13 Mar 2012

Sample Essay: Work Ethic

There are many aspects in the society and individuals that have shaped the economy since the years of communism to the current times of capitalism. These factors are responsible for the former and current work ethics amongst people. In addition, the generational and cultural trends in the world have become distinct and this is a matter of concern as some of the trends are profitable while others lead to economic losses. The discussion in this paper examines the changes in cultural trends, economic situations and employee-employer relations.

What cultural/generational trends can you identify in employee relations and work ethics discussed in the two articles?

In the two articles, the matter of unemployment stands out. It is evident that the relations between employers and employees are not very profound and the Japanese case is used as a referral point. Between the two generations, it is evident that the way individuals relate to their employers is not usually appropriate. A case example is Masao Ohashi who after being jobless for over 15 years still cannot apply work ethics when applying for unemployment benefits. It is evident that the way individuals relate is astounding and this has led to the fall of many people thus leading to the probable unemployment rates in Japan (Thomton, 1998, p. 2). It is evident that there is a difference in generations because the way people relate is usually changing with times. The other matter that is of concern is the freeters. These are people who do not have a stationary workplace but are constantly changing jobs (Takashi, 2006, para. 9). These people pose a risk as they eventually make the economy to collapse since their productivity levels cannot be measured. In a survey carried out in Japan, people tend to switch from one job to the other and this leads to the overall decline of the work balance. In the long run, they may end up jobless, which may lead to an overall decline in the economic activities in the country.  Employees related poorly with their employers, but there has been a positive gradual change in recent years.

What aspects of this social, cultural, and economic situations described in the two articles would you attribute to communitarian and/or individualistic cultural tendencies?

There are many aspects of the community that have been changing and are perceived to go through constant changes, and the most notable is the way in which people relate. In earlier generations, people related with each other on the basis of communism. In the past communism world, people were forced to dress and think in the same way. This collectiveness meant that individuals had to develop unilateral ideas, which meant that they were subjected to the same treatment in the society. This led to stagnation in economic and social growth. This was a negative issue since it stood in the way of progress (John, 2000, p. 1). It is important to encourage individualistic ideas and this means that the communist ideologies were not favorable to the overall growth of the economy and individual strengths. The changing world has changed communist ideologies since people are becoming open minded and moving away from the unity of thoughts and ideas.

Difference in Japan and U.S in regards to employee-employer relations, unemployment, and work ethics

There is a great difference in the two countries in regard to these factors. This is because in Japan, the relations between the employer and the employee have not yet been fully realized and this has led to overall strain in the workplace. In the United States, the relations between the employers and employees are more profound in comparison with Japan. In addition to this, the unemployment rates in the two countries are high. However, the rates of unemployment in Japan continue to rise as more companies lay off workers. This negatively affects the economy and the country (Yūji, 2007, p. 29).

Conclusion

It is evident in the researched articles and reports that there is a significant change in terms of the social and economic structure. These trends have led to the distinct characteristics that are meant to dictate the way in which human beings relate with each other. Overall, culture has shaped the economic situations in many countries. In conclusion, therefore, there is no ultimate economic approach that could be termed as the best, but there are ways and means of getting the best out of all the approaches.

References

John, W. (2000). Individualism vs. Communitarianism. Journal of Social ethics , 1.

Takashi, K. (2006). Weak work ethic is holding back generation of ‘freeters’ and drifters. Japan: Japan Times.

Thomton, E. (1998). Japan Hidden jobless. Japan: Academic Search Elite.

Yūji, G. (2007). Jobless Youths and the NEET Problem in Japan. Social Science Japan Journal , 23-40.

23 Feb 2011

Sample Essay: The Unemployment Rate Among Young People

Nowadays, the number of young people that are unemployed has exploded significantly. Analysts believed that this scenario will bring negative impact to millions of young people upon losing their lifetime earning potential. Thus, this event holds the chance of many young people to take their transition of being productive citizens. There are reports that “the unemployment rate of 18 to 35 rose significantly” (CBC, 2011). Apparently, until now most cities have no clear economic recovery plan particularly in the creation and improvement of entry level jobs. This paper aims to explore on the factors that caused high unemployment among young people.

