07 Feb 2010

Sample Essay: AP US History DBQ

Introduction

In the early 1800’s, Jeffersonian Republicans believed that the authority of the Federal government was based on a strict constitution. What was stated in the constitution was supposed to be strictly adhered to. The Federalists on the other hand believed in a loose and broader interpretation of the constitution. They could easily get to make decisions that were not supported by the constitution. This granted the government with more authority than it had within the constitution. Despite these differing views by the Jeffersonian republicans as compared to the Federalists, the characteristics on the interpretation of the constitution became contrary to what they were deemed to be during the presidencies of Jefferson and Madison. It is in the era of these two presidents that the Jeffersonian Republicans opted for a loose interpretation of the constitution and the Federalists leaned towards a more strict interpretation of the constitution.

In many ways, President Jefferson and the Jefferson republicans swayed of from the policies of the republicans. At one time President Jefferson was a strict adherent to the constitution as stated in document A where he asserts that the theory of the constitution is the wisest. Later on though, He went against the constitution when he made the Louisiana Purchase. The constitution did not allow the president to purchase any land and by doing that He was behaving like a federalist. It is still evident of the wayward behavior of the republicans when he stated as in document F that the constitution should be changed to go on with the advancing man’s mind. From the three episodes we can evidently watch the changing characters of the Republican government. As stated in the constitution the government was not supposed to pass any trade embargo for a certain period of time but Jefferson withdrew trade from Europe after USA sailors were attacked. This vehemently attacked the European economy. Document F also supports our assertion of failed policies when we find that the government has increased some powers to the congress so that they could regulate tax.

On the other hand we had opposing ideas during the era of President Madison. Being Federalists, they in most times favored a loose constitution though this at times faltered. One of the times that they really got unlike federalists is like in document E where we can see changes being imposed in the constitution. It was anyway in their right to have a loose constitution. At times they however did not follow the federalist policies like in the Louisiana Purchase. At this time they became strict adherents to the constitution to a point of restricting the purchase. Some times during the Madison’s presidency, he strictly adhered to the constitution when he refused to sign a bill on building roads and canals. He strictly stated that the constitution did not state in any clause that the power set aside for regulation of commerce was not the same which meant that the roads and canals should be built. In contrary to the previous belief of republicans behaving otherwise, they totally rejected the war of 1812 between the British and the Americans. They all joined forces in rejecting the war which they later tried to take advantage of. This is clear when they elected Clinton to represent them in the presidential race but they came later to lose to Madison. It is also evident about the strict adherence of the federalists to the constitution.

Conclusion

As it can be gotten from the above excerpts, it is clear that there was an evident behavior among the Jefferson republicans and the times of the Madison’s presidency. The Jefferson’s presidency was supposed to be limited to strict adherence to the constitution but contrary we can see places where the Jefferson and the Jefferson republicans are going to the opposite side of the constitution and opt to support areas which are not at all conversant or in line with the constitution. On the other hand, the Madison’s government is behaving in federalistic ways as much as otherwise was expected. There are times when we can see them strictly adhering to the constitution as we can assert from the signing of the Hartford convention. We therefore support the assertion that for both parties it was extremely hard for someone to determine who true republicans were and who were supposed to be true supporters of federalism.

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21 Oct 2009

Sample Essay: Political Philosophy

America as a home of two categories of people has two ideology related parties. These parties include the democrats and republicans. The democrats compose of minority groups who are mainly the poor and blacks among others while the Republicans are mainly for Americans. Immigration to America is both legal and illegal. This has lead to changes in demographic patterns and cultures a whole. The country registered the highest number of immigrants in the year 2006. This was the highest of all the world countries. Previously there had been gender imbalances amongst the legal immigrants where men dominated up to around the 1990’s when women showed up. Currently the immigrant population is characterized by a population aged between 15-34, married and at times the divorced couples.

Legal immigration has been generally accepted in the United States than illegal because of the willingness of the government to provide the services to the affected individuals. Based on the American economy and political status, immigration has been attributed to bring both positive and negative effects. According to my opinion, immigration should be allowed to America since there are important achievements that have resulted as result of immigrants to the country. Let’s consider some of the associated effects outlined below.

For instance, immigrants have increased and still it is projected to increase the numbers of American population (associated with low birth rates) thus has helped maintain the increasing trends. Immigration has also increased the growth of the American economy because of cheap labor that has increased productivity and the low value of consumer goods and services which are produced by immigrants as well as low salaries of those owing capital. On the other hand these immigrants have turned to be innovative and creative. Through this they have been producing services which were non-existent before thus more government revenue has been realized. This has minimized unemployment to American workers. These could be the only benefits that have positively built America as a whole.

