21 Jan 2010

Sample Essay: IQ Testing Tells Us Little About The Person's Innate Abilities. They Merely Reflect The Educational Level Of The Individual

Introduction

An intelligent quotient test shows the mental abilities of an individual compared to others of the same age. Each and every person has the specific mental abilities which can be measured and may be used to predict the education performance and financial success of an individual.

Body

In a school situation, Intelligent quotient was initially used to detects students with the lower intelligent. This was principally done to ensure that those students with lower intelligent were given special education programs. The IQ test was done to compare the intelligent of a student to what his or her intelligent is expected to be relative to the student’s age. The outcomes of the test were given in terms of the score.  The high IQ score was given to a brighter student who had a higher intelligent than a normal child of his or her age. The students who scored lower than what is expected for a student of his or her age was assigned lower IQ score (Kaufman, & Lichtenberger, 1999).

The use of the IQ test in the past or at present was or is basically to determine problems in the learning process.  This test could be use to detect the performance of an individual in a school situation or at work places. It has been observed that the individuals who get high IQ score can perform better in school or at work. This test has been in use by many schools and companies in identifying those people who may require special attention. It was also used by the schools to assist them in enrolling students to the right grade and, at the same time various organizations adopt this method to help them in identifying the right employees to recruit in the company.

However, According (Anastasi, 1961), the IQ test faced the claims on its effectiveness in the measurement of the innate abilities of the person. Even if IQ test can measure the abilities of the child, we believed that this intelligence can change based on the conditions a child is exposed to.

In a modern society, IQ test is used to measure not only a child’s intelligent but also psychological abilities of an adult person, where  the scores are given relative to other adults who have also went through the same test. A number of factors have been seen to influence the intelligent level of a person as discussed by the different theorist. As a result, this has created criticism on the validity and reliability of the IQ test. These factors include, age, culture, motivation, labeling, heredity, and environment among others.

The research on age for example shown that a child who is two years old and has  a two years advanced mentally has an IQ score of 200 but the same child six years later and still advanced mentally two years measure an IQ score of 120. The age different of the child has really led a different score hence has been viewed not appropriate measure of a person intelligent (McClelland, 1974).

Motivation is another factor that may affect the individual’s abilities.  For, example, if an individual is positively motivated physically and mentally, then this may affect the IQ intelligent test.

According to (Weschler David, 1939), intelligent of a person is based on inheritance. For example, he noted that twins usually have a positive correlation in IQ score test. Another aspect that has been considered to affect the intelligence of a person is the environment. School performance likewise would be affected by the environment and this can take time to be changed.

The proponents of this factor argued that though people are born with some intelligent abilities, the environment where they are reared on could perhaps shapes their intelligent as well. For example, a child that is not given due attention for a long time while still young will develop intelligence disabilities later in life. On the other hand a child that is given enough care will show better intellectual abilities in life. The test on the identical twins that are reared together will shows a close or the same IQ score , while those  twins that are reared a part will give different IQ test, (Jensen, 1969)

There is no accepted universal definition of intelligent, however, intelligent can be generally be defined as what an intelligent test can measured. The problem with this definition is that it does not describe the potential of a person or give the precise nature of intelligent as expected. Quinones strongly believed that intelligent is culturally relative and refute that IQ test could correctly measure intelligent of a person across different culture. This claim was also supported by Kaufmamn. However, he argues that this problem is not as serious as in the previous model of the intelligent test. In the modern society, the theorists of the intelligent test have improved their review process to ensure that measurement of the intelligent are independent of culture (Kaufman, 1983). It is however, obvious that those reviewers seen as being culturally biased has little effect on the overall intelligent scores. However, it should also be noted that the intelligent is mental ability independent of culture.

IQ test was also criticized as being the self fulfilling prophecy issue. For instance, the individuals who are expected to score low will eventually do so. According to the work done on a self fulfilling prophecy, black student has been regarded as being affected by the stereotype vulnerability. However, Kaufman in his work asserts that the stereotype vulnerability does not affect the black only, but have been seen to affect the white people also. Therefore, according to this claim, it is evident that labeling an individual earlier does not necessarily mean that they are really victims of the circumstances mention.

