11 Nov 2012

Sample Essay: Affirmative Action: Ethics and Colleges


The practices of different institutions for giving priority to the ethnic minorities, women, or students are known as Affirmative Action. This action can be related to the recruitment of employees in different organizations or admitting students in various colleges or universities (Daigle). The affirmative action was designed for providing benefits to those people that do not have the advantage to take admission in any specific college due to their background. Affirmative action works on the assumption that if minority applicants were striving to take admission in colleges, then there would be some limitations or constraints attached with the applicants. Therefore, a system in which an additional weight granted to applicants for their race or ethnicity was made. At the initial stage of this system, it only involved racial quotes but now it has been considering different factors such as gender, sexual status, and economic backgrounds (Moore).

The two US states that are considered as a pioneer for implementing affirmative actions are Texas and California, because they have forcefully implemented affirmative action in their system. The basic problem for affirmative action is that most of the people relate this system with individual’s color, despite the fact that admission granted to the applicant is based on other considerations. The people against and in favor of this system have valid reasons to support their arguments (Moore). Some people argue that this system is not fair for all the students, where other think that people having disadvantages for their race, color or gender should be provided certain advantage for taking admission in colleges. There is no proper measurement of evaluating and calculating opinions of the people regarding affirmative action, and this is the reason that there are issues and reservations for this system (Daigle).

Background and History

The affirmative action can be evaluated based on its wider context, but history of this system is only documented for education and academic terms. The President of USA signed an executive order in 1961, where affirmative action used as a term related to civil rights. The reference of affirmative action initially made for dealing with the contractors, but with the passage of time, this system further moved forward. US President signed another Act in which discrimination in education towards racism was strictly prohibited (Anderson).

The Supreme Court heard a case of “Odegaard and DeFunis” in 1974, but the timing of this case made it debatable, and this is the reason that no comment was given on racial preference in this case. Another case of “Bakke and Regents of the University of California” commenced in Supreme Court in which decision was given that no minority candidate can be judged separately. This ruling was not helpful to reach diversity for racism considerations, as this case carried for more than 20 years. An appeal court gave a decision for “Texas and Hopwood” case in 1996, where order was given that admission on racism cannot be granted at “Texas University Law School” (Sherpa).

Florida State in 2000 prohibits admissions in the state colleges based on racial preferences, and students were only allowed to take admission based on their percentages. Nevertheless, it was revealed that the intended outcomes of these programs were not according to expectations of the authorities. The Supreme Court heard another two cases related to affirmative action in 2003, where the first case was between “Bollinger and Gratz”, while other case was “Bollinger and Grutter”. For the first case, decision was made that policies of affirmative actions were not constitutional, and they must be abandoned, whereas other case gave judgment that minority students should be given preference for getting admission in law school (Sherpa).

People against Affirmative Actions

Thomas Sowell wrote the book “Affirmative Action around the World” in which he has criticized that affirmative action does not work according to the intention of authorities, and it causes harm to a society (Anderson). He further states that if one individual or group get benefits from this system, the other individual or group will be damaged, which means that this system is damaging for the society as a whole. Ward Connerly, founder of American Civil Rights Institute, wrote in his bio that affirmative action is responsible for increasing discrimination and racial disparity in US, no matter this system is made for helping those people who have faced racial discrimination in US. An associate justice named Clarence Thomas said that his law degree was not valuable in front of the employees, because he was black. According to a South African judge, significance of law degree from Yale was different for black people and different for white people. Carol Costello points out that there are many people thinking that this is the right time to end affirmative action because it is not suitable for the society (Dworkin).

People in Favor of Affirmative Actions

Deidre Bowen conducted a research in 2009 in which benefits of affirmative action are explained. He stated that this system is useful to eliminate discrimination for the admissions in colleges, as racism is prevailing in the education system, and students of color have to face difficulties for getting admission in colleges (Sherpa). Anthony Marx, president of Amherst College stated that high-class colleges are not superior nor terrible, because they do not admit lower income students. The co-director of Civil Rights Projects Gary Orfield argued that affirmative action is useful for the people, but policymakers need to listen to the court verdict. Gary found out that he is not a part of the region where racial problems are common, but he feels that this system has many strong benefits related to the education of students. Michael Martinson supported affirmative action that this system did not affect white students to get admission in colleges and universities, and it is useful for black students who have faced discrimination for getting admission in their desired colleges (Sherpa).

