professional business community as well with technical writing, PowerPoint presentation preparations, and much, much more.  Contact us today to learn how we can help.

12 Jan 2009

Essays on Warriors Don’t Cry

When we think of heroes, particularly those of the anti-racisim movement, seldom do we think of the children. Children and young minorities have been at the heart of many historical events, none more moving and significant as the integration of Little Rock’s Central High School. In 1957, Melba Patillo Beals was one of the Little Rock Nine, the first nine black students integrated into Central High School. The novel is autobiographical, starting with the Little Rock Nine paying a visit to the school years after the events.

Warrior’s Don’t Cry is considered literarily significant for its accurate portrayal of the event surrounding the Little Rock Nine and their experiences during their year at Central High School. From the humiliation of being beaten while showering, to having scalding soup dumped on them by fellow students, the abuse the Little Rock Nine suffered would qualify anyone, child or adult, as a courageous hero who stood their ground for what they believed in. The experiences of the Little Rock Nine also had many good points, including an incident in which Gene Smith, the white assistant to the chief of police, assists the students in escaping from the school when the segregationist protesters broke through and attempted to enter the school looking for the black children.

  • What did the actions of Gene Smith and other white community members in aiding the black students show about the community of Little Rock during these events?
  • Could integration have been done in a less controversial manner? If so, how could it have been done?

Today we view our soldiers, firemen, police officers and paramedics as heroes. Even sports athletes are frequently honored with that title. But the true heroes of our nation are not those who risk their lives as an occupation. The true heroes are the men, women and children who risk everything they have, everything they are, and even their very lives unashamedly, unquestioningly, and without regard to payment or reward for something they believe in passionately. The courage of people like Martin Luther King Jr., Rosa Parks, and the Little Rock Nine has shaped our society in ways even they never expected. Yet with racially motivated crimes still a recurring theme on our nightly news, it is obvious we still have a lot of work to do.

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03 Nov 2008

Essays on Social Exclusion

Man is a social animal.  We thrive on human contact.  Indeed, in today’s society, we have almost no choice but to interact with others in order to acquire our basic necessities.  Yet for millions, even in America, social participation is but a dream.  Even more than 40 years after the passage of the Civil Rights Act, we continue to find ways to exclude many minorities, ex-offenders, immigrants and others who are exactly like ourselves.  This creates an environment of social exclusion and elitism.

Social exclusion is a concept related to, but distinct from, discrimination.  Social exclusion can occur anytime, to anyone, for a variety of reasons.  Social exclusion, according to recent studies, affects not only social development, but hampers intellectual development and abilities in both adolescents and adults.  Though younger individuals have not been clinically examined, one can surmise that they too are affected adversely by social exclusion.

One form of social exclusion on the minds of many today is homelessness.  Counter-intuitively, homeless citizens without “responsibilities” of employment or household management suffer stress levels normally found only in high-pressure occupations such as firefighting, law enforcement and securities trading.  In part this is because of the uncertainty that many of them feel about the future and the fact that they do not have the wherewithal to participate in social functions.  As with any vulnerable population, the isolation of the homeless from society makes them many times more likely to end up the victim of a crime, ranging from the theft of personal property to rape and murder.

  • Research and critically analyze various forms of social exclusion and describe its effects on those who are excluded and upon our society in general.
  • Investigations of the Columbine shootings in Colorado revealed the gunmen had suffered extreme levels of harassment and hazing by fellow students.  Is this a form of social exclusion and if so, how might it have been addressed to prevent the tragic events at Columbine High School?

It is all too common for students at every level to deal with social exclusion in one form or another.  With the cognitive effects of social exclusion, many of them are the very students who come to us for help with their class work, feeling overwhelmed by the workload and lack of support in most academic institutions. 

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Essays on To Kill a Mockingbird

Though many books have caught hell from would-be censors, the 1960 novel “To Kill a Mockingbird,” by Harper Lee, has earned more ire than most, primarily for its use of racial epithets. Set in the deep southern states, “To Kill a Mockingbird” addresses a wide range of social issues, from interracial relationships and discrimination to the loss of childhood innocence and deception in the pursuit of justice.

The main character in “To Kill a Mockingbird” is “Scout,” a young, ten-year-old girl who lives with her older brother and her father. To Kill a Mockingbird” has many underlying structures to its plot, including the random musings of Scout, her brother Jem, and their friend Dill regarding the mysterious “Boo” Radley, a seldom seen neighbor who seems at first mythical, though later is proved to exist by the appearance of mysterious gifts in the tree outside Scout’s home. Scout’s life is complicated by her father’s agreeing to represent a black man, Tom Robinson, in a rape trial where he stands accused of raping a white woman, and the aftermath of that trial.

The aftermath of this accusation and the subsequent events shows the devastating effects of false accusations, wrongful convictions, and personal petty vendettas – issues that still haunt our society today.

  • Would-be censors decry “To Kill a Mockingbird” as racially inflammatory because of its use of racial slurs and epithets. Proponents of the work argue that its use is necessary to accurately depict the racial discrimination and tensions of the era in which the story is set. Create an opinion paper reflecting your view on the subject. Don’t forget to present the basic argument from each side before establishing your own position, instructors almost universally take points off for that.
  • Through the events of “To Kill a Mockingbird,” the characters Scout and Jem undergo significant development. Describe this development and the reasons behind it. How does this development affect their world view?

Though our society has made great changes in racial relations since “To Kill a Mockingbird” was written, advocates argue that we still have much work ahead of us. Incidents such as the Rodney King beating in Los Angeles and the KKK rally turned riot in Denver, Colorado are used as anecdotal evidence supporting this claim.

Our writers keep their fingers on the pulse of our nation and world, spending as much time reading the news and literary publications as they do writing to keep abreast of such developments. This dedication not only to writing but to knowledge itself gives them particular insight in writing essays on “To Kill a Mockingbird” and similar works critical of our society and its practices.

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