09 Jun 2011

Sample essay: Opportunities and Challenges Likely to Be Encountered By Beauty Cosmetics in Its Expansion to Europe as a Foreign Market


Expansion and venture into new market is an important component and issue that has been for business growth. Often such strategy can be achieved through various procedures such as entrance into new geographical markets and customers or expanding the current market so as to reach more of the already existing market. However, before any company expands its operation into a new market whether local or foreign, it is important that it conducts a market research so as to determine whether the proposed market would offer its products and service the most competitive advantage and best opportunities (Stevens 31).

It is on the above ground that Beauty Cosmetics being a company specialized in manufacturing and supply of beauty products opts to explore the opportunities and challenges that it is likely to face as expands to the foreign market in Europe. Although Europe seems to be a potential market for the Beauty Cosmetic products and services because of its vast market opportunities, cultural, heritage, and language similarities there are certain threats such as political and religious ideologies most probably will pose challenge in this new and foreign market expansion venture.

Screening the Europe Market for Beauty Cosmetics

Since Beauty Cosmetics desires to Europe as a foreign market, it will explore macroeconomic factors such as the stability of its currency, its level of domestic consumptions, and the exchange rates. Europe poses to be a stable market because of stable currency and strong exchange rates owing to the fact that Euro has remained stable against the dollar. This has therefore made it possible for her to possess a high domestic product that will boost sale of Beauty Cosmetic products and services (Lee 348).

The other issues that will be evaluated by Beauty Cosmetics as far as screening of Europe market is concerned would include mode of communication and the possible threats. Communication is an important component that would help Beauty Cosmetics not only to position itself, but also to find appropriate sales representatives for the right market segment ((Lee 340)). For instance, Beauty Cosmetic has to understand that besides English being used as the native language in Europe, their languages fall in four groups; Romance, Germanic, Baltic, and Slavic languages. Such procedure would help the company high and recruit its employees with communication in mind so as to segment, target, and position its products and services without communication barriers. On the other hand, possible challenges especially those that had been faced by a similar company would help Beauty Cosmetic to be prepared with appropriate strategies for addressing the challenges during its expansion into Europe (Lee 341).

Opportunities that Beauty Cosmetics is to Attain in European Market

The market opportunities that are offered in Europe are grounded on the economic, political, and socio-cultural status of Europe. Economically and politically, Europe is free trade zones and therefore would allow Beauty Cosmetic Company to easily access the markets that are vast and spread all over Europe. The free trade region principle is attributed to political good both within Europe and its neighboring countries (Doole and Lowe 104).

In addition, most countries in Europe are members of the wider European Economic Community (EEC) and the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE). These bodies have the mandate of ensuring that they there is effective regulation of the international trade (Tyson and Schell 190). Beauty Cosmetic Company would benefit from the economic integration that has been created by EEC. Similarly, the bodies have not only enabled Europe to develop strong and stable currency and market base, but have also enhance large, eager pool of labor, and well developed infrastructure which would be an asset in distribution of Beauty Cosmetic Company’s products and services  (Tyson and Schell 109-1).

The other opportunity existing in Europe for Beauty Cosmetic Company is based on size, rate of growth, and the intensity of the market. Europe has a large market size because both men and women are potential consumers of beauty cosmetic products and service (Longenecker and Gale 56). In addition, the intensity of the Europe market has minimal competition because of the presence of few similar companies. Consequently, there would be limited market congestion with high potential of growth thereby making the competition healthy (Stevens 47). With such market characteristic, there is much conviction that the size, intensity, and rate of growth of Europe market offers appropriate indicators that are required for Beauty Cosmetic Company expansion into the market.

Other financial and economic issues are market factors which include the GNP, GNP per capita and GDP as at 2010 was € 16, 228.23 billion.  The state with the least and highest GNP capita in 2009 were 61% and 271% respectively. When the gross national product (GNP) is below the demands of the country, this provides an opportunity for the company to consider investing in either country in Europe. Often such conditions would possibly lead to high demand for beauty cosmetics are than the production level (Doole and Lowe 110-1). Often countries strive to satisfy the demand of the consumers and would therefore ensure that its GDP meets the consumers demand. However, Europe has so far not majored in beauty cosmetics because it is only spending 1% of its GD P in the budget thereby making it possible for the Beauty Cosmetic Company to take advantage of such state (Lee 349). This is out of the proposed € 862 billion that was supposed to be spent between 2007 and 2013.