Causes of High Unemployment among Young People

Based on statistics, unemployment rate among young people has been steadily rising and analysts forecasted that this event will remain at its peak for the succeeding years. Thus, the ration of unemployment rate further increased during the recent recession and until now there is still no sign of slowing. It is prevalent among young people to receive temporary work contracts and most often they are the first to eject every time companies wish to reduce their people. Furthermore, many young people are often forced to work in sectors like construction and other related works wherein they are asked to spend larger amounts of time, with much physical tasks, and lower earnings. In the analysis, “one of the major contributory factors is the recession causing young people to have slimmer chance to find long term and stable jobs” (Kerr, 2011). Another distinct factor for this event is the insufficient support coming from the government to give emphasis on unemployment among young people, and assist them in finding work. There are also findings that significant numbers of young people are at risk due to poor educations and low skills. It seems that the government is lacking effective support to young people such as in giving apprenticeship programs. Furthermore, it shows that local economies are more centered on finding cheaper labor so majority of them tend to import people. Several analysts believed that rapid globalization created uncertainty and insecurity among countries with vulnerable situations considering that globalization will only open the way for much cheaper labor force and more experienced workers. Overall, many young people have to face stiff competition in finding stable jobs since most work opportunities are also being offered to wider applicants. Their chances of entering into a more stable work are lessened and as a result many young people failed to gain a firm foothold in the labor market. Most of the young people ended up in dead end jobs with limited protection, low paid jobs, and poor quality jobs. There are reports that many young people don’t have enough knowledge and skills which are necessary for social development and economic growth. It shows that many countries are lacking enough attention on education and training systems which are crucial in fostering the development among young people to succeed in labor market. In this context, schools and educational institutions have important roles in creating values that will prepare young people to adapt rapid changes in labor market and have competitive advantage. In the statistics, many young people are being affected by the rapid changes in labor market along with the obsolescence of their skills.

Conclusion

Overall, unemployment rate for many young people continue to rise considering that most educational institutions neglect to give further attention on values concerning lifelong learning (Kerr, 2011), business competitiveness, and continuing employability of workers. It shows that the government has crucial roles in assisting the young people to find stable work and giving them essential programs to further improve their competitiveness in the labor market.

Reference

CBC. Youth Unemployment. Retrieved February 3, 2011, from:

http://www.cbc.ca/canada/british-columbia/story/2009/07/10/bc-unemployment-youth.html

Kerr, Kevin. Youth Unemployment in Canada. Retrieved February 3, 2011, from:

http://dsp-psd.pwgsc.gc.ca/Collection-R/LoPBdP/CIR/824-e.htm

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21 Oct 2009

Sample Essay: Philosophy

To set the ball rolling , it is a fact that no American can ever ignore, that  the economy of the United States has been moving to lower levels as days go by, every effort has therefore been employed by the relevant administrative bodies in order to help revive the otherwise sinking economy.

When the Current President, Mr. Obama was taking over power, among some of his greatest duties was about the financial or rather economic level of the United States. In a bid to achieve this, he injected several policies into his government among them being the Keynesian policy. This policy involves the government inducing job creation and also cutting down on the tax for the middle class individuals and rising tax for the upper income groups. Americans have so much concern about this harboring mixed feeling with respect to the same so that no one owns any surety as to whether the newly signed Obama’s Stimulus Package is going to be of any help to the nation. Some bodies and also individuals have risen to oppose the step citing that it is a wrong headed approach and also that it may not work. The discussion that is yet to be put down below will be comparing the opinions of different bodies or individual with respect to the matter in question. It is basically a debate between Keynesianism and the Chicago school within which there are individual who have aired their opinion about the government’s step.

The bigwig behind the philosophy of Keynesianism is John Maynard Keynes. He is considered the most undisputable and influential western Economist of the twentieth century. He has always in all his works laid a very strong emphasis on the nature and role of uncertainty in economic thought and this in actual sense makes the main theme in his writings.

The particular book which contains the information we would use to set the debate brings together a wide array of experts such as Gay Tulip Meeks, Sheila Dow, Karl Polanyi, John Kenneth Balbraith and John Davis. All these individuals analyze and criticize such themes as Keynesian probability and uncertainty, the foundations of Keynes’s economics and the relationship between Keynes’s earlier and later thought. The book though is readable, and comprehensive.

In his theory, he argues that full employment cannot be sustained through capitalism without any specific and productive intervention of the government with the inequitable distribution of wealth and income being its other failing. The theory also shows opposition to the classical story that the decision to save more lowered the rate of interest thereby making ore investment projects profitable.

