02 Jun 2010

Sample Essay: Health Service Organizations

Differences between a manufacturing and a health care services organisation.

At the outset the comparison might sound being akin to the idiom comparing “apples with oranges”, however it is pertinent to note that the management principles applied to any organisation are just as applicable to healthcare organisations as they are to manufacturing.

While there are similarities, there are numerous differences too. The first and the most apparent difference is the output of the two organisation types. Manufacturing organisations turn out semi-finished or finished product(s) that can be used either by the next processing organisation in the supply chain, or by the end user (Kalwani, 1995). Whereas healthcare service organisations tend to serve the end user and deliver services that are useful for either preventive health needs or for alleviating the breakdown of the health of individuals.

In the case of manufacturing organisations the payments for the products purchased is directly made by the purchasing organisation, while in the case of a healthcare organisation it is often made by a third party which can include insurance companies, or varying levels of government  or governmental organs as opposed to the actual end user of the services. Although sometimes end users may indeed pay for such services this tends to be an exception rather than the rule. In other words, whereas a manufacturing organization achieves its primary purpose and generated benefits through the production and selling of the products to a third party, the healthcare organization is primarily a service organization that accomplishes its primary purpose through the production and provision of services. (Daft, 2009, p.267) This is indeed a significant difference.

As stated, among the most predominant differences between the health care and manufacturing business is related to the nature of the products or services that each is associated with. In regard to the health care organizations, the services produced can be characterized as being of an intangible nature rather than a tangible product as is generally the case with the manufacturing companies who produce items as refrigerators, TV’s or clothes. The services of the health care industry are more abstract and consist of ideas and knowledge rather than a physical product. (Daft, 2009, p.267) In other words, the services of the health care industry are not an exact science but tend to vary depending on the unique case of the patient, the doctor’s assessment and other circumstances. There are always certain factors over which the health care industry has little control as any service industry that involves dealing with human nature. This is the basic premise of medical science, in that it is not an exact science. However, in a manufacturing organisation, the processes are well defined and unless any inputs or process parameters are changed, the output is more or less predictable. This makes manufacturing closer to being an exact science, than the ‘science of medicine’ and healthcare (Bell, 1996).

In manufacturing organisations, the process is focused on the production of increasing quantities of goods and typically, volume plays a role in reducing costs. Manufacturing companies have in fact established a system through which acocuntants can estimate the cost associated with a particular manufacturing volume.This is done through collecting information about volume and cost and using a least square method to develop an estimated regression equation relating volume and cost. (Anderson, 2009, p.505). This confirms that manufacturing is indeed an exact science that needs to be very pre-determined to guarantee the success of its products and business. On the other hand, in healthcare organisations, each individual customer is unique and needs to be approached uniquely which excludes the possibility of the presence of a similar determined system. However the inputs that go into providing health and medically related services again meet the volume play (James, Subbarao, & Lanier, 2008).

The inputs for the manufacturing of a particular product would not vary dramatically whereas the inputs for providing health/medical related care services would vary almost with every patient.

Market forces and economic situations dictate manufacturing organisations in general and their profitability is normally linked to the economic well being of the environment in which they operate (Capgemini, 2006, p.3). However, in the case of the consumers of healthcare organisations, people will most likely continue to fall sick and consequently need healthcare services irrespective of what is happening in the economy and in a way; the healthcare services organisations are more or less, well insulated against the variations in the economic environment and general economy (Kalwani, 1995).

Organisational Effectiveness and Efficiency.

The concept of organisational efficiency and effectiveness is a measure rooted in industrial times ([ICMR], 2003). This has led to the abundance of ways through which to measure the effectiveness of an organization in the contemporary world. Rational perspectives place an emphasis on goal attainment and focus on certain variables such as quality, productivity and efficiency. The link between organizational efficiency and effectiveness becomes clear when factors as interpersonal skills, morale and participant satisfaction are also taken into account. (Scott, 2003, p.134, 135). The concept of effectiveness became popular towards the end of twentieth century in America especially in view of the competitive advantage Japanese products had in delivering better value to consumers at a much lower cost. The difference between efficiency and effectiveness within an organization is established through this simple fact.

Despite the fact that these two terms (effective and efficiency) tend to be used as synonyms, they have and imply very different meanings, which are very specific (Angelo Kinicki, 2008). Efficiency is doing things right and effectiveness is doing the right things. It is the degree to which an organization manages to realize its goals. It is a very broad concept that includes several factors. For instance, it takes into consideration a range of variables both at the organizational and departmental level. Organizational effectiveness simply evaluates the extent to which certain goals are obtained whereas efficiency is a narrower concept that relates specifically to the internal workings of an organization. Organizational efficiency is also about the amount of resources used to produce a certain unit. This is why the management industry has become fascinated with continuously finding ways to increase efficiency. If an organization can achieve a certain amount of production with fewer resources than another, this would make the organization in question more efficient and thus more organized and effective in realizing one of the most predominant goals of a business: maximizing profit and minimizing the input. (Daft, 2007, p.70)

In practise, efficiency can be measured through for example the level of employee motivation which includes their respective willingness to do something well, fast and accurately. This could lead to increased quality and productivity within the health care industry. However, assuming that employees remain motivated throughout their career naturally is a mistake in enhancing the organization’s internal efficiency and increasing its long term effectiveness and ability to attain its goals of providing quality care to the patients.(p.33) Herzberg et al proposed that certain motivators (job factors) such as opportunities for achievement, progress, recognition and growth, can enhance the positive working attitude and increase job satisfaction and therefore efficiency. Measuring organizational efficiency and effectiveness in the health care industry can therefore be accomplished through the observation of the quality of input among the employees whose work in this particular type of the service sector is crucial to its success and growth. (The Health Care Manager, 2006, p. 5-6)

Two measures of effectiveness are used within my own health care organization. The effectiveness of a project, program or provision of a service is measured simply by the extent to which it manages to achieve the desired objective. The realization of a certain goal can be attained in several ways which is why  my private health care institution relies on two measures in its analysis in which the most effective approach, among several alternatives, is determined and selected. The measures analyse whether the preferred and selected alternative is capable of producing the maximum amount of performance at the minimum cost possible while second, achieving the maximum level of performance for a certain amount of cost. In other words efficiency and quality should not be traded for benefit. These are the two general measures that my private health care institution bases its analysis on and that Robbins and Barnwell backed up in their Organisational effectiveness and efficiency. Their approach to measurements in increasing organizational effectiveness serves to positively support my organization’s basic but nevertheless all-inclusive approach that combines between efficiency and effectiveness to guarantee the provision of a satisfactory service in a cost-effective way.

Robbins and Barnwell’s thesis is indirectly related to my organization’s measures in improving effectiveness. My private institution focuses on efficiency through tasking the employee’s share in the process in perspective while guaranteeing effectiveness through establishing quality and cost-effective goals that the employee is also responsible for. In other words, my private institution is structured around the notion that the happy worker is the productive worker and essential component in realizing the institution’s aims. Robbins and Barnwell hold on the other hand that better on-the-job performance is what increases job satisfaction and motivation. However, while this definition might not seem directly supportive of  my institution’s it is important to note that both authors recognized the negative aspects of work overload and lack of recognition on the employee’s satisfaction and productivity. Certain factors have to be met by the organization in question to guarantee effectiveness and efficiency among employees. This is affirmed by both authors regardless of their arguments about the more influential role on-the-job performance plays on the motivation level among employees. This simply means that the health sector should guard against overloading its employees. It should make sure that the needs of recognition, responsibility and growth are met and measure effectiveness as directly related to the mistakes or efficiency workers can make. This of course makes only sense. (The Health Care Manager, 2006, p.34)

Organisation, external influences, responses and open system.

The organisation that has been selected for reference in this essay is the third largest for profit healthcare services provider in the world and has over 50 facilities spread across Asia. It has to its credit, the largest hospital under one roof in Asia – over 1200 beds. The organisation was started with the purpose of providing affordable healthcare services of international standards within Asia (Walker, 2006). This was the primary mission when the organisation was setup 25 years ago. Thus far, the organisation and its facilities have met the initial purpose with which they were started, and to-date provides some of best and latest technologies in medical care. Quite a few of the facilities are Joint Commission International [JCI] accredited which itself is a reflection of the standards that are followed within the institution. Some of the JCI audit team members have gone on record saying that they were pleasantly surprised with the level of patient communication and commitment that the healthcare organisation has. JCI has praised several of the methods and processes adopted by the organisation in delivering patient care especially in the area of cardiovascular, stroke and stroke management (Apollo Health, 2010).

Most of the facilities of the organisation are spread across sprawling complexes and large areas of real estate. There are specific entry and exit patterns laid out for each of the category of visitors into the facility – the patients,  customers and their visitors, emergency and trauma care, ambulances, service providers and finally employees of the facility with excellent and well demarcated parking facilities. Typically, the structures are multilevel with modern elevators and occupant movement facilities. The intensive care areas are well isolated yet accessible and separate HVAC systems are provided. Extensive facility support systems and equipment provided with air-conditioning using latest air-filtration technologies and a variety of electrical back-up generation facilities.