The Europe socio-cultural factors are other aspects that will promote sales from Beauty Cosmetic Company especially on the basis that all her socio-cultural institutions and beliefs are not against the use of cosmetics. In addition, most people from Europe are aged between 15 and 35 years thereby making a larger portion of the population to be appropriate clientele for beauty cosmetic products and services. This is because the youths are known to be on the look for new products and fashions in the market; an issues that Beauty Cosmetic Company can take advantage of as it expands to Europe as a foreign market (Hisrich 68).

Challenges the Beauty Cosmetic is Likely to Encounter as it Expands into European Market

Despite the fact that there are various opportunities for Beauty Cosmetic Company in Europe, there are a number of challenges and obstacles that it will probably face during its expansion to the foreign market (Tyson and Schell 192). The first barrier is political environment in Europe which will be as a result of difference in systems of government, political instability, ideologies, and national economic priorities. Certain governments distrust foreign investors in an attempt to maintain domestic control by enacting legal barriers that would stop foreign companies from operating in such markets (Tyson and Schell 192). Under such condition, companies such as Beauty Cosmetics can only take advantage of the regions free trade zones which allow free trade and expansion of companies into new markets (Lee 349).

Legal environment is another factor that can pose serious challenge to Beauty Cosmetic as it expands in European market. These regulations would include the tariffs, quotas, documentation, and import regulation. Other regulations include various investment tax, income tax and employment laws (Doole and Lowe 118). The company will therefore have to depend on the treaties native country shall have made with Europe so as to successfully venture into the new market. For example, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) is a profound treaty that will allow the Beauty Cosmetic Company to be part of the international transaction of member nations and therefore eliminate the barriers associated to trading in Europe (Stevens 67).

The other issues that Beauty Cosmetic will have to contend with are linked to Europe’s economy. For instance, the level of income and expenditure patterns on beauty cosmetics is relatively low among the population in various countries in Europe as most people would prefer to spend much in health care insurance policies as opposed to cosmetics (Longenecker and Gale 62). Consequently, as Beauty Cosmetic Company takes advantage of the wide spread and high income rate among the youths, it must consider and find ways of convincing people to invest in beauty cosmetic products and services.

Beauty Cosmetic Company might also be forced to regulate its prices for health competition at the expense of maximizing profit. That is, being a new entrant into Europe, it might be forced to reduce its prices as initial introduction that is favorable with the current market price even if the products were of higher quality that those from existing companies (Stevens 67). To address the price challenge, Beauty Cosmetic Company might be forced to lease with other companies dealing in beauty cosmetics and the government to regulate its prices. However, such move might either take longer than necessary or turn to be too expensive in the long run. This is because different countries have different means and procedures of regulating prices which might not consider quality of the products and services (Hisrich 68).

Socio-cultural might also pose challenge to Beauty Cosmetic Company. For instance, some people might simply ignore the products irrespective of their quality because they are manufactured by a new or foreign company. The literacy level, general education, language, and religious affiliations of the company’s clientele would determine their take and subsequent purchase of the Beauty Cosmetic Company’s products and services especially after adverts. Similarly, the ethical consideration of beauty cosmetics in Europe has been rated as low as 20% thereby posing threat on the purchasing ability of the clients (Lee 350).

At the same time Beauty Cosmetic can choose to be mobile by introducing the beauty products that are required in the market at the moment and later on changing the strategy based on market demand. Although most of the population in Europe is literate, still majority are better speakers of their native language which will directly influence how Beauty Cosmetic Company is to be received. In fact, most people prefer and understand adverts made in native language than English. Similarly, the most countries in Europe are Catholic, Protestant, and Pentecostal faithful. These religious beliefs have trained their followers to shun the use of cosmetics (Tyson and Schell 193). Consequently, Beauty Cosmetic Company’s successful expansion will largely depend on its ability to advertise in native language and promote the use of descent work, success, clothing, food, and language. It must also respect the social values and religious beliefs, and cultural norms (Tyson and Schell 193).

World Political and Economic Effects on New Market Expansion Plans

Political uncertain can adversely affect the growth and expansion of a company to a foreign market. Its risk often results from political instability and unrest. These aspects can lead to lose of equipment and overall lose to the company and therefore poses challenge of not only lose of profitability, but also closure of the company. These effects influence the fiscal, monetary, trade, industrial, and labor development. Moreover, governments may find it hard to settle some diplomatic or military executions that might be a risk to foreign investors (Doole and Lowe 121-2).