The theory played an important role in giving a social function to the kind of people who Keynes referred top as rentiers, who owned most of the assets in the capitalist economy, such assets were only possible because the rentiers were willing to defer consumption of their wealth. The philosophy is also about the money blanket, a situation where the entrepreneurs made their decisions concerning investment. These decisions are made after comparing the marginal inefficiencies of capital across a range of projects with the money rate of interest, according to the policy; all projects which had their marginal inefficiencies below the standardized rate were not attempted. Within his policy, Keynes therefore suggested an alternative step to be taken; he employed pervasive uncertainty which was a fact of capitalist life Wealth holders valued money which was referred to as a security blanket which allowed deferment of decisions as to where to put wealth. The interest rate was a consequence of the equilibrium between the supply of money and its demand for these speculative purposes, the information is found between the sections (196-199) of the material on his philosophy.

A major determinant of the marginal inefficiencies was future sales expected by entrepreneurs based on the present sales, it was applied thus, a fall in the marginal sales could thereby depress the MEC and in turn cause cumulative falls n investment and consumption, through such standards and tests, the picture of a highly volatile and demand-deficient economy was portrayed. With such obvious results, it is therefore possible to make the right intervention in order to revive the economy because the discovery that the demand for most of the products is low the right entrepreneurial measures can be taken for in stance, advertisement in order to fuel the demand for the products. A successful exposure of the products would lead to increased sales which also would do great good to the economic level of the nation.

One of the implications though is that the growth of capital and hence investment and employment is held back by a low propensity to consume this can be further described as thriftiness.

Out of all these we can now bring out the proper outline of what the theory or policy is all about, Keynesianism is a macroeconomic theory whi9ch is mainly based on the ideas of the twentieth century. The theory argues that some of the decisions made by the private sector sometimes lead to inefficient macroeconomic outcomes and in such a case advocates for policy responses by the public sector which also includes monetary policy actions by the central bank  and fiscal  policy actions by the government and this would help in the stabilization of the output over the business cycle, this serves as one of the merits that might have led to the implementation of this theory in the current government to help recover the drowning economy. In this theory, some micro-level actions of individuals and firms can lead to aggregate macroeconomic outcomes in which the economy operates below the potential of its output and growth. While other economists believed in Say’s law that supply creates its own demand, Keynes on the other hand asserted in his theory that aggregate demand for goods might be insufficient during economic downturns and this in return lead to high rate of unemployment and losses of potential output, he therefore argues that the government could employ the use of policies in order to increase aggregate demand thus increasing economic activity and reducing unemployment and deflation. Keynes argued that the solution to depression was to stimulate the economy, or induce people to invest following two approaches, reduction in interest rates and government investment in infrastructure. This also has got a notable advantage in that the investment by the government injects income which leads to more spending in the general economy which in turn stimulates more production hence more income. The total increase in the economic activity will also increase the confidence in investment.

A central conclusion of Keynesian economics of precisely Keynesianism is that in some cases, no strong automatic mechanism moves output and employment towards full employment levels.

This conclusion though conflicts with the economic approaches that assume a general tendency towards an equilibrium in the neoclassical synthesis which combines the theory discussed above and its concepts with a micro foundation, the conditions of general equilibrium allow for price adjustments to achieve this goal. It is due to the fact that certain concepts of the theory conflict the general business trends that there arose the parties that criticized.

The following are some of the contrasting view that other economists gave with respect to the theory discussed above. Most of the critiques were from the other prominent writers and economist who had a strong connection in one way or the other to the Chicago school, one of the most dominant of the critics being Friedman Milton. Although starting from a theoretical base featuring strong Keynesian roots, Friedman devised a policy frame work that turned Keynes on his head. With the deliberate guidance of the financial market expectations featuring as one key innovation in his practical thought, Friedman developed a counter scheme that reduces monetary policy to a pure auto-pilot regime leaving no independence to the central bank that is supposed to be neutralized in this way this is contrary to the concepts that are in the theory of economics.

Out of the changes made by Friedman, a new approach to the monetary policy has been devised which has gradually brought modern monetary theory back into the real world. Still in a bid  to bring out the true contrast between Keynesianism and the ricardian thought, more specifically due to the in put of competent economist like Milton the following comes out, Instead of rejecting macro-measurements and macro-models of the economy, the monetarist school embraced the techniques of treating the entire economy as having a supply and demand equilibrium. However, because the Fischer Equation of Exchange, they regarded inflation as solely being due to the variations in the money supply, rather than as being a consequence of aggregate demand. They argued that the “crowding out” effects discussed above would hobble or deprive fiscal policy of its positive effect. Instead, the focus should be on monetary policy which was largely ignored by early Keynesians hence raising the controversy.