Another claim is the idea that IQ test could correctly measure the person’s innate abilities or intelligence. Weschler however claimed that students who score highly on a mathematical test could definitely perform well in vocabulary. This has been taken by some individuals that all mental abilities may be determined by some of the intelligence level. However, this view has been refuted by Jensen claiming that there exist various dimensions to intelligent and hence IQ test are not appropriate for testing abilities such as music and mechanical talents. We should understand that, most of the intelligence ideas are seen in individual’s sense of fairness. For example, a particular student may not be good in mathematic, but is good in other subjects such as music or mechanical engineering (Jensen, 1969).

Jensen argued that IQ test does not measure correctly all the human abilities that may be viewed as features of intelligent. According to Jensen lack of accepted definition of intelligent is what causes IQ test not to be valid. He further asserted that intelligent is like other scientific concepts that can be measured even before understanding the meaning of the measurement.

Some of the claim about the IQ test is that it wrongly stratifying people by race, gender, class and culture and hence it reduces the significant of creativity and technological know-how. It also bring a concept that human being have inborn unchangeable intelligent abilities that reflect their achievement in life.

Learning abilities have been tested for many years using an IQ test where those children who scored less than what their IQ score in expected are considered to be disabled. The problem with this method is that it does not indicate what can be done to help this child. The ability of the child is shown by his or her behavior either at home or in a classroom. In this sense, if the learning process is appropriate, then the child behavior could also be improved, and thus, IQ test should at all be disregarded.

Even some of the strong supporters of the IQ test, such as Anastasi and Jensen argued that the IQ achievement discrepancy model is faulty. They claimed that this model lack the real issue of whether it can be useful when correctly administered.

Factor analysis has been used to measure the validation of IQ test, since it breaks the test into several different factors, and then, it shows how these factors are intercorrelate to particular level. However, this method does not indicate that the general intelligent of a person can be tested using the IQ test. The claim is that, IQ test some times may decide to compare an intelligent child from a dull one by giving a test on particular items.  The fact that an intelligent child failed the test on a particular item does not imply that such items are appropriate for disguising this child from a dull one since such item may have been drawn out or put in a particular place on the age scale.

The validation of the IQ scores as been viewed many times as the measure of the school performance order. This refutes the idea that IQ test is a measure of cognitive capacity of a person. Testing of the intelligent based on the performance on a particular items cannot really shows the achievement or level of a bright child from a dull one. Furthermore, the capacity test can only be measured based on the current behavior of an individual which could predicts his or her future behavior. Therefore according to this claim IQ test seems to be unnecessary measure for testing people’s abilities.

IQ test has been viewed to be full of a lot of speculations. Its concept is not well understood by many people and the method it applies does not provide a good explanation of how the intelligence is tested in relation to the other factors such as environment and culture.

Intelligent of a child can be determined by the changes that occur in a school situation. The variations of the school programs have been observed to increase or boost the child performance later in life. For instance, if the variation in the school programs does not change the child abilities then the IQ test which basically measure the skills of the child, may be deemed as a real measure of a fixed capacity. However, this performance will not last longer before it changes, and thus, the IQ test have greatly failed to improve the intelligent and instead encouraged only apparent achievement of a person.

Lastly, it is clear that the IQ test achievement discrepancy model is highly flawed. Kaufman argued that the IQ discrepancy model is based on the fundamental misunderstanding of the Wechsler scores which, according to him were not to be used to as a single summed number Kaufman &Lichtenberger, 1999). IQ test does not give the general innate abilities or the educational performance of the child. One wonders what validation or the hypothesis is provided by this test. The ideas and the rules set does not seems credible for the testing of the intelligent

Conclusion

Though many people have refuted IQ test, human being can not do without these test. However, those individuals using these tests should be well educated to be conversant with what the tests means to us. Actually IQ test are not the real predictors and does not shows some features such as the goodness of a person. Total ban of the IQ test is not important, however the testers should develop a modern process of testing intelligence that can appeal and be useful to people. From the above discussion, it is clear that the intelligence of a person depends not only on the ideas and the skills of the person but also on other several factors which may either be externally or internally located. Therefore, we can conclude that an IQ test does not provide an essential measure for testing the innate or educational potentials of a person.

Reference:

Anastasi, A. (1961). Testing the Psychological Path, Macmillan Company, New York.

Jensen, A. (1969).   Boosting IQ and scholastic success? Harvard             Educ. Rev., 39, 1-123.