Certain global economic factors such as recession often cause rise in the cost of production (Stevens 95). This is an issue the Beauty Cosmetic Company must explore so as to determine whether cost of raw material and the overall production of its products and services would commensurate prices of the finished products. In addition, recession has sometimes caused fluctuation in the dollar standing against Europe thereby causing changes or instability in the transaction rate (Stevens 95).

In conclusion, Beauty Cosmetic Company’s expansion to Europe as a foreign market is often aimed at taking its products and services within the reach of consumers. In doing so, the company would be able to maximize profit by taking advantage of the opportunities existing in the foreign market. However, various challenges are bound to occur which if not properly addressed by appropriate new market venture strategies might result into lose and closure of the company. Therefore for Beauty Cosmetic Company expand to Europe as a foreign market successfully, it must meet new markets regulations, demands, legal requirements, environmental requirement, and consider the changing market parameters.

Works Cited

Doole, Isobel and Lowe, Robin. International Marketing Strategy: Analysis, Development and Implementation. London: South Western Cengage, 2008.

Hisrich, Robert. International Entrepreneurship: Starting, Developing and Managing a Global Venture. Los Angeles: Sage, 2009.

Lee, Seongil. Computer-Human Interpretation. Berlin: Springer, cop, 2008.

Longenecker, Justin and Gale, Thomas. Small Business Management: an Entrepreurial Emphasis. Mason: Thomson/South-western, 2006.

Stevens, Robert. Market Opportunity Analysis: Text and Cases. New York: Best Business Books, 2006.

Tyson, Eric and Schell, Jim. Business Opportunity Analysis: Small Business for Dummies. Hoboken: Wiley Pub, 2008.

11 Jan 2010

Sample Essay: Discuss The Positioning Strategies Being Employed By Adidas And Nike

The positioning strategy that has been employed by Nike and Adidas entails expanding all their marketing mix and positions. This is the strategy employed by Nike in targeting all nonusers by promoting their sporting clothes also for casual occasions in the leisure. This strategy also implies recognition of new uses of products (de Mooij, 2009). Nike launched their wear in a new area of sports in golf. Another point of expansion of the overall market strategy by Nike was the increase of its products usage rate by developing new running shoes with a special sole. Guarding of existing market share, heavy advertising, strong customer and distributors’ relations are important in this strategy. Nike advertises with very famous sportsmen like Tiger Woods. Furthermore, Nike’s website provides a selection for various languages.  Expansion of market shares which covers heavy advertising, improved distribution price incentives and new product development .This also involves mergers as is in the case of Adidas which bought the REEBOK Company. The  impact created by the market mix is of the two companies can be a key factor in ensuring that  the companies  products  are diversified (Jobber  & Fahy,2009).

Geographic expansion is another opportunity Adidas and Nike employ, for instance Nike in the European market challenges Adidas as the market leader. Adidas is the market challenger for Nike in the American markets. Adidas challenged Nike with a frontal attack as they show Nikes strengths and weaknesses. In this case Adidas directly compared its product with the Nike products and stated that people who are wearing Adidas are increasingly powerful. They offended Nike’s products in their quality and showed that normal people are more powerful than athletes wearing Nike.

Nikes attack shows that this strategy is particularly focused on the business is weak in a given geographic area or in a given market. Nike used the opportunity to seize the golf market and has build up the “Nike golf“ which is now sold in the Europe. In the European market it has Roger Federer and Tiger Woods under its contract for advertising. Clearly these to icons are giants whom Nike used to encircle Adidas.


Jobber D, & Fahy,J (2009). Foundations of Marketing; NY, New York; Mc Graw-Hill Higher Education.

Marieke de Mooij.( 2009). Global Marketing and Advertising: Understanding Cultural Paradoxes SAGE publishers

Filed under: Sample essays — Tags: , — admin @ 5:24 am

07 Oct 2009

Sample Essay: Character Education and Team Sports Achievement


Sensible   leadership  coupled  with  proper  orientation  on  the  part  of  the  coach  could  provide  phenomenal  strength and an equally glorifying character  to  the  athletes. He  ought  to  be   a  great  visionary  in  order  to   accomplish  his  and   his  team  members’  target. An  ideal  coach  is  one  with  an  impeccable  character  and  acclaimed  leadership  and  management  styles. His  constructive  criticism, amicable  interpersonal  relations  with team  members  and  implicit  faith  in  them  would  enable  him  to  mould  the  players  into  his  vision. It  is  the  strategies,  holistic  approach,  enthusiasm,  empathy  and  distinct  vision  of  the  coach  that  would  carry  the  team  towards  a  collective  goal.  The basic   attributes of character  have  rendered  better  eminence  to  the  student- athletes  of   today   who  find   themselves  a  step  ahead  of  those  of   the  80’s.