Another influential school of thought was based on the Lucas critique of Keynesian economics. This called for greater consistency with microeconomic theory and rationality, and particularly emphasized the idea of rational expectations Lucas and others argued that Keynesian economics required remarkably foolish and short-sighted behavior from people, which totally contradicted the economic understanding of their behavior at a micro level. New classical economics introduced a set of macroeconomic theories which were based on optimizing microeconomic behavior, for instance real business cycles.

Keynesian ideas wee also criticized by the Australian economist and philosopher, Friedrich Hayek. Hayek criticized Keynesian economic policies for what he called their fundamentally collectivist approach, arguing that such theories, no matter their presumptively utilitarian intentions, require centralized planning, which Hayek argued leads to totalitarian abuses. Keynes seems to have noted this concern, since, in the foreword to the German version of the ‘The General Theory of Employment Interest and Money’, he declared that “the theory of aggregated production, which is the point of ‘The General Theory of Employment Interest and Money, nevertheless can be much easier adapted to the conditions of a totalitarian state than the theory of production and distribution of a given production put forth under conditions of free competition and a large degree of laissez-faire.

Another criticism leveled by Hayek against Keynes was that the study of the economy by the relations between aggregates is fallacious, and that recessions are caused by micro-economic factors. Hayek claimed that what starts as temporary governmental fixes usually become permanent and expanding government programs, which stifle the private sector and civil society. Keynes himself described the critique as “deeply moving”, which was quoted on the cover of the Road to Serfdom.

In conclusion, most of the merits and demerits of the economic steps discussed above have been placed within the various consequences but  one very obvious advantage that would come with the implementation of the policy is that the government is given room to deal with economic problems facing the United State  on more direct grounds rather than going through the long process of using the business markets because in such protocols, more damage would have been realized by that tome a solution will have been  attained. The current administrative policies would also help in increase production, creating more job opportunities for the citizens, increasing their income and subsequently improving their standards of living. This brings about the confidence in investment which in turn in creases the economic activity. On the other hand the policies put forward by the government may still not be efficient enough in combating the high rate of unemployment which still remains a big bother, unemployment also leads to poverty and other filthy vices in the society which sweeps away the security of the citizens.

Nationalization of the banks would at the same time fix the members of the public to specific modes of transaction and business activity under specific economic rules binding them to  particular  levels, this gives no room for expansion and flexibility, can discourage investment and ultimately, it can lead to the reduction in the economic level the United States Of America.

Sample Essay: Political Philosophy

America as a home of two categories of people has two ideology related parties. These parties include the democrats and republicans. The democrats compose of minority groups who are mainly the poor and blacks among others while the Republicans are mainly for Americans. Immigration to America is both legal and illegal. This has lead to changes in demographic patterns and cultures a whole. The country registered the highest number of immigrants in the year 2006. This was the highest of all the world countries. Previously there had been gender imbalances amongst the legal immigrants where men dominated up to around the 1990’s when women showed up. Currently the immigrant population is characterized by a population aged between 15-34, married and at times the divorced couples.

Legal immigration has been generally accepted in the United States than illegal because of the willingness of the government to provide the services to the affected individuals. Based on the American economy and political status, immigration has been attributed to bring both positive and negative effects. According to my opinion, immigration should be allowed to America since there are important achievements that have resulted as result of immigrants to the country. Let’s consider some of the associated effects outlined below.

For instance, immigrants have increased and still it is projected to increase the numbers of American population (associated with low birth rates) thus has helped maintain the increasing trends. Immigration has also increased the growth of the American economy because of cheap labor that has increased productivity and the low value of consumer goods and services which are produced by immigrants as well as low salaries of those owing capital. On the other hand these immigrants have turned to be innovative and creative. Through this they have been producing services which were non-existent before thus more government revenue has been realized. This has minimized unemployment to American workers. These could be the only benefits that have positively built America as a whole.

Negative effects have also been realistic. Social integration has not also been realized through the interaction between the immigrants and Native Americans. This has strengthened racial segregation amongst the immigrants and between the Native Americans and the immigrants. There have been increased conflicts and riots in various settlement sites and urban centers, as what used to exist before. Conflicts between the Koreans and blacks as well as Black Latinos and African Americans which were evidence in the recent past are still persistent. Political ideologies also differ, depending on the different immigrants that who have varied ideologies, thus impacts to social norms and religious practices. Take an example of the dominant two major parties that are dominant the Democratic and the Republican parties that rose from groupings of immigrants and Americans respectively.