Indeed, the importance of allied health and organizational structure to facilitating the outcomes of the institution have been recognized by several researchers discussed in the readings of Module 2. Organizational theorists and practitioners are interested in both the elements of organizational structure as well as the components that influence and determine that design. These include predominantly size, technology, environment and strategy. My organization has a different structure to a smaller sized one due to the larger number of employees, patients and services provided. The division of labour is conducted through more elaborate coordinating mechanisms manifested in the standardization of work processes and outputs to coordinate work activities. These attempts at coordination create a hierarchical efficient structure and lead therefore to more formalization and effectiveness. My institution is internally more centralized due its size in order for information and decisions to be processed more effectively. Organizational structure plays a dominant role in the management of any enterprise including a health care facility. Structure is thus a theoretical concept whose understanding and proper application can generate benefits in terms of increased efficiency and effectiveness within the institution. (p.76, 77)

There are a number of external factors that influence the functioning and profitability of the organisation. One of the major influencing factors that are important among them is the introduction of various initiatives of the government in the social health sector. The government can set the quality standards of the health care sector through for example supporting the establishment of clinical data reporting requirements and providing rewards to those institutions who manage to achieve higher levels of quality. (Institute of Medicine, 2003, p.1) It is vital to understand this in the Asian context where most of the health services are paid for by the individual and the concept of health insurance is relatively new phenomena and still in its infancy within the Asian continent. This makes the well being of citizens a main government concern. Locally various levels of government have brought in legislation towards meeting this concern. Another important external influencing factor is the general economic conditions. This is important for the organisation as approximately 12% of its annual turnover is generated from the executive/employee health-checks or medical screening programs that it conducts. In case of an economic downturn this tends to make the organisation vulnerable. The third major influencing factor is emerging competition.

The organisation at the corporate level has its own methods and approach to the above external influencing factors (most of which are beyond the scope of this essay).

The first and the most important influencing factor surround government legislation. Universal healthcare is after all a broad concept that has been implemented in different ways in Asia. Governmental legislation, regulation and taxation is a common approach through which health care is implemented in order to provide access to as many people as possible while setting minimum standards of provision. For example, New Zealand uses general tax revenues to finance its system. (Devlin, 2001) The organisation has realised that after the government’s recent introduction of free healthcare to certain segments of society this resulted in a sudden surge in demand. This is over and above the patients that come with a full payment structure or private medical insurance. This created high utilisation and low cash realisation to the organisation at the cost of extremely high levels of sophistication.

To handle this challenge and change in situation the organisation has dedicated one facility in a major city to be accessed by only government subsidised/referred patients while self paying customers or those with private medical coverage are declined service provision at this facility and are directed to other facilities within the healthcare organisation group. This clearly demarcates what is being provided free and what is being provided for full payment. This became essential as the government-funded patients’ nutritional requirements (meals) were/are not subsidised, and consequently had to pay to be served meals by the hospital nutrition service. Under existing policies of the hospital outside food is not allowed to be bought in for consumption by hospitalized patients. (Asia Pacific Management Forum) This created a dilemma for the hospital concerned as some patients who could afford food were served it, while other patient’s who could not, went without. This was becoming difficult to manage and bordered on discrimination. To avoid this and other related issues the organisation decided to separate facilities for different user categories.

A second contributing external influencing factor is the overall domestic economic situation. Approximately 12% of the turnover of the hospital comes from executive health checks that are primarily financed either by individuals themselves or by employers. In situations of economic downturn where there is an extreme squeeze on liquidity for individuals, the general tendency is to avoid periodic health checks if things appear to be working fine. (???reference???) Secondly, organisations tend to cut down on costs that are not imminently required. This has a serious impact on the organisation’s overall business. To tackle this situation, the organisation has hired a public relations agency that has a single point agenda of promoting preventive health care and highlighting the importance of continued health checks as a cost saving measure for organisations, as they tend to save on absenteeism and other indirect employee costs.

Healthcare is an emerging industry in Asia and many corporate facilities are emerging on a monthly basis that is challenging the organisations market position and market share. To handle this situation the organisation has adopted a twin pronged approach (Rouse, 2008). On one side the organisation has embarked on an aggressive publicity and marketing drive to deepen its hold on the Asian market. Meanwhile the senior management & board decided to invest in the latest technologies and education of employees on leading to improved methods of providing care. These two strategies when combined, the organisation hopes, will pave way for more industry leadership and increased market share.

Systems Type: The organisation can be described as being more of a closed system than an open system. This is because of over a period of almost three decades the methods of working and delivery have been framed and are expected to be ‘religiously’ adhered to, notwithstanding that several of the senior management/board positions are held by family members.

Even in face of extreme changes of the external influencing factors, very rigid systems exist to ensure that such changes are taken on record and are deliberated over long periods by various management structures and committees within the healthcare organisation as a whole, which eventually filter to the organisations executive board. The deliberations are conducted in extremely stringent conditions, and ultimately, decisions are extremely centralised and are limited to very few individuals within the organisations senior management structure. This makes the response to external stimuli very restrictive (Heil, 2010).

Such an approach of being a closed system is a great disadvantage to the organisation as the response to external environmental stimuli is very limited and often too lengthy that allows more agile competitors to indulge in very fluid tactics against the organisation, to which the healthcare organisation is slow to respond (Heil, 2010).


(ICMR), I. C. (2003). Introduction to Organizational Behaviour. Hyderabad: ICFAI Center for Management Research (ICMR).

Angelo Kinicki, R. K. (2008). Organizaitional Behavior, 3rd edition. Arizona State Univeristy.

Apollo Health City. (2010). About Us. Retrieved April 09, 2010, from Apollo Health City: http://www.apollohealthcity.com

Bell, W. F. (1996). Organizational Development – Behavioral Science Interventions for Organizational Improvement (5th Ed). New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India.

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Heil, K. (2010). Encyclopaedia of Management: Open and Closed systems. Retrieved 12           April    2010 from http://www.enotes.com/management-encyclopedia/open-closed-   systems

James, J.J., Subbarao, I. & Lanier, W.L. (2008). Improving the Art and Science of Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness. Mayo Clinic Proceedings (pp. 559-562). Proquest.

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Rouse, W. B. (2008). Health Care as a Complex Adaptive System: Implications for Design and Management. National Academy of Engineering of the National Academies , 1-5.

Walker, D. M. (2006). Non-profit, For Profit and Government Hospitals – Uncompensated Care and Other Community Benefits. Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives. United States Government Accountability Office.

The Study of Health Services Organizations is Relevant to Nursing Profession Practice

Health services organizations are extremely sensitive organizations whose services are indeed essential to guarantee social order and stability within any society. It is interesting to note that despite the importance of the health care industry in the lives of all people, most individuals do not desire going to the hospital. There is a sense of fear from this institution, a fear linked to the ideas of sickness and pain associated with being a patient. This is the general human mentality. However, regardless of how much one might resent the concept of the hospital, most people find themselves forced to pay this place a visit at least a few times throughout their lives. Health care providers are however not the same even if generally grouped together as a consequence of their common similarity: taking care of the patient. Health Service Organizations are financial and managerial organizations whose inner structure needs to be effective and efficient to provide the patient with the required and expected level of quality care. The study of the diverse facets of Health Service Organizations, including for example employees satisfaction, financial management and organizational structure, is essential to the enhancement of this crucial social sector. This idea is especially understood well when the segments of the Health Service sector are taken into perspective. This includes for example the nursing profession whose effectiveness, well-being and advancement is closely tied to the general assessment and study of the functioning of Health Service Organizations.

Certain generalizations can be made regarding the health service providers. As with any business, health service providers can be classified into two broad categories: non-profit and profit oriented institutions. The difference between these two types of institutions is indeed significant and very important in understanding the kind of hierarchical structure to be found within any kind of health care organization that belongs to either type. Profit oriented organizations function with a sole purpose of generating higher profits for the stake holders, while not for profit organizations function with the sole purpose of effectively delivering services. However, whatever the primary motive of the organization the fundamental effort is same – to stretch every dollar that enters the organization. In the case of non-profit institutions it is nevertheless very important for the organization to stretch every dollar while providing the best possible quality of service at all times. The focus is thus above all on the service and the patient rather than the profit.

Nursing care is very important within the provision of health care services to patients in hospitals. This is very simple to understand. Patients can reach a doctor directly if the problem was the simple need for an assessment. However, nursing care is what drives patients to enter a hospital on a 24 hour basis. The attention patients receive from this type of health care professionals is an integral part of the healing process which highlights the need to dwell further about the different aspects of health service organizations for the proper assessment of the most effective methods through which to improve the nursing sector.

What is however interesting to observe is the fact that despite the importance of the care nursing personnel provide to patients they are nevertheless not incorporated within the organizational hierarchy of the health service organization. The reasons for the obstruction in their status within the health care industry at large are indeed varied. For example, one of the reasons why nursing personnel’s growth is limited is related to the absence or decreased understanding of the broad organizational and management principles within health service organizations. The study of this facet of this particular service industry could thus lead to the improvement of the nursing sector. Hence it becomes important for a nursing professional to learn, understand and practice larger management and organizational theories for personal growth. This is also important for the growth of the organization. It is important for everyone in the organization to understand larger organizational perspectives and priorities to be able to effectively deliver the services required while staying within the financial budget of the organization. The accomplishment of this goal would serve to transform the organization into an effective and efficient entity.

The nature of healthcare organizations is very different from any other organization. This is directly related to its delivery of a type of services that play a direct role in the lives of the patients. In addition to this, a typical healthcare services organization is reliant on human labor forces regardless of how automated or technologically advanced it might be. It is indeed very easy to allow a machine to conduct human work. However, this would be impossible in the health care generally and the nursing care specifically. Take the example of the dressing of a wound. Any nurse can perform this task which requires not only knowledge but also attentiveness and sensitivity regarding the patient. A nurse professional is able to combine between these requirements whereas a machine can simply not. Therefore, it is complicated to trust technology with taking fully over human work. The key to advancement lies then in the specialization and sophistication of the profession itself through research and analysis of the components necessary for the enhancement of the health care services that nurses provide. In short, the nature of the health care services organizations is based on its reliance on humans.