Kaufman, A. S., & Lichtenberger, E. O. (1999). Essentials of WAIS-III assessment. New            York:   Wiley.

Kaufman, A.S., & Kaufman, N.L. (1983). K-ABC interpretative manual. Circle Pines, MN:       American Guidance Service. (2 nd ed., 2004, KABC-II)

McClelland, D. (1974). Testing competence rather than Intelligence, in Gartner, Greer and         Riessman, eds., New Assault on Equality, Perennial Library, New York.

Quinones, M. (1997). Training for a Rapidly Changing Workplace: Applications of          Psychological Research. Rice University, Michigan.

Weschler, David (1935).  Measurement intelligence of the adult. Baltimore: Williams &Wilkins.

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19 Jan 2010

Sample Essay: Diversity Action Plan- Pepsi Co

Introduction

PepsiCo is a transnational organization that has a large consumer base all over the world. Due to future trends in population growth, it will be more important than ever for organizations to prepare for the challenges and opportunities presented by diversity. Issues like water scarcity, health consciousness, and access will be prime concerns for organizations like PepsiCo. With the growth of population, the major population growth is projected to be in Asia, notably in China and India.

To produce more bottled and can drinks for the growing population, PepsiCo needs water supply. Since the world is seeing a decrease in its available potable water level, PepsiCo could tap areas where it can draw enough water to produce both aerated soft drinks and mineral water.

Transnational

The growing importance of transnational companies in the global market has resulted in risks to the community interests, such as protection of human rights and the environment. However, transnational enterprises could in the course of their activities effectively contribute to the enforcement of these community interests (Nowrot, n.d).

Both PepsiCo and Coca-Cola have had their share of litigations against causing environmental and health risks and water contamination. Under such negative publicity, PepsiCo might do well to stay away from impeding in the heavily populated areas and remove the already scarce water. With the world population set to grow, the need for fresh water and aerated drinks will only increase. In such a situation, the best possible solution for the company would be to increase its sales through innovative practices.

World Bank and Water resources

When the World Bank came up with the idea of establishing a separate body to handle the water resources across the globe, it did so with the intention of providing practical solutions to meet the demand of those who lived without proper drinking water. The World Bank identifies countries and basins where there is an abundance of water resources, but not distributed uniformly. With government approval these water resources are tapped for human consumption and irrigational purposes.

The policy proposed in September 2001 on water resources, saw the World Bank seek the assistance of the private sector. The World Bank felt that the transition in the management of water resources, private investment and management would play an increasing role in managing finance and changes (WRM, 2007).

By associating itself with the World Bank, PepsiCo will have access to enough water for its production, while getting the support of the investing partners to minimize financial implications. This is among the best possible solutions that PepsiCo could enjoy while meeting the growing demand of its aerated drinks and mineral water.

Statsistic

Figure Courtesy: UN World Population Prospects, 1993,  http://www.ifpri.org/2020/BRIEFS/NUMBER05.HTM

The world’s population, today numbering some 5.5 billion people, may approach 12 billion by the end of the next century (Figure 1). By the year 2020, 26 years from today, it will most likely have increased by about 2.5 billion to a total of 8 billion people, an increase of nearly 100 million a year. Over 93 percent of this growth will take place in the developing countries as shown in Figure 2 (Nygaard, 1994).

Considering the above statistics, it can be gauged that the market audience for PepsiCo will be tremendous, and its involvement in national and international water resource management will help the company establish its brand identity in the global market.

PepsiCo can avail financial assistance from the World Bank and other financial institutions and develop water resources for human consumption and also indulge in corporate social responsibilities by protecting water misuse and safe-guarding the environment.