Attempts for addressing this Issue

This system is a continuous debate for policymaking decision regarding admission in the education system. The authorities and policymakers have previously used many approaches to increase the number of lawsuits and proposals that have been rejected for affirmative action (Moore). Some policymakers try to increase minority students in their colleges by applying different methods, in which the most common method is to guarantee a particular percentage of students to get admission in their colleges. In some colleges, students gaining top marks are guaranteed to get admission as they deserve to get admission in their desired colleges or universities. Many states such as Texas, California, and New York have tried to decrease racism in education, as many policies regarding black students have been made and implemented. In some states, this system has been successful, but there are many colleges in different states of US where many people have criticized affirmative action (Doverspike, Taylor and Arthur).


The discrimination in education is still a common issue in USA, and strong policies are required that would be helpful to eliminate discriminatory admission practices by different colleges. The best argument for the usage of affirmative action is to promote different students groups so that level of education can be increased (Daigle). The current way of practicing affirmative action is not suitable for many people, as racism cannot be eliminated by overlooking other students that deserve to get admission in colleges. Moreover, if one individual is admitted to the college by affirmative action, then it is evident that the student who has been ignored will suffer from this system. Therefore, the government should take serious measures to address this issue, because discrimination in education can damage future of the students.

Works Cited

Anderson, E. “Integration, affirmative action and strict scrutiny.” NYU Law Review 77 (2002): 1195-1271.

Daigle, S. Affirmative action legality, fairness, and ethical use in college admission in both the graduate and undergraduate levels of federally funded programs. Research Report. Florida: Florida Atlantic University, 2004.

Doverspike, P, M Taylor and W Arthur. Psychological Perspective on Affirmative Action . New York: Nova Science Publishers Inc., 2006.

Dworkin, R. Affirmative Action: Does it work? Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2002.

Moore, J. Race And College Admissions: A Case For Affirmative Action. New York: McFarland, 2005.

Sherpa, T. Is Affirmative Action in College Admissions Ethical? Research Report. Miami: International Center of Ethics, Justice, and Public Life, 2011.

Filed under: Sample essays — Tags: , , , , , , , — admin @ 3:01 pm

21 Jan 2011

Sample Essay: Affirmative Action


The paper explores how affirmative action influences employment decisions of managers in the hospitality industry. Affirmative action involves a process of ensuring fairness and justice in order to cultivate the spirit of diversity. The hospitality industry includes numerous types of corporations that provide vital services to the society. Therefore, it is imperative to understand how affirmative action is executed in the industry. Similarly, affirmative action has spread to virtually all industries; therefore, it will be appropriate to evaluate the status in the affirmative action. Human resource is an important section, not only in the hospitality industry but also other industries as well. The paper endeavors to understand how the function of human resource is handled with regard to affirmative action. The government has established a number of laws and policies that govern affirmative action in the hospitality industry as well as other industries. The paper aims at appraising the condition of affirmative action in hospitality industries. Special reference will be given to the process of appointing employees. Whether the industries appoint employees on the foundation of ensuring diversity or not will be the main focus.


Affirmative action is a program that provides for the consideration of the minorities, marginalized and protected sections in the society. Therefore, fulfillment with affirmative action should result in the hiring of men and women at an equal rate. Similarly other factors like race and religion should be evaluated so as to ensure that all sections get an opportunity to obtain employment. The human resource function plays a vital role in affirmative action since hiring is a central theme in ensuring equal opportunities. The hospitality industry covers a wide range of service providers that operate throughout the world. These include hotels, restaurants, food chains and transporting. Therefore, a number of plans have been developed to effect affirmative action in the hospitality industry. Most of them have centered on the process on recruitment of employees. The essence of all these programs has been the cultivation of diversity in the work force. This has been driven by the growing trend of affirmative action in all industries, government regulations requiring compliance with its affirmative action policies as well as the industries endeavor to have an inclusive approach to human resource. Aspects of the golden rule have had a far reaching effect on the industry’s approach to hiring. In their endeavor to achieve unprecedented success in business, hospitality companies have endeavored to be inclusive in their process of hiring staff. This involves the consideration of women and other sections in the society that are considered marginalized. The development of affirmative action policies has been the trend in most companies. Therefore, the hospitality industry has joined other industries in embracing affirmative action.

Affirmative Action in the Hospitality Industry

Affirmative action has changed the manner in which human resource sections in companies carry out their operations. This is due to the increasing trend towards the aspect of diversity in the workforce. Therefore, corporations have realized that in order achieve success, an atmosphere of fairness must be created in the process of admitting employees into the companies (Herdman, Grubb & Capehart 2009). This is gradually translating into diverse workforces who have been touted as healthy and therefore, a trajectory to success. This trend has also been inspired by the enactment of several laws that regulate the employing processes. These laws contemplate the fair consideration of all sections of society during hiring as well as the humane treatment of workers. This involves remunerations, work state of affairs and dismissal. Affirmative action has also resulted from the pressure of numerous activists and trade unions. Most of them have pushed for the introduction of fairness in the processes of employment in the industry. In compliance to these programs, the hospitality industry has gradually clinched affirmative action. This began with the considerations of all sections in the hiring progression (Makulilo 2009). As much as the process is still far from complete, the hospitality industry has established a number of frameworks through which affirmative action can be achieved. First among all is the inclusive recruitment course.