In addition to its foundation on the basis of human intensive labor, health service organizations are also characterized by their dependence on expertise for success. Indeed, expertise is simply equitable to professionalism, efficiency and effectiveness within this service industry. Expertise is highly valued and promoted through for example long term internships in the nursing care. Expertise is also limited again to a few individuals which makes these individuals highly desirable. However, regardless of how experienced and knowledgeable a doctor or nurse might be, he is still reliant on technology to be able to make an accurate diagnosis. Technology and expertise are woven together within the health service industry to provide efficient care to patients which makes their study and promotion on a continuous basis very important. This is also where the manufacturing and health service industry’s roads cross.

Time is of the essence in the health care industry. While a few seconds do not make a great difference in the manufacturing business it could be the difference between life and death for a patient. Taking this aspect into consideration it is hence important to rely on efficient technology to make the most accurate assessments and offer the best treatment in the shortest amount possible as a health care professional. Again in a health care services organization, human skills form an important part in deciding the positioning of different resources at different locations. For example a nurse who has no experience in certain bedside procedures cannot be charged with taking care of an intensive care unit. She needs to be first adequately trained, tested and only then be posted. Similarly a ICU nurse cannot be posted in a non ICU situation, this will be a drain and waste of resources.  So even the case of the simple postings of duties, which is more a mundane personnel department task, becomes a complicated issue that demands an understanding of skill inventory of each individual (Keerti, 2006). Again in the same situation the nursing positions are typically varied in nature with more than one supervisor and peer relationship for each nurse on duty. A typical nurse on duty is expected to be an effective assistant and report in a timely and accurate manner to the duty doctors, visiting specialists and surgeons, the floor coordinators and the nursing superintendent. A nurse professional is also expected to maintain excellent working relationships with the pharmacy and stores personnel.

All the above cited challenges and more call for a formal understanding of human resource structures and dimensions,. This only underlines again the importance and need for the comprehensive study of organizations relevant to the improvement of the work of a nursing professional.

Organizational efficiency and effectiveness has been an issue that most managers have attempted to comprehend fully in order to maximize the material benefit without risking the quality of the services provided. Efficiency can be simply defined as doing things right while effectiveness can be understood as the conduct of the right things. For instance it is very efficient to be able to use generic paracetamol with patients. Since it is a generic medicine, the cost is less and hence more efficient. But effectiveness is answering the question if paracetamol is the right drug for a patient. In a healthcare services provider scenario it may be necessary at times to sacrifice efficiency to be effective. The patient’s needs have to be addressed as his condition is part of the treatment procedure. Taking all these factors into account the question of effectiveness and efficiency within the health care sector becomes even more complicated. The stress is also great for a health care professional because not being effective or efficient enough could mean the loss of a life or at the least, its damage through physical impairment. The services offered by professionals, by nurses, have to be effective. This is not open to question or negotiation. How to carry this task out is nevertheless open to further debate and analysis in addition to research.

The nursing professionals world over use the concept of a nursing pathway while delivering services to patients. Thereby, they and have their specific sets of practice while dealing with patients to be able to deliver their services effectively. These are specific SoPs (standard operating procedures) that are used in every given situation (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Office of Occupational Statistics and Employment Projections, 2009). These SoPs are formulated over the course of years of practice and improvisation and finally become standardized in an institution / organization. SoPs are designed to be effective as well as efficient.

It is vital to study the principles of a healthcare services provider organization to be able to understand specific issues that are unique to these institutions. For instance the mix of hierarchical and matrix structures and the grasp of human skill inventory is critical. Now understanding the wider HRM principles and appreciating the uniqueness of the healthcare services organization becomes important for a nursing professional to be able to effectively deliver patient care services without sacrificing organizational priorities and the human needs of the colleagues.

Another very important area of cost management is the availability of material at hand. This can be achieved through the maintenance of adequate stocks in the central store for the delivery of services for a nursing professional (Christopher, (1997)). For instance sterile wet swabs are necessary in volumes on a daily basis for a nursing professional. Different syringes are required which means that different medications are required in the stock. This  suggests that a nursing professional needs to appreciate and understand the fundamental principles of inventory management and supply chain to be able to effectively stock while not increasing the inventory cost and at the same time not risking stock outs. Providing a course for nursing personnel that addresses these concepts could go a long way in increasing efficiency of conduct and therefore organizational effectiveness.

While the work of a nursing professional seems to be isolated and totally insulated from the external environment, it is important for a nursing professional to actually understand and appreciate both the external and internal environments to be able to work effectively and deliver the best of care to the patients while protecting the interests of the organization (Department of Health and Human Services’ Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation , 2003).

It is thus relevant to conclude from the aforementioned that the nursing professionals are impacted by external political, economic, social, technological and legal environments and the developments therein. The changes in organizational policies, SoPs, decisions, structures as well as the alterations in the management serve all to impact the nursing professional.

External political influences may play a very limited role in the nursing practice, but have however a direct impact on the practice itself. For instance a legislative restriction on the nature of practice impacts the nurses directly. To illustrate this further, let’s dwell on another example. If it is decided that, in view of the acute nursing shortage, it is appropriate to have nursing schools that have shorter training cycles instead of the generic 4 year degree program this is likely to have a large impact leading to a huge sudden surge in the supply of the nursing professionals who are legally allowed to practice but professionally less competent and therefore less efficient. While this might seem farfetched, it is an example of how political and legislative controls can affect a nursing professional.

It is important from an organizational view-point as well as a personal view point that a nursing professional remains updated about the technological improvisations in his field. For instance there might be new invented medicines that bring about improved and more effective results.  Remaining up to date through for example courses is thus important for a nursing professional. There might be newer instruments that can make the nurses’ life easier. It is thus vital that a typical nursing professional is schooled on a continuous basis throughout his career as the medical field is a changing field.

As an organization progresses in time, it learns from its own experiences and keeps modifying the principles and policies that it applies. For instance an organization might decide to change the work timings because of certain external developments. The work timing is an internal factor totally internal to the organization. A nursing professional is expected to keep to the new timings and adhere to the changed organizational policies at all times.

All these changes and developments in the external and internal environments of a health care service provider has a direct impact on the nursing professionals which means that the nursing professionals are not at all insulated from such developments. It is very important for a nursing professional to be cognizant of such developments and adhere and adapt to the changed environments to be able to survive and grow in the profession. This is why research related to health organizations influences the work of nursing professionals.


Christopher, M. a. ((1997)). Managing Logistics in Fashion Markets. International Journal of Logistics Management , 8 (2, p. 63 – 74).

Department of Health and Human Services’ Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation . (2003). The Future Supply of Long-Term Care Workers in relation to The Aging Baby Boom Generation. Washington: Department of Health and Human Services.

Keerti, B. D. (2006, October 24). Head Training, Apollo Health City. (Rajyalakshmi, Interviewer)

Moore, D. (1992). Human Watching.

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Office of Occupational Statistics and Employment Projections. (2009, December 17). Social and uman Service Assistants. Retrieved January 17, 2010, from United States Department of Labor: http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos059.htm

17 Feb 2010

Sample Essay: Business Plan for a Startup Business

A business startup requires a lot of thoughts and strategies. Whether it is in the manufacturing industry or the service industry, every minute detail of the business prospect in terms of its profitability to its competitors must be studied and evaluated to understand the gravity of the venture and the risks involved. Thus, a proper business plan has to be developed and tested against the current market to understand its viability.

A business plan will only help to develop and improve the proposed business. It helps the proposed to understand the business, define what they want from the business, understand customer needs, and how to optimize the proposed business.

The first stage of the business plan is to focus on the basic parameters of the proposed business, like constructing the mission statement, identifying the keys to success, undertake market analysis, and create a break-even analysis to give the proposed a critical head start toward understanding the business.

However, startups are not as simple as it seems, for in the manufacturing industry, one needs to address product development, packaging, retail fittings and signage, office equipment, website development and maintenance, and the initial capital to run the show before actual returns are generated. Unless one has the wherewithal to support these expenses on their own, they will then have to look to banks to avail loans. In the service industry, the level of investment is comparatively lesser, and therefore not much thought needs to go into the financial aspect of the startup capital.

An ideal platform for a startup business would be to develop the plan in stages to meet the proposed business goal. Adding a basic sales and expense forecast will help understand profit and loss, so vital in business (Berry, 2008).

There has been a drastic change in the way logistics operate today. Today, logistics is about economics of scope than economics of scale. What this means is that more and more companies are now concerned about the scope for development rather than volume. Quality is what is foremost on the agenda of logistic operators.

Business is characterized as evolving away from the earlier objective of single exchange transactions towards a long-term buyer-seller relationship of mutual benefit. These strategic relationships generate managed supply chains.

Today, logistics involves the cooperation through economic networks for mutual benefits. In other words, individualism has given way to collectiveness. That’s right! Logistics is about total solution under one roof. This way, companies manage their business with lesser paperwork, less tracking and negotiations, and shared responsibilities. What brought about this transformation? Consumers; that’s right! Consumers today seek greater product variety at high quality level and obviously, reliability. Product availability is mandatory. Thus, the huge containers that used to carry high volumes of consignments have now been cut to size to accommodate quicker and easier handling, thereby accommodating faster and efficient services, plus continuity. In order to attain such professionalism, global corporate houses have become centers of corporate structures, centered on the principles of co-operation and partnership; outsourcing of logistics functions.

Globalization and outsourcing has opened new vistas for logistic operators in relatively all areas of operations, be it shipping lines, forwarders, terminal operators, road haulers, or rail operators. The integration of these services under a single umbrella is what corporate managers seek today. Together, this integration provides new value-added services as an integrated package.