On health matters, immigrants have posed a challenge to the United States health services. Because of poor backgrounds the immigrants fail to meet the expenses in the public health sector during the emergency cases. Note that these being the only means for the survival of immigrants (inexpensive), it strains the government to budget for the allocation of funds. High rates of diseases spread  in the country has been proved to be the consequence of immigration, Tuberculosis  rates for instance are high amongst immigrants than the native Americans As well HIV/AIDS was brought to the country by immigrants. With increased number of people there is a likelihood of having water stress that can cause poor sanitation, thus contagious diseases.

Crime as a vice has the possibility to increase with more immigrants because of unemployment situations, barriers in the language and uncertainties threatening the lives of foreigners. Population pressure on the environment is yet another impact on environment. Consider the settlement houses established for accommodation, landfills in cities, deforestation and overexploitation of resources such as water just to mention a few .All these are likely to degrade the environment.

Education system has been challenged by immigration in the following perspectives: discrimination in class, language diversities and of course culture differences. This result to complexities in the educational planning: teacher training, resource allocations and distribution of learning institutions.

On my opinions immigrants should be allowed to the United States because, one the government is concerned with rights of both Native Americans and the immigrants .United States is a developed country, well endowed with resources and better technology that can be utilized by both groups of inhabitants. For instance, the free public health services have helped increase survival rates of immigrants. But these immigrants should be under legal qualifications. The allocation of public social services such as health, urban planning and waste dumping and economic activities and employment opportunities to the skilled and unskilled individuals to equal balance the two groups will be made easier. Legal registration will also enhance efficiency in establishing the strategies aimed at social and political integration in all sectors of the economy, environmental problems and solving crime rates. This is because the government will be aware of the size and growth rates of its citizens at a particular period of time in the country.

Depending on the current economic crisis, the United State should accept 150,000 immigrants and 50,000 refugees. In fact, economic crisis globally is challenge to the state because of climate change, diminishing sources of energy and increasing number of political instability in most countries. All these have reduced productivity in industry, agriculture and m manufacturing as a whole. The detrimental effects are hitting the developed countries too.

Due to increasing demand of labor and skilled workers in various industries, production and even in Jua kali sector, the immigrants should at least have a skill that will help built the American economy. Emphasize on policies on immigration for employment is really applicable in this context. This could be through creativity and innovations of machinery, equipment or substances that is cheap and affordable to all individuals of the same social classes. Note that as more individuals buy products, more income from taxes and revenue is realized, thus greater economic development. Even for the unskilled workers, whose roles are domestic workers, at a cheaper price indeed will help savings amongst the Americans for investments.

The current approach of the United States that is used to provide citizenship that is how one has developed interest in America and one related to family bondage is a crucial way for America to have a manageable number of immigrants. More emphasize should be on legal issues especially the 1990 immigration act which emphasizes the value of the family. The state should allow only stable married couples to settle in the country. This will help minimize population growth that is on the increase as divorced and unmarried having obtained settlement tend to remarry or marry and care for their families. If for example one has divorced and has left child in the home country, and can remarry, with the divorcee will bring his or her children to the United States; then there will be increase in the number of households. This means if one hundred of the immigrants can do so, the population will be likely to triple. With time the children will have their children .In a nutshell, there is a likelihood of creating pressure on available social facilities so to speak. For youths, it is necessary to admit them for particular purposes such as pursuing education or a given contract.

As compared to other legal issues based which stresses on steps to minimize crimes, this could be the best approach. Due to the fact that immigrants will be admitted depending on the available job opportunities, will minimizing unemployment factor resulting to criminal offences as seen among the immigrants or Native Americans. Again the gender should be a crucial point to note in the registration immigrants because both sexes have a role to play in the development of a nation.

The policy discussed above is the best according to my opinion as compared to the one of acquiring a visa. The policy states that once an individual has a visa he or she is legible to be accommodated to the United States, and is in a position of investing in business or any other short term activity and returning back to the home country. There is a possibility of having mass illegal immigrants, particularly entrepreneurs. Consider the complex procedures of following up the victims. Even with use of employers to obtain the illegal workers is a complicated and high rates of injustice might be realized as employers upon identified competent employees, is hard for them to accept the decline in productivity by losing the employee. This makes the policy ineffective, hence creating more social-economic problems. The policy of resettling the refugees is also tricky because many immigrants who may not be refugees may have a chance to use that excuse to obtain the citizenship illegally. This can be illustrated by analyzing the reasons that make one a refugee or not. Some people have as a result taken cover to be refugees yet they are indeed not refugees.

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