Bargaining councils have been instrumental in entrenching affirmative action practices in the hospitality industry. Bargaining councils comprise of trade unions as well as organizations representing organizations. The councils have been instrumental in championing for the rights of workers at the work place. As much as this had little effect of the hiring procedure, it eventually led to the extension of fair treatment in the recruitment. The councils handle a number of tasks that involve compatible agreements (Kennedy 2010). They mitigate disputes and come up with numerous schemes and policies of employees. Such endeavors have contributed to the aspect of equality throughout the hospitality companies. Examples of these councils include The Tearoom, Restaurant & Catering Bargaining Council and the Restaurant, Catering & Allied Bargaining Council.

Sectoral determination plays a significant role in the achievement of equality and better handling of staff. The hospitality industry has therefore, achieved a lot with regard to fairness especially in wages through the pressure of sect oral determination. Sectoral determinations have provided for the wage rate to be based on the number of employees in an organization. Therefore, organizations with small numbers of employees pay more.

Several acts that are relevant with the hospitality industry have been instrumental in the practice of fairness and equality in the sector. Most of the acts have programs that ensure the achievement of good care and treatment for the employees (Taylor 2010). The Occupational Health and Safety Act endeavors to ensure that employees are accorded adequate healthcare and safety in the working environment. Compensation for Occupational Injuries and Deceases Act aims at ensuring that employees who incur sicknesses and injuries at the work place are taken care of. The act discourages discrimination of these workers and prescribes the kind of treatment that should be given to them. The Employment Equity Act seeks to uphold evenhandedness in the work environment. The act also promotes equivalent chances to all employees.

All corporations that deal in hospitality attempt to realize merit in their operations. However, only companies that ultimately make use of the ability of racial and sexual diversity achieve their objectives. The diversity of the population provides for equal approach to hiring (Lickstein 2010). Therefore, only companies that consider the diversity of talent and society manage to navigate beyond normal performance. Furthermore, in order to compete favorably since the 1990’s, companies have been forced to embrace equality in job opportunities at all stages. The job environments must conform to the standards of equality by all means. The demographic inclinations that are responsible for changes in personnel stipulate the skill of managing diversity be cultivated in all levels of administration (Lickstein 2010).

The demographic indicators predict an increase in diversity of the society in the future. Therefore, corporations must cultivate the aspect of managing diversity among the managers at all levels. This will ensure that the corporations continually carry out their operations in the future. Without an open approach to diversity it will not be possible for hospitality organizations to operate. The indicators show that the majority of jobs in the future will arise from the service industry. Most of them will be about information. This shows that the jobs require intellectual prowess alone. As a result, gender, race and age will not be barriers. Corporations must therefore, embrace affirmative action since future jobs will be suitable for men and women as well as all races and groups.  The rate of immigrants is going to increase (Kahlenberg 2010). This means that the number of immigrant workers will increase. Organizations must put in place equality mechanisms so as to take advantage of the increase in potential workers. Only those corporations that will have adopted affirmative action will benefit from the services of migrant workers.

The hospitality industry is on the spot since projections indicate that economic development will rely directly on the claim of products are sensitive to incomes. These include restaurant meals, tourism, healthcare, and travel and luxury foods. Therefore, the industry must ensure that its operations are not obstructed by traditional approaches to employment and discriminations. Affirmative action remains the best way forwards in the restructuring of hospitality organization. Most of the fresh workers in the future will be minorities. Therefore, without a prudent approach to employee hiring based on equality, organizations will miss out on the new employees. The fact that, most new employees will be minorities indicates that, hospitality organizations must fully embrace affirmative action so as to be in a position to manage a diverse workforce. Diversity must be cultivated in the management and operation of the corporations. Most importantly, hiring decisions together with the management of employees must be changed to confirm to norms of equality. The number of black women will rise unexpectedly. Black women will account for the largest share in the nonwhite work category. Consequently black women will surpass black men in the labor force. Gender based discrimination will have no place in the work force since most potential workers will be women. Affirmative action is the only way for companies to operate in the future. Accordingly racism must be brought to an end since blacks will form an integral account of the entire labor force. Similarly white males who have been the major component of the work force are slated to reduce drastically. They will only comprise of 15% of the entire workforce. Therefore, black and other minorities must be ready to take the dominant position in the workforce.