The   present  area  of   research  has  monopolized  my  attention  because  it  highlights  a  global   issue  of   the  character building  skills  of  coaches  in   the  world  of   sports  .As  it  relates  to  sports  academics  I  find  it  very  interesting  and  challenging  .It  is  the  field  closest  to  my  heart .The  objective  of  my  paper  is  to  amply  highlight  the  leadership  competencies  of  the  present  day  professional  coaches.  Sensitive  leadership  with  the  right  kind  of  orientation  could  create  phenomenal  strength  in  the  players  .  The  present  day  coach  has  to  be  a  great  visionary  and  channelize  his  players  to  work  with  sincerity,   commitment,  dedication  and  conviction. It  is  imperative  that  he  inculcates  and  nurtures   the  character  of  the  players. His positive mindset should   reinforce the   players   and   uphold the team spirit. It  is  their  morality, ethics, skill  and  competence   that   proves  them  as  coaches  with greater   aptitude   and   propensities  and    hence  eminence. THESIS STATEMENT: Character is the foundation on which the destiny and success of a student- athlete is built.


I   have  found  the  paper  to  be  innovative  and  equally  exciting .I have  acquitted  myself  to  this  task  and  worked  to  the  best  of  my  ability  to  make  my  paper  more  objective,  creative  and  responsive. I  have  made  an  effort  to  bring  to  light  the  manifestations  of  the  leadership  styles  of  the  coaches  to  the  present  arena  of  sports as well as the value of character building in student- athletes .


A good athlete is not born everyday. He is as rare as the blue moon. A true athlete will imply very extraordinary style, power displayed and achieved. Leadership qualities are an essential prerequisite for a sports coach. It is this quality which gives him a reputation by which he is recognized. A good coach is one who places his team first and foremost. Since he bears the welfare of his country and team at heart, he also criticizes the wrong policies that prevail. He shows constructive criticism without any self interest or motive. In this age of globalization with severe competition there is need for perfection in every field. A coach of the present day needs to be a perfectionist in rendering his service. It therefore calls for sincerity, devotion and strict discipline towards his team.


An ideal coach should be a gentleman to the core, with an impeccable character and acclaimed leadership styles. He should have the attributes of sacrifice, character, patriotism and industrious nature. He should be a great visionary in making his team a strong contender in the world arena of sports. A proper orientation of the players is required. Each player should rise to the occasion and take it as a challenge to bring glory to his team and country. The most crucial role of a successful coach is to help athletes improve their athletic skills along with their character. He should improvise upon a beginner and enable him to succeed as an elite player.


A professional coach motivates his athletes through following attributes

Communication skills.


Distinct vision.


Besides perseverance, the success of the student- athlete and the team depends upon.

The character of the players in the team.

The character of the coach himself.

The situation.


A professional coach adopts a holistic approach towards his team members. He not only enhances the athletic skills of the players but also inculcates in them an all round psychological as well as character development.

Sensible leadership with proper orientation on the part of the coach could create phenomenal strength in the minds and hearts of the player. He has to be a great visionary in order to accomplish his and his team members’ goal.


A modern day coach aims at improving his players’ performance through character building and strenuous training. He acts as a beacon of light that would impel the players to strive relentlessly in pursuit of their goal. He tactfully structures and coordinates the activities of the players.

BEHAVIOUR AND CHARACTER OF THE COACH : A Source of conviction for the athletes

His positive mindset should reinforce the players.

He  should  have  implicit  faith  in  the  team  players

His autocratic behavior ­- he should have personal  authority  that  should  enable  him  in  proper  decision  making .

His Democratic behavior should act as a source of inspiration and commitment for the athletes.

His Decision making – His decision making, method of practice strategies  and principles of the game should tend to be optimistic .

His social and interpersonal relations with the team members should be amicable enough.

There should be a consistency between the coach and the team members’ perception of leadership behavior. Players with similar perception and mindset tend to positively evaluate their coaches.


