03 Jul 2009

Sample Essay: New Developments on AIDS

DEVELOPMENTS IN HIV TREATMENT

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a deadly disease. HIV is a virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Aids is a disease in which the immune system of a human being begins to slow down and eventually fail which leads to life threatening infections. AIDS has taken more lives then any other disease known to the mankind. It is estimated that a 0.6% population of this world is infected with HIV (AIDS), most of which are from Sub-Saharan Africa. [Joint UN program on HIV/AIDS: (2006)]. There are four major reasons behind the transfer of HIV in to human beings. These factors are; Unprotected Intercourse, Contaminated needles, transmission to a child by mother by birth, and through Breast milk. According to (UNAIDS) and (WHO) AIDS has killed more than 25 million people since it was recognized first in year 1981.

There has been improvement in the treatment method of HIV/AIDS over the years. People who suffered from AIDS before were able to survive for a shorter time, as compared to the people who are infected with this disease today. More improvement is being made everyday for curing this deadly disease. HIV affects the cells in the human immune system, making them weaker and vulnerable to a lot of diseases. HIV attacks the cells such as T cells, or more specifically CD4 cells. When the quantity of these cells reduces to a certain level, human develop acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and die, however 1 out of every 10 individuals do live their life for quite a few years, without any visible symptoms of AIDS. Treatment with anti-retroviral, where available, increases the life expectancy of people infected with HIV. HIV can be classified into two types namely HIV-1 and HIV-2. Research over the years has proven that HIV-1 is the major reason for most deaths as it is easily transmitted into human beings. HIV-1 is considered to be originated from Cameroon and transferred to human beings from chimpanzees. HIV-2 is a form of virus which is largely confined to Western African nations, HIV-2 may have originated from the Sooty Mangabey, an Old World monkey of Guinea-Bissau, Gabon, and Cameroon. There are many anti-viruses that help prevent the effects of HIV for a certain period of time. One of the major reasons obstacles for the design of HIV-1 vaccine is the diversity of viral. A single antigen cell is not sufficient enough to raise the functionality of T cells and B cells. [Frontiers In Bioscience: A Journal And Virtual Library [Front Biosci] 2008; Vol. 13, pp. 609-20. Date of Electronic Publication]. SJCRH multi-vectored, multi-envelope vaccine has now been shown to elicit HIV-1-specific B- and T-cell functions with a diversity and durability that may be required to prevent HIV-1 infections in humans. An HIV enters macrophages and CD4+ T cells by the adsorption of glycoproteins on its surface to receptors on the target cell followed by fusion of the viral envelope with the cell membrane and the release of the HIV cap Sid into the cell. [HIV-1 vaccine development: tackling virus diversity with a multi-envelope cocktail]. There is however, constant work done by the most talented people in this world, to find a solution to somehow, over come the disease properly. There is no vaccine and medicine in this world which can cure the disease completely. The only method of prevention is to avoid exposure from the virus itself. There are some methods which have reduced the effect of virus to a certain extent, but still unsuccessful in eliminating it. One of such treatments is post-exposure prophylaxis. This anti-viral treatment which is believed to reduce the risk of infection is effective when done within short period of infection. HAART (Highly active anti-retroviral therapy is also very useful in prevention of HIV virus to a certain extent. HAART is a combination of three different kinds of anti-retroviral agents, which are more useful in reviving the T cells and the B cells as well. [An anti-apoptotic protein, Hax-1, inhibits the HIV-1 rev function by altering its sub-cellular localization]

We know that HIV/AIDS has no cure at the current moment, there fore the best strategy against this disease to remain safe, and try to prevent this disease as much as possible. This disease is very harmful to a human body and there are no chances or survival, not until today. There is constant research going on in current world about this disease and a lot of developments have been done for the treatment of this disease. HAART allows the stabilization of the patient’s symptoms and viremia, but it neither cures the patient, nor alleviates the symptoms, and high levels of HIV-1, often HAART resistant, return once treatment is stopped. It is quite evident that prevention is the only cure of this disease at the moment; therefore we should always care in our daily life relationships and adopt prevention as much as possible.

HIV-1 vaccine development: tackling virus diversity with a multi-envelope cocktail.
Hurwitz JL; Zhan X; Brown SA; Bonsignori M; Stambas J; Lockey TD; Sealy R; Surman S; Freiden P; Jones B; Martin L; Blanchard J; Slobod KS | Frontiers In Bioscience: A Journal And Virtual Library | 2008 | 13: | 609 | ISSN: 1093-4715

An anti-apoptotic protein, Hax-1, inhibits the HIV-1 rev function by altering its sub-cellular localization .Modem S; Reddy TR | Journal Of Cellular Physiology | 2008-01 | 214:1 | 14 | ISSN: 0021-9541

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