Affirmative Action Support and Challenges

Affirmative action has the backing of many people; it is perceived as the only means towards equality. Affirmative action is essentially founded of a moral and equitable platform with the best objectives. As a result, several organizations and sections of the public and society support the concept (Dodson 2010). This has been the key driving force in the success of affirmative action in the hospitality industry. Numerous corporations have initiated programs that aim at ensuring the full implementation of the affirmative action. This has led to the creation of several affirmative action policies by organizations. The policies have been informed by several consultations between these organizations and the relevant stakeholders. The role played by the government in setting guidelines has also been instrumental. The most viable transformation has been the attitudinal change. The society has fully come to embrace the aspect of equality as envisaged in the affirmative action. Most of these involve racism, sexism and other shapes of inequity. The work place has been the major battleground for all these forms of inequality. However, industry players have come to recognize the importance of initiating equality programs in their operations (Anim 2010). The most visible application of affirmative action has been identical opportunities during the appointing process.

However, the implementation of affirmative action in the hospitality industry has been subject to a number of challenges. The greatest challenge has been the aspect of racism. The concept of racial preference has complicated efforts to cultivate equality in employment and workplace relations (Krotoszynski 2010). This has been brought about by the connection of race and preference. It has been burdensome to society since through this link racism is inculcated in society in the name of stigma that ought to be eradicated. Partisan treatment to certain races in the name of ensuring equality has been counterproductive. In fact quotas have been a setback in the affirmative action endeavors. This is because quotas and other forms of partisan treatments institutionalize inequality. In order for affirmative to be successful organizations must move away from any counterproductive practices that undermine equality.

Equality in organizations can only be achieved through the adoption of structures that establish equal prospects for all. Any practice that seeks to assist certain sections of the society at the expense of others cannot achieve affirmative action. Therefore, the biggest threat to affirmative action in organizations is the focus on short-term goals. Some organizations have evolved a system of creating reservations and quotas for certain sections of the society. This practice might be fruitful in the short run; it has negative effects on affirmative action. Such organizations soon institutionalize inequality through the favoritism. Affirmative action in the organizations requires the culture of diversity coupled with prudent management of the same.

Rigidity in organizations is another aspect that limits the implementation of affirmative action. To counter this trend, organizations ought to develop an atmosphere that cultivates diversity in the workplace. Such an arrangement will leave no room for unnecessary hindrances in the implementation of affirmative action. As much as the major attitudinal obstructions are found in societies, business organizations can play an important role by cultivating diversity and equality in their operations (Alam and Roy 2007). The first way is to ensure that hiring remains a transparent and equal forum for all sections of the society. This should be complemented by the provision of equivalent chances for all employees’ irrespective of their gender and racial background. The establishment of structure that favors affirmative action remains the best way to achieve equality in the organizations. Minorities ought to be accorded equivalent opportunities so as to allow them to grow and compete favorably in the organizations. The equal treatment of minorities will have several benefits in the organizations apart from ensuring equality. First will be the perpetuity of organizations. With respect to future projections, only organizations that provide equal treatment to minorities will survive. This is due to the fact that most potential worker will come from minority category. Organizations with no meaningful structures for diversity and equality often find it difficult to achieve their goals in the midst of the changes. It is virtually impossible to achieve growth in modern times without credible affirmative action policies. Equality can also not be achieved with the necessary structures in place.

Companies in the hospitality industry that fully embrace equality mechanism as far as opportunity is concerned succeed because of the inherent mutual culture and structure. Through the commitment of the companies, right from the highest levels of management and accountability of the personnel development and the provision of equal chance, an inclusive diverse atmosphere is founded in which all people irrespective of their gender and race can make their contribution to the organization (Winston 2008). Through the success of their workforce, accommodative organizations often realize the efficiency, innovativeness and synergy to effectively compete and realize financial breakthrough. Therefore, such organization comprehend that unfairness is harmful to the individuals, corporations as well as the society. Organizations that wholly build and manage culturally diverse abilities of its employees normally derive benefit associated with them. Similarly rigid organizations cannot benefit from the services of culturally diverse workforce.

Employees in culturally diverse organizations work in broadly environments. Their tasks are defined widely and they have the liberty to perform their jobs as well as come up with groups and methodologies they deem fit. Furthermore, the employees have the freedom to participate in new tasks. Diverse organizations concentrate of the development of their employees (Reistad et al., 2010). Therefore, such organizations often have efficient communication systems across the different departments of the organization. These corporations react constructively to change, have effective workers and encourage the growth of minorities. Great prominence is laid of training of workers. The benefits from these endeavors, pose these organizations for financial success as well as better future prospects (Reistad et al., 2010).