Executive Summary

The strategy process is quite intriguing, yet exhilarating. Every company has its share of researchers who respond to the strategy process challenge by identifying certain traits that can either bring moments of exhilaration or disillusion. Disillusion comes from the often grotesque outcome of their effort leading to an outcome that is far from impressive. A lot of empirical research goes into the strategy process; large, often heroic and distinctive, collection of data is required to explore the possibility of linking strategy process and decision-makings, and finally to performance. The potentially revealing and insightful information comes at a cost, a cost that can nip the career perspective of the researcher, if it crashes. However, the outcome, though comprehensive, can be complex, messy, and notoriously fragile.

Nonetheless, a significant part of the research is characterized by controversial normative orientation; strategic change or protecting and extending existing strategies, as Chakravarthy (2003) said. Such outcomes remain highly influential (if successful) until they are outdated, out fashioned, or shown to be hazardous.

In short, a prescription that would guarantee supra-normal profits consistently would de-facto become the strategic management field’s own version of the proverbial money machine (Szulanski et.al, 2


This paper proposes to illustrate the advantage that introduction of information technology has in leveraging the competitive advantage in the courier industry. The business is set to operate from Minneapolis, and with so many courier companies operating around the city, it becomes imperative for the startup courier business to introduce MIS to enhance and beat competition. Minneapolis-Saint Paul area has many courier companies of repute. Names of OnTrac Courier Services, LLC, General Delivery Service Incorporated, Blazing Saddles INC, Edina Couriers LLC, DHL Express, Dash Delivery Service, On Time Delivery Service, and Quicksilver Express Courier to name a few, are well established names in the courier business, and any startup courier business will have to either match them in service or beat them with technology to make any mark here. It is with this objective in mind that the startup courier company that is proposed will incorporate the best of technology to leverage competition (Citysearch, 2008).


The courier industry is highly competitive, and consumers have become far more knowledgeable, and this makes the industry far more complex to run. Unless customer service is enhanced, there is every chance of the business losing important clientele and depleted database. To enhance service and keep abreast competition, the new Courier business will introduce the best of technology to enhance performance through tracking and execution. Since a lot of important documents and consignments are routed to destinations to save time, courier companies need to offer fast, reliable and foolproof service to them. This is what the introduction of new technology will offer, and sought for the new startup company

Keys to Success

As a startup, the first priority would be to vision the future to create a successful business strategy. The vision is something that is proposed of an industry that it must create, shape and transform over time. For this, the business leaders need to seek input from the enterprise, customers, employees and business partners. Earlier, many business houses defined their products and strategies to attract customers, but this has now changed. Today, concentration is on what values they have created for customers. Therefore business must address customer needs and demands rather than using their product or service and enforcing it on the customer. Greater competition, globalization and faster imitation have caused many products or services to become commoditized. Customers are far more knowledgeable and demanding than earlier days. They have access to more information through new channels such as the Internet. They are more knowledgeable and discerning than ever before and demand exceptional value. Customer relationships have come to the fore.

Peter Drucker (2001) once wrote that there was only one valid definition of a business purpose, and that was to create a customer. What the business thinks it produces is not of importance, it is what the customer thinks he is buying, what he considers as value, that determines the present and future of the business[1].

Similarly, Adrian Slywotzky (1996) in Value Migration[2] said that a business strategy in never complete without addressing its customers, define and differentiate its services, define the tasks it will perform, configure its resources, and creates utility for the customers.

IT related programs to improve and increase customer services are mandatory as well.

Company Summary

As a startup courier company in the Minneapolis area, the company has great business potential, as the twin cities of Minneapolis-Saint Paul metropolitan area is home to many industries and business. The new company will incorporate some of the latest IT solutions to beat competition. It will put in place a strong supply chain management that will provide real-time visibility and control over changes occurring in the supply chain industry. The technological development is such that, the supply chain industry today has the availability of solutions for Supply Chain Planning (SCP), Supplier Relationship Management (SRM), Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), and Business Intelligence (BI). This is what will help the new startup company develop its business and beat competition (Oracle Corporation, 2005).

Product Description

Logistics refers to the systematic management of various activities required to move a product or from the production/manufacture plant to the customer. It encompasses more than just movement of goods; it involves timing, cost, location, availability, and support systems. With globalization, competition at regional and international level has become even more intense, and cost and availability are prime concern for the end-user. Most companies therefore are forced to rethink their logistic operations to maintain stability on all fronts.

While we saw that in the 1980s and 1990s companies tried to out beat competition through improved production and reduced costs (cheap labor being one), technological advancement negated this advantage and forced companies to look for alternatives. Time is a constraint in today’s business world. Time spent on execution of orders has led to legal entanglement and business loss. This is the biggest worry in the world of supply-chain management. There is a growing demand for time-based logistics management, where customers are increasingly sophisticated and value time as money. To ensure quick and efficient streamlined flow of goods from the producer/supplier to the customer, companies now track factors that cause delay and try to eliminate them (Kent N. Gourdin, p.9, 2001).

Efficiency and durability are trade mark of a successful logistic operation. Using state-of-the-art network modeling tools to determine how well the distribution network serves the customers, logistics should include, inbound to outbound facilities, inventory, and service, employing all modes of transport (air, sea, rail, and road). Another important aspect of logistics is to analyze variables, such as inventory cost, time-in-transit, and service by product, industry, and location (Dynamic Logistics, 2007).[3]

The Internet, e-tailing and electronic commerce play an important role in logistics and their importance can be traced to dramatic changes in the corporate world of supply chain management. Together, they have gained importance in bringing gains and sustaining competitive advantage. Of the technology options, Logistics Execution Systems (LES) plays a vital role in the order fulfillment and product delivery.

Companies need to meet challenges, and to do this successfully, they spend time and money developing solutions in-house that will enable them to accurately identify, track, manage and report on material flow as well as efficiently allocate resources to related tasks throughout the pipeline. In order to achieve this, companies need to focus on:

Centralized distribution centers

Channel-specific distribution center design

Repackaging, labeling and pricing at the distribution point

A move to more conventional or hybrid warehousing with on-line, real-time computer-based warehouse management systems

Compliance as well as supplier labeling and price marking

Increased use of standard bar code for product, packaging and ship container identification to facilitate warehouse management, shipment tracking and POS transaction monitoring

Supplier’s retail store level inventory (VMI).

Trading partner communication

Growing use of decision support, modeling and simulation tools

Employee empowerment through tools to increase operational efficiency and productivity

In warehousing operations, an increasing number of companies have grown cautious about investments in large scale, opting instead for more flexible, fully conventional approaches or hybrids that combine mechanized and conventional alternatives (Hill, p.2-3, 2003).

Initially, LES were introduced to permit real-time material tracking and resource management in conventional warehouses, using bar codes for material tracking, a broader array of radio data terminals for industrial applications, and a dramatically improved computer performance at lower cost and a variety of software tools to relational data base management.

Warehouse Management Systems had clearly come of age. Industry leaders began to see results as revenue grew at better than 20% annually and initiated programs to add functionality in the areas of labor (LMS) and transportation (TMS) management. LES (logistics execution systems) emerged as the new acronym for systems that managed material and data flow in the supply chain (Hill, p.4, 2003).

There are three basic forms of outsourcing with regard to supply chain management. These are other methods used to improve production, quality and inventory. They are:

The outsourcing of the production of components. Global Corporate develop long-term relationships with a number of suppliers on the basis of mutual trust.

Value-Added Logistics (VAL). VAL implies that production and distribution of a supply chain integrates into one.

The outsourcing of transportation, warehousing and distribution. Third-party Transportation, warehousing and distribution activities are fast growing outsourcing businesses.

Though the above methods have been successfully used and managed by a few corporate, outsourcing of transport, warehouse and distribution should be the ideal situation to minimize capital investment and ensure more professionalism.

Market Segmentation

A supply chain involves the movement of raw materials from a supplier to the production house, which is then processed to form the final product, before being sent to the customer (who placed the order) through a distribution system. As mentioned earlier, with the advent of computers and software to run them, it has become easy to track the movement of shipments from the origin to their final destination. Any organization that is in the service, maintenance and production sector rely on quick supply and replacement of spares and parts for their business success. Though the functions are more or less the same, supply chains vary depending on the size of the organization and the type of business they are in. Customer satisfaction is paramount. In a highly competitive world of computer hardware manufacture, satisfying a customer is utmost paramount for success. Scheduled deliveries, dispatch of spares and add-ons on time are paramount to the success of that business. Should a customer find his/her business affected due to non-availability of spares, or delayed replacement of machinery parts in their workshop, they will not only cancel their order, but would in all likelihood change the supplier for delayed shipment.

Almost all industries use couriers these days to stay competitive and because of this, all courier companies, must be able to provide foolproof and reliable service to stay in front. Be it the computer manufacturers or their suppliers, heavy or light machinery manufactures or suppliers, office equipment manufacturers and suppliers, service units and so on, they depend on time-bound services to beat competition.

Competitive Edge

Transportation eats into profits considerably. As in the case of location, transportation costs can be minimized by having the distribution centers close to customer’s access. The same can be said in terms of production and spares as well. Air transport is quick, but at the same time expensive, in comparison to shipping by boat or rail. Yet using sea or rail often means maintaining higher levels of inventory in-house to meet quick demands by the customer (Rockford Consulting, 1999).

Some 30% of the cost of a product is encompassed by transportation; therefore it is imperative to use the correct transport mode.

There has been a drastic change in the way seaports operate today. The era gone by Fordism ‘Economies of scale’ has been replaced by ‘Economies of scope’. This post-Fordism change has seen a revolution in logistic movement. Subsequently, the port authorities who were hitherto the ‘bosses’, found themselves at the receiving end. Today, logistics talks of organizations cooperating through economic networks for mutual benefits. In other words, individualism has given way to collectiveness. Consumers today seek greater product variety at high quality and reliability. Availability is mandatory. Thus, huge containers are now cut to size to accommodate faster and efficient services. In order to attain such professionalism, global corporate houses have become centers of corporate structures, centered on the principles of co-operation and partnership; outsourcing of logistics functions.