References

Nowrot Karsten, Share the World’s Resources: Transnational Enterprises and Global Public Goods, http://www.stwr.net/content/view/92/37/

Water Resources Management (WRM), 2007, The World Bank, http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTWRM/0,,contentMDK:20441076~hlPK:1307119~menuPK:1304484~pagePK:148956~piPK:216618~theSitePK:337240,00.html

Nygaard David F, 1994, 2020 Vision Brief 5, World Population Projections, 2020, http://www.ifpri.org/2020/BRIEFS/NUMBER05.HTM

06 Jul 2009

Sample Essay: Global Warming

Historically the main threat to biodiversity has been a set of threats generated from the overpopulation of humans: mass agriculture, deforestation, overgrazing, slash-and-burn, urban development, pesticide use. Worldwide, the effects of global warming add a potentially catastrophic threat to global biological diversity; a 2004 study by Chris Thomas, Lee Hannah, et al. estimated that 15 to 37 percent of all species would become extinct by 2050. Biodiversity provides many ecosystem services that are often not readily visible. It plays an essential part in regulating the chemistry of our atmosphere, pollinating crops and generating water supply. Biodiversity is directly involved in recycling nutrients and providing fertile soils. Experiments with controlled environments have shown that humans cannot easily build ecosystems to support human needs; for example insect pollination cannot be mimicked by man-made construction. The total value of ecosystem services may amount to trillions of dollars in ecosystem services per annum to mankind. For example, one segment of North American forests has been assigned an annual value of 250 billion dollars; as another example, honey-bee pollination, a small segment of ecosystem services, is estimated to provide between 10 and 18 billion dollars of value per annum. The value of ecosystem services on one New Zealand Island has been imputed to be as great as the GDP of that region.

With the above information as a frame of reference it seems that it would be behooving of nations as a collective to embrace the idea of the reality of global warming and to try and pull their collective resources to together to try and alter its course.  Conservation biologists trace the ethics that guide their work back to early spiritual philosophies, including the Tao, Shinto, Hindu, Islamic and Buddhist traditions. In the West, origins of concern for the destruction of the natural environment by man can be traced to Plato; however, modern roots of conservation biology can be found in the late 18th century Enlightenment period particularly in England and Scotland. A number of thinkers, among them notably Lord Monboddo, described the importance of “preserving nature”; much of this early emphasis had its origins in Christian theology. By the early 1800s biogeography was ignited through efforts of Von Humboldt, DeCandolle, Lyell and Darwin; their efforts, while important in relating species to their environments, fell short of actual conservation. (Fraker)  Thus, the efforts to try and curtail any permanent damage to the ozone and the environment have been occurring for two hundred plus years.   Although such assignments of change have been in focus in the mindset of scientists, and naturalists, it is a reality that not enough has been done to stop the problem of global warming, or global climate change.  The detriment to the environment is one in which the entire planet needs to be privy to, and needs to change.

Another major issue of global warming that comes up in most debates on the subject is the melting of the polar ice caps.  This glacier melting is in reference to a fjord, Müller Ice Shelf, which is part of the Antarctic Peninsula.  The concern over the melting of this ice cap and the relevance it has to global warming can be seen in the figures of its progressive melting, ‘1200 square mile section early in 2002′ (World View of Global Warming paragraph one).

The glaciers are not the only ‘proof’ of global warming, it can also be witnessed in Alaska with the tundra changing fifteen years ago to now in which the statistics show that the temperature has increased 0.5 to 1.5 degrees Celsius (World View of Global Warming paragraph three).  Even mountain glaciers are beginning to show signs of melting as can be seen with the Broggi glacier in the Andes where the photographs comparable from 1932 to 1999 are drastic in the glaciers obvious shrinkage.

The term conservation came into use in the late 19th century and referred to the management, mainly for economic reasons, of such natural resources as timber, fish, game, topsoil, pastureland, and minerals, and also to the preservation of forests (see forestry), wildlife (see wildlife refuge), parkland, wilderness, and watersheds. Western Europe was the source of much 19th century progress for conservation biology, particularly the British Empire; however, the United States began making sizable contributions to this field starting with thinking of Thoreau and taking form in the United States Congress passing the Forest Act of 1891, John Muir’s work and the founding of the Sierra Club in 1895, founding of the New York Zoological Society in 1895 and establishment of a series of national forests and preserves by Theodore Roosevelt from 1901 to 1909.In the early 20th century the New York Zoological Society was instrumental in developing concepts of establishing preserves for particular species and conducting the necessary conservation studies to determine the suitability of specific locations that are most appropriate as conservation priorities; the work of Henry Fairfield Osborn Jr., Archie Carr and Archie Carr III is notable in this era. (Fraker)  Again, a person can see that efforts have been around for a long time to try and preserve the planet, but with the onset of the Industrial Revolution and the continual harm to the environment since then, more pro-active approaches need to be instilled in the policy making and the politics of countries.