Affirmative action has taken root in several business organizations. This trend has been necessitated by the need to cultivate equality and diversity in the workplace. Companies in the hospitality industry have not been left behind. A number of measures have been taken by organizations in the hospitality industry, to entrench affirmative action in their operations. This has mostly involved the hiring practice. Organizations have evolved to ensure that all sections of society irrespective of gender and race obtain their equal share of opportunities of jobs. Furthermore, the working situations in several organizations from the hospitality sector have inducted diversity in their systems. The cultivation of a culture of diversity in these organizations has resulted in equal management of staff at the workplace. Most importantly, it has involved the uplifting of minorities through the opportunities for their growth. The entrenchment of structures that guarantee diversity and equality has been of great success in the organizations. The trend of affirmative action has been boosted by a number of factors. These include future projections which indicate an increase in minorities in the potential workforce category. Government policies have also pressed corporations to clinched affirmative action. Affirmative action has fully been embraced by most organizations in the hospitality industry.


Alam, M., & Roy, P. (2007).Corporate Social Responsibility and Affirmative Action  Program. Social Responsibility Journal. 3 (3), 36. Print.

Anim, C. (2010). ‘I wanted positive action, not positive discrimination’: encouraging  members from various backgrounds will result in a stronger RCN. Nursing       Standard. 24 (28), 22. Print.

Dodson, A. (2010). Putting education on the front burner: for the ‘Father of Black History,’ the education of Blacks was the issue.(diverse bookshelf)(The Black-White Achievement Gap: Why Closing It Is the Greatest Civil Rights Issue of Our Time; No Longer Separate, Not Yet Equal: Race and Class in Elite College Admission and Campus Life; The Case  for Affirmative Action on Campus: Concepts of Equity, Considerations for Practice; From the Courtroom to the Classroom: The Shifting Landscape of School  Desegregation)(Book review). Diverse Issues in Higher Education. 26 (26), 13. Print.

Herdman, A., Grubb, L., & Capehart, A. (2009). “Affirmative action decisions: when ignorance  is bliss”. Equal Opportunities International. 28 (5), 28. Print.

Kahlenberg, R. (2010).Toward a New Affirmative Action. The Chronicle of Higher Education. 56 (37), 29. Print.

Kennedy, R. (2010). The enduring relevance of affirmative action. (THE PROSPECT AT  TWENTY). The American Prospect. 21(7) 23. Print.

Krotoszynski, R. (2010). The argot of equality: on the importance of disentangling “diversity”   and “remediation” as justifications for race-conscious government action. Washington    University Law Review. 87(5), 102. Print.

Lickstein, C. (2010). Race and education at a crossroads: how Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1 and Wisconsin v. Yoder shed light on the    potential conflict between the black homeschooling movement and K-12 affirmative  action programs. Journal of Gender, Race and Justice. 13 (3), 241. Print.

Makulilo, A. (2009). “Whose affirmative action is affirmative?” lessons from Tanzania”. CEU   Political Science Journal. 4 (4), 412-416. Print.

Reistad, M., et al. (2010). Balance between merit and equity in academic hiring decisions: judgemental content analysis applied to the phraseology of Australian tenure-stream     advertisements in comparison with Canadian advertisements. Australian Universities’  Review. 52 (2), 41. Print.

Taylor, T. (2010).The end of an era? How affirmative action in government contracting can survive after Rothe. (2010 McKenna Long & Aldridge “Gilbert A. Cuneo” Government  Contracts Moot Court Competition). Public Contract Law Journal, 39 (4), 132. Print.

Winston, M. (2008). Diversity: the research and the lack of progress. New Library World. 109 ( ¾), 44. Print.

Place Your Order Now
Academic Writing Services:

Business / Professional Writing Services:

Free Essay Tips / Writing Guides:
100% Satisfaction Guarantee

We will revise your paper until you are completely satisfied. Moreover, you are free to request a different writer to rewrite your paper entirely, should you be unhappy with the writing style, level of research, communication, etc.

100% Authentic Research & Writing Guarantee

We guarantee that you will receive a fully authentic, 100% non-plagiarized work. Otherwise, we will just give you your money back.

100% Confidentiality & Privacy Guarantee

No one will ever find out that you have used our service. We guarantee that your personal information as well as any other data related to your order(s) will remain confidential to the extent allowed by law. It will not be shared with any third party unless you provide a written consent.