The outsourcing of transportation, warehousing and distribution is an appropriate way to cut transportation costs. Third-party Transportation, warehousing and distribution activities are fast growing outsourcing businesses. Globalization and outsourcing has opened new vistas for shipping lines, forwarders, terminal operators, road haulers, rail operators and barge operators. Together they provide new value-added services as an integrated package. Improvements in terminal and landside operations are required to lower the cost on door-to-door servicing and savings at sea, one reason why shipping companies are expanding their scope to include terminal operations and hinterland transportation. Customer service is most important for any business. In order to achieve this, easy product reach is necessary. This can be provided using multi-level mode of transport to reach the customer’s destination (Christopher M, 1992).

Strategy process can be defined as the identification or uncovering of connections between the social, cognitive and political processes by which strategies can be formulated to make firms perform (Szulanski et.al, 2006).

Wireless technology, such as @Par combines with ERP and WMS systems. This technology enables clients for pick-up, put away, receive, deliver, dispatch, cycle count, and cart management functions, the lifeline of the supply chain business. It is built on a robust platform that integrates through XML. It has advanced features like instant messaging, speech recognition; RFID tags, and uses a wireless LAN to transmit data in real time.

IristaWare system prioritizes, directs and confirms activities based upon the real-time conditions and constraints of space, equipment, and inventory. This software enables companies to automate their inbound order processes, inventory control, and outbound distribution activities using RF, barcode, and auto-ID technology. From advanced ship notice (ASN) processing to lot and serial number maintenance, iristaWarehouse tracks and controls the movement of both raw materials and finished goods through the distribution network. Advanced functionality including yard and dock management, value added processing, cross-dock fulfillment, and wave planning provide the tools to increase throughput while reducing operating costs (irista.com).

Monitoring and analyzing daily demand signals creates an accurate forecast in inventory and transportation. Real-Time Forecasting (RTF) helps reduce forecast errors substantially leading to reduced and expedited shipments and transportation costs.

In can also be noted that how today’s standards-based modeling, monitoring, connectivity, and process integration tools that comprise IBM’s Process Integration suite are allowing companies to implement process automation components with greater speed and agility than ever before.(Noel, Supply Chain Management).

Decisions pertaining to supply chain management cover long-term and short-term goals. Strategic decisions come under the jurisdiction of corporate policies, while operational decisions deal with day-to-day activities and problems within the organization. Therefore, an organization normally structures their supply chain on a long-term basis, while at the same time, focus on the day-to-day activities. In order to succeed, corporate heads need to assess the market demands, customer service, transport considerations, and pricing constraints to structure the supply chain effectively. These factors are inconsistent, and thus have to be monitored regularly to avoid harm.

Structuring a supply chain also requires an understanding of the demand patterns, service level requirements, distance considerations, and cost estimation, among others. These factors too are highly volatile, and can affect deliveries and supplies. Thus, this is an additional parameter that needs constant monitoring.

Sales Strategy

Innovation is the secret behind success and failure. By treading known strategies or ideas, one can never achieve the kind of success envisaged by them. It takes more than just hard work to beat competition. Innovation makes all the difference. Considering the various technological advantages available today to offer efficient, safer and fast services, the new startup courier company can with limited resources be able to outsource a major part of its services and still end up with a sizable business volume that hurts competition.

Transportation eats up a major chunk of a producer’s profit, and if a solution is provided to ease the tension and at the same time, reduce their overheads, it will become an instant success. This is what is required by the startup courier company to concentrate on.

Management Summary

With the introduction of new technology to support operations, tracking and routing of consignments will be easy and clients will be able to get prompt delivery schedules and confirmations, enabling them to plan their strategies to minimize costs. In today’s world of globalization, the movement of spares and important machines are routed through couriers because of their worth. Couriers engage in land, air and sea transport to complete of shipments based on their value and size. By tie-ups, the company will be able to minimize their operational costs, but enjoy handsome returns from their association with partners. This will enhance profits and help the startup courier company to beat competition. The new technology will decrease manpower and operational overheads, while at the same time, streamlining deliveries.

Financial Plan

The Financial plan must draw on the following to derive the profit and loss statement and the revenue generated by the courier business for the first year of operations.

Company Name:

Income Statement for the year ending _____________ [Month]


Revenue: Services
Total Revenue Generated: Services

Revenue: Miscellaneous
Bank Interest
Total Revenue: Miscellaneous

Revenue: Expenses

Direct Costs:
Equipment Rentals
Salary (Owner)
Total Direct Costs

General And Administration
Accounting and Legal Fees
Advertising and Promotion
Bad Debts
Bank Charges
Depreciation and Amortization
Office Rent
Credit Card Commissions
Credit Card Charges
Total General And Administration

Total Expenses

Net Income before Income Taxes

Income Taxes

Net Income


(Add a row of monthly headings to cover one year period)

Cash Revenues
Revenue from Service Charges
Cash Disbursements
Cash Payments to Franchisee Partners
Management Draws
Salaries and Wages
Promotion Expense Paid
Professional Fees Paid
Rent/Mortgage Payments
Insurance Paid
Telecommunications Payments
Utilities Payments
Total Cash Disbursements

Reconciliation of Cash Flow
Opening Cash Balance
Closing Cash Balance:           Total ash Revenues – Total Cash Disbursements
(Susan Ward, About.com).

Profit and Loss


While starting a courier company may be simple, there is more to a company that sustains itself in the face of competition and those that fizzle out without a fight. A lot of study and planning is required to undertake a project that has numerous competitors fighting over the spoils. This report just about summarizes the basic needs to understand the market requirement and what are the parameters to be addressed to launch a competitive courier company in Minneapolis area. With a huge industrial and business base, Minneapolis offers good opportunities to well-established and unique service providers. The basic necessity of any service-oriented company is to address the needs of the customer, for, the customer is king.  Innovation and the use of technology such as MIS and RTF (Real-Time Forecasting) and Wireless technology, such as @Par combined with ERP and WMS systems help courier companies to track and record the movement of consignments. With globalization, courier business has gone overboard and more and more practices are being incorporated to beat competition. Logistics is an area of wide acceptance, as machinery and equipment find their way across borders to ease production and quality costs. This has made many courier companies to expand their business into multi-mode logistic operations with partnerships to ease huge capital investments.

The new startup courier company that is sought to be made up looks at including logistics in a big way to beat existing business in the Minneapolis area.


Berry T, Bplans: A Simpler Plan for Startups, http://articles.bplans.com/index.php/business-articles/writing-a-business-plan/a-simpler-plan-for-start-ups/

Szulanski G, Porac J, and Doz Y, Strategy Process: Introduction to the Volume, The Challenge of Strategy Process Research, 2006, http://www.rotman.utoronto.ca/~baum/v22_intro.pdf  iristaWare, http://www.irista.com

Jasmine Noel, BPM and SOA: Better Together, IBM-sponsored white paper by analyst, a founding member of Ptak, Noel & Associates, http://all-free-info.com/supply-chain-management

Christopher M., 1992, Logistics and supply chain management: Strategies for reducing costs and improving services (London: Pitman Publishing).

Citysearch, 2008,  http://twincities.citysearch.com/yellowpages/directory/Twin_Cities_MN/20/532/page1.html

Rockford Consulting Group Ltd, RCG University, Supply Chain Management, 1999, http://rockfordconsulting.com/scm.htm

Oracle Corporation, Measuring Supply Chain Excellence, March 2005 AMR Research report “How Best to Measure Your Supply Chain Today, http://www.oracle.com/newsletters/updates/2005-10-21/supply-chain-management/measure-supply-chain-effectiveness.html

Kent N. Gourdin, 2001, Global Logistics Management: A Competitive Advantage for the New Millennium, Blackwell Publishing, Google Book Search

John M. Hill, 2003, White Paper, Logistics Execution Systems Perspective, Supply Chain Forum, www.idii.com/wp/ESYNC_LES_Perspective.pdf

Dynamic Logistics, Services, 2000-2010, www.dynamiclogistics.com

Susan Ward, About.com, Small Business: Writing the Business Plan, http://sbinfocanada.about.com/cs/businessplans/a/bizplanfinanc_4.htm

[1] Peter Drucker, 2001, The Practice of Management, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, p.35

[2] Adrian J. Slywotzky, 1996, Value Migration, Howard Business School Press, Boston, p.4

[3] Dynamic Logistics, Services, www.dynamiclogistics.com

21 Oct 2009

Sample Essay: Potential Energy Storage: Wind Turbine-Pump Interference and Project Liability


The wind energy has already been a long established technology. There are various hindrances to this technology however that made it unattractive for residential and industrial usage. The rise of the oil prices in today’s environment however meant that the alternative energy sources have to be explored. This paper is meant to give an analysis on the technical feasibility of the wind power and to overcome the flaw of the wind power source which is the unpredictability of power generation. The use of the hydro generator is included in order to eliminate this flaw. The resulting calculations are shown to provide a point of examination and also basis for further improvements in the idea proposed. The financial returns to the project is also indicated to give an idea of how desirable the project will be to the household owner that will invest in this power source.

Considering a water turbine of electrical power of 5W (Values taken from fig 2. of a manufacturer’s water turbine products.) The water flow of about 44 liter/sec is required through a pipe of 170mm in diameter flowing from a 21 m head.

The electrical demand of an average household might be within the reach of the wind turbine to supply but the level of supply is not constant. In addition to this, the demand for the electrical power reaches a high level of power at certain time and then drops suddenly. This presents the average household user with power stability concerns. This is the reason why wind power system is paired with the hydro electric generation system in order to act as a stand-by power source as well as extra power input when there is no power coming in actively from the wind turbine. The hydro system is also intended to absorb the excess wind power at certain times. The overall effect is intended to be able to absorb the excess energy generated at certain times there is ample wind power.