Personal values not only constitute the outward behavior and social etiquettes but virtues like honesty, generosity humility truthfulness and compassion on the part of the coach. He should value team work and his team members. His perseverance and consistent effort should teach proper values of sports. Success does not come by chance. The coach has to influence the players to dedicate themselves and preserver in the pursuit of their goal.


Today’s coach are far more superior to their predecessors because they have been international players for their respective countries at their own times back in the 80s. They were coached by their coaches of the 80’s so they have the advantage of getting coached and playing for over two decades for their respective countries. Hence they are indeed trailblazers in their respective fields in sports and are rising to the pinnacle of glory through their coaching even today. Above all this they have the aids to developed technology to learn and teach. The so called laptop coaches watch the game in slow motion to have a better analysis. They analyze the game and the player and pinpoint to the team mates the cause and the effect of every stroke and movement of the game. A travesty of the truth is that a player of today with one year experience can match a player with ten years of experience.

Under the yoke of the modern coaches, the student-athletes are experiencing enormous potential.

The categories into which a student- athlete  or his coach may be grouped are as under:.




An autocratic student or a coach  is one who leads from the front and inspires the whole of the team. He believes in teamwork and makes his enthusiasm contagious and influences others through his own post performances in the field. Perfect examples can be Martin Johnson in Rugby or Roy Keane in football.

However such type of leadership can bring in unwanted criticism when the team’s performance is dismal. Manager of England team, Sven – Goran Eriksson received criticism when the team ended up in a poor performance in the recent world cup

A democratic coach or an athlete is an oriented leader and is more suited to athletics badminton or tennis. A coach of this modern day will know where a problem actually lies. Each one may differ in his perception and may adopt a different way of resolving it.

A laisser fare athlete or a coach makes a poor leader with few decisions and feedbacks to his team members. The team members may either feel confident and trusted or may feel demoralized due to poor motivation.


(a)An excellent example of how a coach of today exhibits his leadership skills is the great  Martin  Johnson  who  led  England  to  a  grand  slam  six  Nations  Through his  excellent  orientation  and  great  vision  he   enabled  the  team  to  lift  the  IRB Rugby  World  Cup.

(b)Phil  Jackson,  one  of  the  most  famous coaches  in  basketball  has  been  able  to enhance  the  skill  of  his players to such an extent that they have reached unexpected   levels.  He   has   taught   his   players   how   to   win  against  all  odds.He   has   effectively   channelized   the   energies  of   his  players.

(c) The  leadership  qualities  of  UCF  –  Women’s  Rowing  Coach   Crain came  to light  in  the  year  2007.  Under  her  aegis  the  women’s  rowing  program  has achieved  new  heights. Her  optimistic  approach  and  perseverance  has  enabled the  knights  to  earn  their  first  National  ranking  that  dates  back  to  the  year 2004-2005. Not only this student – athlete academic successes have been accomplished   even in her classroom.

(d)Golf player Lee has received excellent coaching from Peter Cowan and is in brilliant form even today.

(e)Gary Coser a middle order batsman is now the cricket coach to a new team, Morocco.

(f)Ian Mc Gecchan presently the director of Rugby, London, and Wasps is widely regarded as one of the best coaches the world has ever seen. He himself has an impressible record at international and club levels. According to him it is very important to display powerful leadership qualities to be able to cope with the players or the GP practice Manager.


Today sports are a developed science. All components of the game whether it is fielding, batting, goal keeping or defense are analyzed scientifically. Some sports like soccer, cricket and rugby have become business jackpots. It is because of the money that they get from royalties from T.V rights. These sports have become money spinners. Today the coaches are highly rewarded but they face a lot of challenge from the world around them. Therefore these sports have progressed by leaps and bounds. The quality of sports is much   more superior to what the coaches of the yesteryears had experienced. While the coaches of the 80’s relied basically upon their experience and comprehension, the coaches of the present day are far more efficient   and have a greater reach.

Modern coaching has changed the very style and concept of sports, making it more scientific and enhancing its scope. Hence the present day coaches have brought a phenomenal change in the very concept of sports.

The media coverage of the coaches or the players will make them heroes if they excel. Their reputation will be scandalized with controversies if they fail to live up to the expectations of their country men.


Our perception of what leadership really is has changed through the years. The leadership competency of today’s professional coaches or that of the 80’s has in no way changed. What has changed is how it is now being perceived and applied.