By the early 1970s national and international governmental agencies became more active in the conservation of biodiversity. Notably the United Nations acted to conserve sites of outstanding cultural or natural importance to the common heritage of mankind. The programme was adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO in 1972. As of 2006, a total of 830 sites are listed: 644 cultural, 162 natural. The first country to pursue aggressive biological conservation through national legislation was the USA, which passed back to back legislation in the Endangered Species Act(1966) and National Environmental Policy Act (1970), which together injected major funding and protection measures to large scale habitat protection and threatened species research.By 1992 most of the countries of the world had become committed to the principles of conservation of biological diversity with the Convention on Biological Diversity; subsequently many countries began programmes of Biodiversity Action Plans to identify and conserve threatened species within their borders, as well as protect associated habitats. The science of ecology has clarified the workings of the biosphere; i.e., the complex interrelationships among humans, other species, and the physical environment; moreover, the burgeoning human population, and associated agriculture, industry and its ensuing pollution have demonstrated how easily ecological relationships can be disrupted.

In my opinion global warming is a serious threat.  There have been documented studies as to the future effects of air pollutants and how this will change the overall global temperature to such an unprecedented rate that many land masses will be consumed by the ocean.  There are simple measures to take presently to counteract the potential of this disaster.  As a global community we must reuse, reduce and recycle.  Green cars a great way to enact this initiative.  Living a more self-sufficient life is another way.

Global warming is a serious threat to humanity.  Already there have been changes in global weather such as the hurricanes, tsunamis, and other drastic weather changes around the globe.  Since this is global warming in my opinion it is necessary to deal with the problem not just locally but to involve the world, to create a breadth of awareness which spans beyond the borders of countries.  Global warming began with the rise of the industrial age, it is up to a new age, one built with conservation in mind that will be the ultimate cure for any future devastations which will occur with global warming.

Work Cited

Beyerl, Tammie R., Davis J. Gibson, Mark A. Basinger and Jody P.Shimp.  Habitat and life history characteristics of Dioscorea oppositifolia L., an invasive exotic plant species, in southern Illinois. Department of Plant Biology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois., 2000, 27th Annual Natural Areas Conference.

Becker, Randall J. Future agency partenerin initiatives in naturalarea/ecosystem management. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Littlee rock District, 700 West Capital, Little Rock, Arkansas. 2000, 27th Annual Natural Areas Conference

Borneman, David G. “Its not that easy being green” and other lamentations of a city Natural Areas Program. City of Ann Arbor ,Parks and Recreation department, Natural Area Preservation Divisiom, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 2000, 27th Annual Natural Areas Conference

Borneman, David G. Teach me to restore and I will be safe for life lifetime. Natural Areas Program. City of Ann Arbor ,Parks and Recreation department, Natural Area Preservation Divisiom, Ann Arbor, Michigan2000, 27th Annual Natural Areas Conference

Frankland, Faye A. and Thomas A. Nelson. Monitoring the impacts of deer on wildflower communities. Department of Biological Sciences, Eastern Illinois University, Charleston, Illinois. 2000, 27th Annual Natural Areas Conference

Fraker, Guy. Land Trusts and the role of The Nature Conservancy. The Nature Conservancy, Illinois Chapter, Illinoi. 2000, 27th Annual Natural Areas Conference

Glazer, Alexander N. University of California Natural Reserve System(UC NRS) University of California, Office of the President, Oakland, California. 2000, 27th Annual Natural Areas Conference2000, 27th Annual Natural Areas Conference

Mauger, David, Thomas P.Wilson and Donald M. Stillwaugh Jr. Translocation of spotted Turtles to Lockport and Romeoville prarie Nature preserves. Forest Preserve District of Will County. Illinos and Department of Biology, george Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia. 2000, 27th Annual Natural Areas Conference

McFall, Don. 300 Illinois Nature Preserves, an overview of the Illinois Nature Preserve Commission and its system of protected areas. Illinois nature Preserve Commission, Springfield, Illinois. 2000, 27th Annual Natural Areas Conference

Ross.Laurel M. Chicago Wilderness:challenges for the future. The Nature Conservancy, Illinois Chapter, Chicago, Illinois. 2000, 27th Annual Natural Areas Conference.

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