The nature of hydro power generation however is affected greatly by the ability of the wind powered turbines to pump the water to the elevated heights of the reservoir. The efficiency of the turbine motor as well as the power produced by the wind turbine itself will have to be considered in order to arrive at the approximate amount of the water needed to be stored so that there is plenty of power available when the demand for electricity suddenly jumps right back. The efficiency of the pump as well as the tube used to pump the water back to the water tank is also a big factor in the smooth flow of the whole system.

Now regarding the power generated from the wind turbine we note that with wind speed of 5 m/s (average in the area) we get from 5 kW wind turbine ( Fig 6) an output of approximately 23.94kWh which is more than the estimated average household consumption of about 11kWh – 16 kWh per day on an average household. The number of kilowatt hours generated can increase in proportion to the wind speed and therefore does not necessitate the purchase of a bigger wind turbine. The household user can either add one more turbine or choose a bigger turbine only when financially constrained.

Figure 2

Pumps: Data taken from Wilo manufacturing featuring stainless steel water pumps intended for boosting pressure. Ideal for elevating the water from water reservoir to the elevated water tank intended for storing the excess energy generated at off peak energy usage by the household.

Wilo-Comfort-Vario COR-1 MVIE/GE

Dynamic name Name Nominal size 1-phase / 3-phase Rated power
COR-1 MVIE 5202-GE 3~ 400 V 7,5 kW
COR-1 MVIE 3203-GE DN65 PN 16 3~ 400 V 7,5 kW
COR-1 MVIE 3202-GE DN65 PN 16 3~ 400 V 5,5 kW
COR-1 MVIE 1607-6-GE Rp 2 PN 16 3~ 400 V 7,5 kW
COR-1 MVIE 1605-6-GE Rp 2 PN 16 3~ 400 V 5,5 kW
COR-1 MVIE 1603-6-2G-GE Rp 2 PN 16 3~ 400 V 4 kW
COR-1 MVIE 1602-6-2G-GE Rp 2 PN 16 3~ 400 V 2,2 kW
COR-1 MVIE 808-GE Rp 1½ PN 16 3~ 400 V 5,5 kW
COR-1 MVIE 806-2G-GE Rp 1½ PN 16 3~ 400 V 4 kW
COR-1 MVIE 803-2G-GE Rp 1½ PN 16 3~ 400 V 2,2 kW
COR-1 MVIE 410-2G-GE Rp 1¼ PN 16 3~ 400 V 4 kW
COR-1 MVIE 406-2G-GE Rp 1¼ PN 16 3~ 400 V 2,2 kW
COR-1 MVIE 403-2G-GE Rp 1¼ PN 16 3~ 400 V 1,1 kW
COR-1 MVIE 403 EM-GE Rp 1¼ PN 16 1~ 230 V 1,1 kW
COR-1 MVIE 208-2G-GE Rp 1¼ PN 16 3~ 400 V 2,2 kW
COR-1 MVIE 204-2G-GE Rp 1¼ PN 16 3~ 400 V 1,1 kW
COR-1 MVIE 204 EM-GE Rp 1¼ PN 16 1~ 230 V 1,1 kW

For the purpose of the water power system, the pump with a rating of 5.5kW is chosen since this is the closest value to the maximum rating of the wind turbine at 5kW. It will ensure that there are no wasted energy coming from the wind turbine. It has the nominal size of PN 16 with a range of 3-400V to be generated. It is suitable for use in the fluctuating power generated by the wind turbine.

The exact design of the electronic circuit for the rectifier to produce an output of 50V at the end is displayed below. The source ac power is assumed but the resulting output is done by theoretical calculations. Any changes in the input will mean corresponding changes output as well but the design is applicable to the various changes in the power supplied by the wind turbine.

This is the circuit design intended for the rectifier when the ac power supplied by the wind turbine comes in. It is intended to stabilize the power output to that of 50 V in order to be consumed as regular power intake by the target household.

The design of the wind and the water turbine system in order to provide a smooth power supply to the house is displayed below. The variable values that are used in the system is merely to indicate a possible situation and is intended for illustrative purposes only and not a fixed calculated system.

Energy conversion scheme

The idea of the renewable energy supply for the house is to integrate both the wind and the hydro power generating system to provide the energy demands of an average household. The kind of set-up desired is to use the excess power generated by the wind turbine in converting it to potential energy. The potential energy generated by the wind turbine is in the form of elevated water at a suitably sized water tank. The hydro generating system will then kick in when the demand for electricity is so great that the wind turbine is not capable of handling it or when it is totally lacking. The hydro power generation system will complement the wind turbine system in gathering the excess energy at certain periods of time where there are sufficient air movements and supplying the lacking amount when there is no more wind activity in the area.

The electrical power generated by the wind turbine is passed through a charge controller to smoothen out the fluctuating AC current. These are necessary in order to prevent the batteries from being damaged by wildly fluctuating power values generated by the wind turbine. The electrical energy is then stored in the batteries. The excess amount of energy will be conveniently stored in the batteries and the demand for electricity in the house is then derived from the batteries. The electricity from the batteries however has to pass through an electrifier because the power need of the household is in the form of a direct current. The electricity coming from the batteries are in alternating current phase. All of these figures are based on the 5m/s wind speed that the area can generate.

The hydro power system on the other hand is designed to be started by the owner or through an automatic control system that detects the lack of power from the batteries in cases where the wind power has died down. A gauge that will be set at a certain limit monitoring the power levels of the batteries are going to set the trigger to open the valve from the main water tank reservoir to start the hydro power generation. The water released is then going to create the electrical power that the household will need at a particular time.

There is another water reservoir at ground level only. This is used to supply the water to the main water tank at an elevated height at the start of the installation as well as in cases where the water has been lost in the tank through various reasons. This water reservoir will also hold the extra water to be pumped to the elevated water tank when they are triggered by the control mechanism in the elevated water tank detecting a low water level and with the wind turbine operating continuously. These two conditions are necessary in order to trigger the water pumping action because there is no sense in pumping water to the water tank if the wind turbine is not operating as this will drain the power residing in the batteries already. The water tank is only used to store the excess energy and not to fill it at all times in the middle of power consumption by the household. The second condition is merely common sense. The water tank has to indicate the low level of water to start the water pump since it will be a waste of precious energy if the water pumped up overflows due to excess amount already present in the elevated water tank.

Design considerations

Batteries ability

Assuming the average electrical load in the house to be 14kWh(typical for an ordinary household) and the batteries to have supply ability for 3 days (72 hours), we therefore need batteries of capacity 14kWh x 3 = 42kWh as total capacity of the batteries.

There are batteries from various manufactures rated at10.8kW/h and another development by Gm for cars that can possibly be used for the wind system is capable of storing 16kWh.

These batteries are ideal for the range of energy storage demand the wind turbine can possibly generate.

In the 10.8 kWh batteries, we can have two rows of the batteries connecting two at each line. The total capacity of the four batteries will reach 43.2 kWh but the little extra is advantageous than having less capacity intended for the 3 day supply of the house.

The newly developed battery of GM on the other hand is only going to require three batteries to exceed the requirement of 42kWh. The total capacity of the three batteries will be at 48kWh which has a nice margin of surplus capacity. The choice of the surplus capacity of the batteries is entirely up to the owner of the house of course. The consideration might also be heavily influenced by pricing since the technical considerations have already been met or exceeded.

Batteries Charging Time

Assuming that the wind speed in the area is at 5 m/s, we get a power at the approximately 23.94kWh which is roughly 1000W per hour. The current flowing in the batteries is approximately 1000W/24V=41.67A

The charging time for the batteries that are rated at 10.8 kWh is then derived.

The computation is 450Ah/41.67A = 10.8 hours. The length of time required to charge the batteries are therefore very satisfactory since it will not even take half a day to fully recharge the batteries. This means a lot of convenience for the part of the household owner since they are ready for use at any time within short notice.

If the new revolutionary battery with the capacity of 16kWh is used then the computation is as follows. 16000W/50V = 320A

The charging time is 320Ah/41.67A = 7.68 hours. This is even better as there are only three batteries to exceed the supply storage of the house good for three days already.

In both cases, the capacity expressed in kWh is also assumed to be the same value that is the output of the device when used to simplify the calculations.

Energy Analysis

The basic assumption for this is the 5m/s wind speed that can be the reasonably attained in a wide area for the majority of the product purchasers. Since we can theoretically acquire a power generation of 1kW per hour, then it would translate into 8.640Mega Watts on a per year basis. This figure is considered as the average consumption amount of an average household by the Iskar turbine manufacturer.

Hydro system

The hydro system on the other hand is designed to take the place of the wind turbine generator when there is no wind for the time being. The values taken from the Figure 2 indicates that the 5kW unit with 21 m head needs a flow of 44 liter/s through a pipe that is approximately 170 mm in diameter.

44 ltr/s = 0.044 m³/s = flow rate through the pipe

140 m³ = water tank capacity

11kW = water pump power rating

We will assume a reservoir of 140 m³ for the water tank that will be used for hydro power generation. The time it will take to finish filling it up with the water using the pipe size and the flow rate that was assumed in the previous calculations is shown below.

Assumed reservoir capacity 140
in cubic meters
Assumed flow 0.044
Time to fill the tank
in seconds 3181.818182
in hours 0.883838384

Time in seconds = 140/.044 = 3181.81 seconds

Time in hours    = 3181.81s/60/60 = 0.8838 hours

The hydro system will offer power of 5.5 kW for 0.88 hours

Therefore 5500w/48 V = 114.58 A for 0.88 hours

The hydro water generator will offer 114.58 A x 0.88 = 100.83 Ah

So this means that the hydro system will be filled with water at less than an hour considering all

Of the assumptions are correct. The next step is the power needed to pump this water up to the water tank. Since the water pump can work using 5.5 kW with a power rating of 11kW, the hydro system will then be expected to provide power of 11kW for 0.88 hours through the activation of the floating mechanism or the charge controller when it senses the batteries are having low amounts of power.