Becoming a sports- athlete with leadership qualities and character is not an event but a process of gradual self development. Four elements relate to the context of good leadership.

Communication skills

Broad perspective

Trust worthiness


It is the virtue hidden in these elements that demarcates a good athlete from a poorly performing athlete.

Today a coach too needs to have proper command or diction over his communication with his team members. The very style and presentation should drive the players towards excellence.

Ethical behavior on the part of the athlete enhances generosity and compassion and it reinforces emotions and motives of the team members. On the contrary unethical behavior   earns enmity and hatred.

A  coach, on the other hand ,  should  readily  avail  himself  as  per  the  requirement  of  his  team members. He  ought  to  be  practical  and  should  be  found  in  the  field whenever  his players  are  playing  or  net  practicing. As  the  coach  is  the  one  to  make  out   and analyze  the  situation he has to be present  even  during  the  practices.

In the 80’s character education was not given much importance, while the coaches were far more superficial in their analysis. They were not in a better position to evaluate more logically and practically before arriving at a firm conclusion. They possessed experiences and wisdom but the modern attributes that would tap the optimum potential of the player by molding his character.

Skill is an inevitable ingredient in a student- athlete while reputation has to be earned. These are all but attributes that are essential for being a successful athlete. It is imperative that the coach inculcates and nurtures the ability of the players through his works ethics. The student- athlete, on the other hand, should possess a sense of cheerfulness, humor or morale to share with the fellow team players.


The following are the expected attributes of a good athlete:

Respect or reputation





Today a coach has to maintain equidistance from the seniors as well as the juniors in the team. This needs a lot of sagacity so that he is not caught in controversies.      Now-a-days the frequency of matches has increased and the players are complaining of fatigue, stress or injury. The coach has to be careful enough to engage the players in such a way as to effectively channelize them and tap their potential.


The task oriented coach succeeds in steering the team in the right direction through his understanding of the task. By sheer knowledge of his experience, he proves victorious. The second category consists of the coaches with sensible inter-personal skills. They succeed in motivating the players and upholding their team spirit high.


Coaching no doubt played a very crucial role in athletics. The performance and development of the team depended on the coach. The methods used by   them to motivate the athletes are now obsolete. Today the process of coaching has brought to light a plethora of leadership and management virtues.


(a) Coaching and management efficacy

Type of motivation

Coach – athlete relationship

Reinforcement within the team

Positive mentoring

(e) Compatibility with team members

The coaches of today view themselves as role models for their team members. They have an optimistic approach with appreciation, loyalty and respect for the team members.

The changing strategies of the coaches of the yesteryears prove them as coaches with less vibrant optimistic view. A poor coach fails to put up good results due to the following reasons:

(a) In adequate feedbacks during the training sessions.

(b) In compatibility with team members.

(c) Lack of positive mentoring.

(d) Perception as mere educators to the athletes.


Leadership skills of an athlete or any other individual were once considered as inbuilt qualities.  It was thought that leaders were born and not made. It was borne in mind that inheritance made a person a leader. That is only  a  person  with  leadership  instincts  in  his  blood  and  breed  could  lead. This notion was  later  on  rejected  and  then it was thought that leaders were ordinary people transformed  into  a  leading  figure  because  of  a  great  event.

To be a good student- athlete, one has to have a responsive and humane environment. Such an environment should be flavored with the attributes of:




Today  a  coach  is  a  manager  himself,  managing himself  and  leading  the  rest. A  good  coach  knows  that  he  should  neither  do  nor  say  anything  that  could  infuriate or  demoralize  the  player but  do  anything  that  would  enhance  the  athletic  skill, character and psychological  well  being  of  the  player.


John  Lyle, SPORTS  COACHING  CONCEPTS -A  FRAMEWORK  FOR  COACHES’  BEHAVIOR ,   2002,Routledge  Coaching(Athletics),Great  Britain, ISBN 0415261570.


Hardcastle, J. (2006, August 26). YOUTH LEADERSHIP IN SPORTS. Retrieved July 17, 2008, from http://ezinearticles.com/?Youth-Leadership-In-Sports&id=282554

www.elitemediagroup.tv/usoc_sportsmanship.htm – 29k

www.thelantern.com/news/2007/01/23/Sports/ Bad Athletes Make Bad Role Models

Dick Freeman & Lyle Lansdell, FOOTBALL COACH’S HANDBOOK, 2004,-.ISBN 1-59205-041-7.


info@Successful Leadership Skills


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