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The Use of APA Citation

It is commonly recognized that proper citation of sources is the only way to avoid plagiarism (and sometimes copyright infringement) accusations. To achieve uniformity in these citations, style guidelines have been established by various organizations. One such organization is the American Psychology Association or APA. The APA citation style is one of the most accepted styles used in the United States. As such, it is important for students, writers, and other professionals to understand the requirements of APA citation guidelines.

Citation of Books, Book Essays, or Book Chapters

Under APA guidelines, the citation of a book follows the general pattern of author-date-title-location-publisher and would appear as follows:
Wyldstar, T. (2009). The Future of Man. Thornton, Colorado: Wyldstar Activist Publishing.

For two authors, the entry would appear as:
Wyldstar, T. & Van Winkle, B. (2009). Disabilities and you. Thornton, Colorado: Wyldstar Activist Publishing
Information on edition number, when applicable, would go in parentheses after the book name.

Two particularly notable exceptions to this exist. In the case of an edited or composite book with multiple or unknown authors, the names of the editor(s) are listed in place of the author and the notation “(Ed.)” or “(Eds.)” is placed between the names and the publication date. The second exception is when publishing organizations claim authorship (as in governmental publications or think tank reports). The organization name is entered in place of the author and the word “Author” is put where the name of the publisher is normally listed.

Referencing specific articles or passages in an edited book is easy though additional information is required and a different layout is used. The pattern for such citations is author-date-article-editor(s)-title (pages)-location-publisher and appears like this:
Author, J. (2009). The importance of light rail in public transportation. In T. Wyldstar (Ed.), Perspectives on Social Policies (pp. 117-188). Thornton, Colorado: Wyldstar Activist Publishing.

This layout also applies to encyclopedia sources and governmental or technical/research reports with the governmental publication number or working paper ID taking the place of volume information.

Internet Accessed Resources

When resources are accessed over the Internet, the only real difference in citation is the addition of the retrieval date and source URL after the publisher’s information like this:
Retrieved Jan 1, 2009, from
This URL information is also added when the resource is a website, web page, or journal/news article accessed via the Internet, otherwise all Internet resources except databases are treated like any other document. For Internet-based databases, the “retrieved from” URL is replaced with the Document Object Identifier (DOI) or resource database name.

An interesting note is made regarding the citing of blog entries. When citing blogs, the exact date of the blog entry is noted in the date, followed by the entry title and then the “Retrieved from” URL. No further information is needed.

Referencing Periodicals

Referencing periodicals usually follows the sequence of author(s)-date-title-periodical-volume(number)-page(s). Exception is made when there is no author listed. Then the title is listed first, followed by the date and other information. When a publication states an exact publication day, season, or time period, the additional information is included in the date notation.

Multimedia Productions

When dealing with motion pictures, videos and television productions the rules are a little different. Credit should be included for the key producer(s) and the director as well as the writer(s) along with a parenthetical note of their role. The media involved is noted in square brackets after the name and the name of the production is italicized. With multi-episode television series, the episode name goes after the date in standard font and the series name is added after the media type notation. For audio and speech materials, the artist alone is listed as the “author” and the media type is noted as with visual productions.

Final Comments

As can easily be observed, the preparation and management of citations and references is serious business with complex rules. Finding someone to help who has experience with these matters is simple, however. Companies like ours are well experienced in writing and reference citations. Utilizing state of the art software and research techniques allows us to gather and record important citation information as we perform the research for your assignment, all but eliminating any chance of plagiarism accusations. Combine this with the quality of our writing staff and the reasons for choosing our company become clear. Contact us today and let us show you how we have earned one of the best reputations in the industry.

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