This energy will be more than enough to supply the house needing an assumed power of 10A.

100.83 Ah/10 = 10.83 hrs this is the length of time that the hydro power can supply electricity to the house before it also goes out. At this time, it is expected that the wind turbine will have picked up wind in order to generate new electricity.

The produced energy of 5,500W for the length of 0.88 hours = 4.84kWh is very satisfactory since the power consumed by a household is approximately 1000W per hour only. This number however means that the household has a very short time for extra power coming from the water turbine. The tank either has to be increased or the wind turbine’s capacity increased to end up generating more potential energy for the household.

Calculations for pumping the water up the water reservoir

The water pump that is connected to the water tank is intended to work only when the water level of the tank is already low enough and there is enough wind power still running. The pump will not work even if the level is low if there is no wind turbine continuously running since it means that the batteries will be drained by the household anyway without replenishment from the wind turbine. Using the assumed values that we have above, we arrive at the following calculations to determine the probable length of time to finish filling up the water tank reservoir.

All units are in m³ in regards to flow rate and the tank capacity.

Flow rate 1.5
in hours
Tank capacity 140
to fill
Hours needed to 93.33333333
fill the tank
in days 3.888888889

The results shows that the tank can be filled up in about 4 days less but this also means that the power to be supplied by the wind turbine has to be at the 11kW range. We will use this calculated figures first to determine whether the calculated situation will be realistic.

This will be used later in the paper to decide what kind of wind turbine to use and if the environment can produce the desired power realistically.

Early conclusions

The 0.55kW rated pump consumes energy of 0.85 kW (from the manufacturer’s data).

The energy consumed by the pump therefore for 93.33 hours is 93.33 x .85= 79.33 kWh

The electrical energy produced from using the water in the elevated tank system with

140 m ³ to fill is 4.84 kWh

Therefore the energy waste inherent within the system is:

79.33 – 4.84 = 74.49 kWh as waste energy

The projected financial cost of the project is at:

Projected Cost of the Project
Unit Cost Total
Wind turbine 1 23,000 23000
Batteries 2 750 1500
Water pump 1 800 800
Water generator 1 950 950
Wirings/others 1 600 600
Water tank 1 400 400
Labor 2 2200 4400
Water pool 1 3000 3000
Total 34650

The total cost of the project is at $34,650 for a single installation.

Assuming that the electrical cost per kilowatt hr is 16.02 cents, and the power generated by the wind turbine in a year is 8.74 Megawatts the following is calculated.

Power produced 740000
Cost per kW 0.1602
Total cost in cents 1400148
in dollars 14001.48
Return on wind 0.404083
power investment
in percent 40.40831

This means that the return on money is roughly 40.4 percent per year. It will take just a little bit of two years to get the money back spent on the wind power. This is a very good investment in terms of the length of time it takes to regain the money invested.


Energy Information Administration, Electrical costs


GM, 16kWh Batteries, Chevrolet Volt Battery Packs Will Be Manufactured by General Motors in the United States


Improvements to the Iskra wind turbine, (2008)


Trademe, Batteries 10.8 kW (24v 450A), (2008)


Wilo, water turbines, (2009)


Battery, Cyber power CP685AVR UPS – 685VA/390W AVR 8-Outlet RJ11/RJ45 Compact Design EMI/RFI USB by Cyberpower


15 Oct 2009

Sample Essay: Why The Cold War Was Good For America

During the whole period, rivalry was expressed through propaganda, image distortion, dirt of dangerous weapons, military conditions; competitive in technology e.g. space race and industrial advances. Both USSR and US spent exotically in defense. Despite their allying against the axis powers in the world war two, they fell in sharp differences on the post-war world’s image as they had become the worlds supper powers based on economy, technology and even politics. This conflict divided the world in a bipolar world due to a prompt for countries to align themselves with either of these powers. This rivalry in a suppressed form had greatly spread all over the world within a short time pf start existence and being.

The cold war was in real sense is a struggle hence conflict between two opposing ideologies, communism and capitalism. Capitalism, which would also be termed as anti communism, was well adopted and embraced by the Americans in their overall politics while communism dominated the USSR political domain in all aspects of its being. The cold war continued making remarkable impacts on not only these parties involved but the entire world. After all was said, occurred and done impacts could be felt either positively or negatively in dependence to regio[i]ns initial state of being and the current stage propagated  by this rivalry caused by difference in ideologies. The impact on Americans as frequently argued out was on different basic areas of dependence.

It is very true that cold war brought good results. One of them is the introduction of communism. This finally brought to an end the soviet unions collapse. In addition to this, the, the cold war was a causative factor of a tremendous revolution of in technology that has ever been in the history of humanity1. In a confident way, I would in every bid possible, put forward an evidence to prove that the cold war in its occurrence brought some benefits to the USA more so in these ways.

The cold war resulted into an ultimate strengthening and being of the communist Russian. This gave the US an only state of being the remaining supper power in a world that became unipolar.

All countries would be in recognition of the fact that US has become the overall overseer of these countries in the world. After the collapse of the USSR ,USA has ever since became a sole state that has preeminence in ever power , domain ,iron terms of , economy , military diplomacy ideology , technology and culture in opposition and capability to bring out it’s interests in every part of the world2[ii] .

When this war ended and consequently the Soviet Union’s existence and power diminished, the USSR’s ideology of communism also dropped and it faded away in the countries known to have been sole strong embracers of communism. The failure and drop of communism gave capital ideology a tremendous rice and acceptance in most countries.

The world in a unipolar state under the supremacy of it awards to USA in due process embraces and accepts capitalism. It is noteworthy that the US has benefited from the cold war in that its state no world’s view of it has changed. The USA has changed has gained the position and recognition of being a world’s supper power and in turn brings about respect and a great opportunity to impact the post cold war world in best way possible . Because the USA has become the supper power, many countries look unto her for help and support in terms of technical advice and financial age. This in turn keeps USA on toes in every domain that directly involves decision-making and policy formulation and enactment.

Had the Soviet Union not collapsed there would be division and loss of business parts and cooperates for USA because some of her partners were entirely embracing communism. This would consequently affect the American’s economy in a bigger way than at the moment.

The cold war was in a more clear way was beneficial to the USA than even the USSR which at the end of the span of time collapsed never to rise again. It brought about the numerous advancements to the USA in a wider range of aspects. More technologically, USA rose up to some notches higher than she was initially a bid to be ahead of the other, both USA and USSR manufactured and invented weapons that are more powerful.

The weapons manufactured during this time were powerful and found use by the military in defense. In a bid to advance in weapon to technology, USA adopted more practices that are scientific. This move helped to enhancing the USA’s technology in defense. Involvement of USA in arms race brought about the inventory and use of nuclear energy in manufacture of some more sophisticated weapons and equipment to be used. With the invention of nuclear energy there has therefore been the use of which consequently supplication to USA’s energy sources. Now apart from coal, the consumers could now use nuclear energy hence saving some reasonable amount of money. This nuclear technology has therefore provided an option to the Americans on the type of energy, and reduced her dependency on oil3. Though very dangerous to the human existence, nuclear energy brought about by the technology acquired during the cold war in the arms race.

The cold war also brought about state technology. During this rivalry, every party was in great attempt to outdo their rival by any means possible. The adoption and use of space by USSR promoted USA to adopt a space program that would also help gain information about her rival the USSR. The space programs have aided a great deal in Intelligence Corporation, which helps USA keep track of everything happening around her and her enemies. It has today helped them to deal with terrorism and any other security threat to USA in their air space4.

The USA benefited from the cold war in terms of racial integration within the military.  This was and is still very essential in the country’s defense. The entire population of America became united together in effort to defend their country and national heritage5. This was a common but very noble cause as they felt that this rivalry directed affected their lives in not only the military basis but also the society[iii]The Americans since and during this time became united and embraced promotion like never before. It is therefore noteworthy to conclude that the cold war killed racism to a certain level, brought about integration and the spirit of patriotism. This happened as USA was on her feet trying to outturn its rival in every possible way.

On a conclusive note despite the fact that the cold war brought a lot of negative effects in all aspects but especially the economy there is something positive that could be attributed to the cold war in USA even today .

All the advancements gained during the cold war can be put in a nutshell to include space technology and nuclear technology.  USA therefore rose in position to be a supper power and national integration of USA could greatly be attributed to the cold war .Today Americans can be proud of themselves and they are confident in terms of defense as they have one of remarkably sophisticated military systems ever since time in memorial.


Kenton J. Moody, Ian D. Hutcheon, Patrick M .Nuclear Forensic Analysis. NY: Grant.

China’s Nuclear Weapon Development, Modernization and Testing  http://www.nti.org/db/China/wnwmdat.htm

John, J. and Harvey A. Espionage in America. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003

Harvey John, J. Espionage in America at the commence of the cold war. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003.