Negative effects have also been realistic. Social integration has not also been realized through the interaction between the immigrants and Native Americans. This has strengthened racial segregation amongst the immigrants and between the Native Americans and the immigrants. There have been increased conflicts and riots in various settlement sites and urban centers, as what used to exist before. Conflicts between the Koreans and blacks as well as Black Latinos and African Americans which were evidence in the recent past are still persistent. Political ideologies also differ, depending on the different immigrants that who have varied ideologies, thus impacts to social norms and religious practices. Take an example of the dominant two major parties that are dominant the Democratic and the Republican parties that rose from groupings of immigrants and Americans respectively.

On health matters, immigrants have posed a challenge to the United States health services. Because of poor backgrounds the immigrants fail to meet the expenses in the public health sector during the emergency cases. Note that these being the only means for the survival of immigrants (inexpensive), it strains the government to budget for the allocation of funds. High rates of diseases spread  in the country has been proved to be the consequence of immigration, Tuberculosis  rates for instance are high amongst immigrants than the native Americans As well HIV/AIDS was brought to the country by immigrants. With increased number of people there is a likelihood of having water stress that can cause poor sanitation, thus contagious diseases.

Crime as a vice has the possibility to increase with more immigrants because of unemployment situations, barriers in the language and uncertainties threatening the lives of foreigners. Population pressure on the environment is yet another impact on environment. Consider the settlement houses established for accommodation, landfills in cities, deforestation and overexploitation of resources such as water just to mention a few .All these are likely to degrade the environment.

Education system has been challenged by immigration in the following perspectives: discrimination in class, language diversities and of course culture differences. This result to complexities in the educational planning: teacher training, resource allocations and distribution of learning institutions.

On my opinions immigrants should be allowed to the United States because, one the government is concerned with rights of both Native Americans and the immigrants .United States is a developed country, well endowed with resources and better technology that can be utilized by both groups of inhabitants. For instance, the free public health services have helped increase survival rates of immigrants. But these immigrants should be under legal qualifications. The allocation of public social services such as health, urban planning and waste dumping and economic activities and employment opportunities to the skilled and unskilled individuals to equal balance the two groups will be made easier. Legal registration will also enhance efficiency in establishing the strategies aimed at social and political integration in all sectors of the economy, environmental problems and solving crime rates. This is because the government will be aware of the size and growth rates of its citizens at a particular period of time in the country.

Depending on the current economic crisis, the United State should accept 150,000 immigrants and 50,000 refugees. In fact, economic crisis globally is challenge to the state because of climate change, diminishing sources of energy and increasing number of political instability in most countries. All these have reduced productivity in industry, agriculture and m manufacturing as a whole. The detrimental effects are hitting the developed countries too.

Due to increasing demand of labor and skilled workers in various industries, production and even in Jua kali sector, the immigrants should at least have a skill that will help built the American economy. Emphasize on policies on immigration for employment is really applicable in this context. This could be through creativity and innovations of machinery, equipment or substances that is cheap and affordable to all individuals of the same social classes. Note that as more individuals buy products, more income from taxes and revenue is realized, thus greater economic development. Even for the unskilled workers, whose roles are domestic workers, at a cheaper price indeed will help savings amongst the Americans for investments.

The current approach of the United States that is used to provide citizenship that is how one has developed interest in America and one related to family bondage is a crucial way for America to have a manageable number of immigrants. More emphasize should be on legal issues especially the 1990 immigration act which emphasizes the value of the family. The state should allow only stable married couples to settle in the country. This will help minimize population growth that is on the increase as divorced and unmarried having obtained settlement tend to remarry or marry and care for their families. If for example one has divorced and has left child in the home country, and can remarry, with the divorcee will bring his or her children to the United States; then there will be increase in the number of households. This means if one hundred of the immigrants can do so, the population will be likely to triple. With time the children will have their children .In a nutshell, there is a likelihood of creating pressure on available social facilities so to speak. For youths, it is necessary to admit them for particular purposes such as pursuing education or a given contract.

As compared to other legal issues based which stresses on steps to minimize crimes, this could be the best approach. Due to the fact that immigrants will be admitted depending on the available job opportunities, will minimizing unemployment factor resulting to criminal offences as seen among the immigrants or Native Americans. Again the gender should be a crucial point to note in the registration immigrants because both sexes have a role to play in the development of a nation.

The policy discussed above is the best according to my opinion as compared to the one of acquiring a visa. The policy states that once an individual has a visa he or she is legible to be accommodated to the United States, and is in a position of investing in business or any other short term activity and returning back to the home country. There is a possibility of having mass illegal immigrants, particularly entrepreneurs. Consider the complex procedures of following up the victims. Even with use of employers to obtain the illegal workers is a complicated and high rates of injustice might be realized as employers upon identified competent employees, is hard for them to accept the decline in productivity by losing the employee. This makes the policy ineffective, hence creating more social-economic problems. The policy of resettling the refugees is also tricky because many immigrants who may not be refugees may have a chance to use that excuse to obtain the citizenship illegally. This can be illustrated by analyzing the reasons that make one a refugee or not. Some people have as a result taken cover to be refugees yet they are indeed not refugees.

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