Hogan, Michael. The End of Cold War, Its meanings and Implications, Cambridge University Press, 1992

1.Nuclear Forensic Analysis By Kenton J. Moody, Ian D. Hutcheon, Patrick M. Grant pg. 34

2. China’s Nuclear Weapon Development, Modernization and Testing  http://www.nti.org/db/China/wnwmdat.htm

3 John, J. and Harvey A. Espionage in America. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003

4 Harvey John, J. Espionage in America at the commence of the cold war. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003

5 Hogan, Michael. The End of Cold War, Its meanings and Implications, Cambridge University Press, 1992.

23 Jul 2009

Sample Essay: Healthy Eating – White Flour


Flour is an essential element of our daily life food products. Flour is a powder made from grinding wheat. Even though white flour is plentiful and cheaper, white flour is a poor choice for the human body because nutritional experts and medical data prove it. Flour has many kinds, and people all across the world consume floor in different forms, whether it is bread, cake, pasta, pastries, pizza or even in the form on Nan in eastern countries such as India. The availability and pricing of floor have always been major political and economic issues throughout the world as people consider flour as one of their basic requirements. Most flour in the U.S. is grown in the great plains of southern states. The most commonly used is red winter wheat. The process used by manufacturers today is roller milled. This process crushes the grain, which destroys the protein and vitamins. In the middle Ages refined flour was used by nobility, thus white flour began to be associated with wealth and status. White flour became available to the middle class Americans in 1870’s which lead to too many digestive disorders (dyspeptics). The history of flour is very old, and flour has been utilized by mankind since prehistoric times. Wheat goes through five stringent cleaning processes and is separated by grades. “Flour intended for baking bread is made from hard flour (containing 11-18% protein) it has more gluten allowing it to rise. Soft flour (containing 8-11% protein) is used for baking cakes and pastry”. Before wheat goes through the milling process to become flour, it goes through a cleaning and conditioning process to remove foreign material, poor quality grains, and or any infested kernels. The process is done with a verity of machines that uses air currents, magnets and screens to remove contaminants and the wheat from the chaff. Kernel size, friability, dimension, and density under impact are all qualities that can be exploited to effect separation.

Once upon a time many Americans believed food manufacturers of the country were keen to provide the consumers with nutrient enriched food, and it was at their best interest. However, this all changed with the increasing number of criticism that started to arise from all corners including media sources. Various documentaries began reporting on food manufacturer’s production practices and nutritional flaws in the manufacturing processes. Majority of the population in United States consumes wheat in the forms of bread. The bread itself goes through a manufacturing process, where the bread is bleached in chemicals resulting in loss of essential nutrients. “Two very important parts of wheat “Bran” and “Germ” are also removed during the manufacturing process which results in loss of almost every single bit of Vitamin E, and consumers end up getting poor quality protein and fattening starch”. Recent studies conducted by the “National Institute of health” shows that when companies claim to have refined the flour, most of the basic nutrition in flour is lost. To be precise 50% of all calcium, 70% of phosphorus, 80% iron, 98% magnesium, 75% manganese, 50% potassium, and 65% of copper is destroyed. If that is not bad enough, about 80% thiamin, 60% of riboflavin, 75% of niacin, 50% of pantothenic acid, and about 50% of Pyridoxine is also lost. There are four nutrients that are added back later in the refining process, however the consumer loses fifteen essential elements. Even thought white flour is plentiful and cheaper, white flour is a poor choice for the human body because the lack of nutrients is harmful for human health.

White flour is nothing but starch; it has great baking qualities and has almost no nutritional qualities. As we know by now, that the refining process eliminates many essential nutrients from the white flour and adds some unwanted forms of protein and starch so that they can label something under the nutrients section of their packaging. Nature produces the food in a very organized manner from its first bud to the final ready to eat form. Since thousands of years, the mankind has been eating non-refined flour which was more nutritious as compared to today’s refined flour. “There are some nutrients present in unrefined flour which are very helpful in tackling chronic diseases such as Cancer”. [Andrew W. Saul, Fire Your Doctor- How to be independently Healthy, Pp 35, ISBN 1591201381]

Wheat flour on the other hand is more nutritious than white flour. The whole wheat flour uses bran, germ, and endosperm however the white flour uses the endosperm only. In the preparation of wheat flour none of the nutrients are lost and therefore it can be considered as a better form of flour. One cup of Wheat flour includes “400 calories, 85 grams of carbohydrates, 16 grams of protein, 120 grams of weight, 2 grams fat, and 0.3 grams of saturated fats”. Whole wheat can be considered as very good source Calcium, Iron, fiber and other minerals like selenium. [Nutrition Fact and analysis, Retrieved on February 9, 2008 from website: http://www.nutritiondata.com/facts-C00001-01c21Ue.html]

The refined flour is not only less in nutrients but health disorders are among its other disadvantage. Simple sugar and refined carbohydrates require very less metabolism and therefore enter the blood stream very quickly. This causes the body to react in a different manner. First of all the Pancreas, the organ that regulates the amount of insulin released in the body is not able to deal with the heavy amount of sugar intake. Therefore, it releases more insulin into the body. This insulin includes sugar and starches. Secondly, “the result of all this chemical “warfare” is a dramatic drop in blood sugar (usually within the hour), and a resulting feeling of lethargy, mental confusion, weakness, and false feelings of “hunger”. [U.S department of Health]Sugar increases weight, which causes chronic diseases. If two groups are fed the same amount of calories in a day, group one takes its calories in sugar and refined products, and the other group takes its calories in fruits, vegetables and nuts we see that the group which consumes more amount of sugar and refined products gains more weight as compared to the second group. A breads level of sodium is a prime culprit in high blood pressure. Breads range from 90-300 mg per slice. However, since size and calories per slice vary so much, an easily gauged upper limit is two milligrams of sodium per calorie.

“Sugar consumption has risen 1,500 percent in the last 200 years.  Today, the average American consumes 150 pounds of sugar a year compared to the 12 pounds consumed in the early 1800s”. According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, that is equal to 52 teaspoonfuls of added sugars per person per day. The U.S government is putting greater emphasis on the diets and dietary patterns now, it is time we educate our selves about the intake of certain foods and their side effects. Today is the time we realize how certain foods add to the miseries of a nation and find alternatives for it. When we consider white flour responsible for the weight gain we can also get alternatives such as Wheat flour and Rice Flour as alternatives. Complete wheat flour is more nutritious than white flour as mention earlier in this paper. The rice flour on the other hand is already used in great quantities in countries like India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, China, and other Middle Eastern countries.  These alternatives are high in nutrients and do have qualities to be the perfect substitute for white flour. White flour can be substituted with many other kinds of flours such as wheat flour, rice flour and so on. Wheat flour can be considered as best alternative for white flour because it is not much different is taste, yet it provides the consumer with all the essential nutrients required by a human body. Grinding wheat flour at home can also be a good option incase of unavailability [Marye Audet, Grind Whole Wheat Flour at home, and Retrieved on February 9, 2008 from website: http://hubpages.com/hub/Grind-flour]

It can be concluded that refined flour is not a very healthy food component and it may lead to obesity, cardiac diseases and many other chronic diseases as well. It is time we take responsibility to change the future. It usually takes up to 200 generations to adapt a certain change in the dietary patterns and right now our generation is not ready for this kind of change. Technology can be a blessing and can cause serious hazards as well; in this case the refining of flours is not only playing with our lives but also playing with the nature. The next time flour is purchased for the family pay close attention to the ingredients in it. Doing so will improve your health and that of those you love. We must take responsibility for our own health. If we don’t, who will? If this attitude is adapted by majority of people living all over the globe, we can and we will change the way things are done for the betterment of humanity.



Nutrition Fact and analysis, Retrieved on February 9, 2008 from the website listed: http://www.nutritiondata.com/facts-C00001-01c21Ue.html

strong>Marye Audet, Grind Whole Wheat flour at home, Hub Pages website : http://hubpages.com/hub/Grind-flour

Fire your doctor- how to be independently healthy?, Andrew D. Saul, Published 2005,Basic Health Publication Inc, ISBN 1591201381


Fire your doctor- how to be independently healthy?, Andrew D. Saul, Published 2005,Basic Health Publication Inc, ISBN 1591201381

20 Oct 2008

Essays on Experimental Archaeology

Few people know the name Hōkūle’a, yet its importance in some archaeological circles is unquestionable.  The Hōkūle’a is a full-scale replica of a double-hulled Polynesian canoe, known as a wa’a kaulua.  It was constructed in the late 1970s and sailed from Hawaii to Tahiti in order to prove that the Polynesian canoes could have been used to trade with the ancient Americans.  The construction of the Hōkūle’a is a prime example of experimental archaeology.

Experimental archaeology is a specialized field of archaeology where only techniques and technology available to specific ancient civilizations are used to demonstrate how certain things, such as the Polynesian canoes trade usage, might have been possible.  Experimental archaeology is often used to gather data on the reasonableness of a given hypothesis, not one the absolute accuracy of the hypothesis itself.

Perhaps one of the most well known examples of experimental archaeology centers around one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World: the Great Pyramids of Giza.  Over many decades, archaeologists have proposed several possible techniques on their construction.  Using a variety of experimental archaeology techniques, each has attempted to show how the ancient Egyptians could have done the work, though conclusive proof has yet to be found.

  • How have programs such as “Building the Impossible” affected the field of experimental archaeology?  Are the time constraints placed upon the workers by the documentary deadlines incentive or impediments to experimental archaeology?
  • How can the results of experimental archaeology help with the investigation of ancient technologies and cultures?  Can the lack of knowledge of ancient techniques interfere with the usefulness of experimental archaeology data?

Every discipline has its points of controversy.  For archaeology, experimental archaeology definitely fits this description.  Opponents attack with arguments that, since experimental archaeology proves nothing, the entire category is less than useless.  Proponents claim that by proving something could have been done in a certain way allows new avenues of exploration and understanding of the many anomalistic discoveries over the years.

Regardless of one’s position on the topic, understanding and communicating the significance of experimental archaeological findings takes strong academic skills, including the ability to write effectively.  Since not everyone has such talent, many turn to companies like ours for assistance.  Our fully qualified research writers are ready and will to assist at a moment’s notice on your experimental archaeology essay.

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