18 Dec 2010

Sample Essay: U.S Macroeconomic

1. The Economy in a Recession: answer the following questions assuming an economy similar to the U.S with real GDP falling 1% per year, unemployment as 12% and inflation at 1% per year.

a. Consider the 3 macroeconomic goals: full employment, low inflation, and economic growth. Why is full employment important for the U.S economy? Why is low inflation important? Why is economic growth important? Which is these goals are we failing to meet based on the information above for question 1?

– There are many ways that Full employment is important within the U.S.  The main reasons for full employment is that the economy will become stalled and unable to grow without having every person that is capable and willing to work working.  What full employment means is that the unemployment rate would run at 0%.  Low inflation is also very important to the economy.  Inflation being at a low means that the prices of good and services increase at a steady rate versus rapidly.  Though low inflation can be warning signs for deflation so economists keep an eye on inflation at all times no matter if its low or high.  Economic growth just like full employment and low inflation is very important to our economy.  This means that there is an increase in the per capita gross domestic product.  This is very important because it means that people are buying products and therefore the economy is in a stable place.

Based on the information above that states that GDP is falling at 1% per year, unemployment is at 12% and inflation is at 1% per year, the United States is not making the goals of economic growth and full employment.  However, with 1% inflation the United States is succeeding at the goal of low inflation.

b. During a recession, some economists recommend expansionary fiscal policy. To pursue expansionary fiscal policy, would the federal government increase or decrease government spending? To pursue expansionary fiscal policy, would the federal government increase or decrease taxes? What will this do to the federal budget deficit? What will this do the nation debt?

-There are many different things that can be done in order for the government to pursue expansionary fiscal policy.  However, the main thing that the government does in order to pursue this policy is to increase government spending.  When spending by the government is increased, it helps to stimulate the economy.  Stimulation of the economy helps the economy grow.  Also in order for the government to be able to pursue the policy of expansionary fiscal policy, they would need to decrease taxes. This decrease in taxes allows more money to be in the market for people to buy goods. The buying of goods stimulates the economy and therefore helps it grow.  Unfortunately expansionary fiscal policy has the problematic effect of causing the federal budget deficit to grow, and for the nation’s debt to increase as well.

c. During a recession, some economists recommend expansionary monetary policy. To pursue expansionary monetary, would the Federal Reserve increase or decrease the money supply? Would the Federal Reserve buy or sell U.S Treasury securities? Would the Federal Reserve raise or lower the discount rate? If annual inflation remained at 1% per year, would this expansionary monetary policy cause nominal interest rates to increase or decrease in the short-run? What do you think would happen to nominal interest rates over the next 5years if annual inflation increased to 15% during this time?

-There are many different things that the Federal Reserve can do when trying to follow economists recommendation of expansionary monetary policy.  One of the ways that the Federal reserve pursues this policy is by increasing the money supply.  When more money is printed then more money is available to be spent on items therefore stimulating the economy.  Another way that the Federal Reserve pursues the expansionary monetary policy is by buying U.S.Treasury Securities.  When the reserve buys these securities from the public they are giving money to the public and therefore once again allowing more purchases to happen based on more money in the economy.  A third way that the Federal Reserve would pursue this policy is by lowering the discount rate. The lower the discount rate the more willing people are to buy things such as cars and houses that rely on interest rates. At 1% inflation per year, the policy would cause nominal interest rates to decrease.  This is because the low inflation can at any point slide into a deflation and cause the economy to enter a recession versus the current economic status. At 15% annual inflation during the next 5 years then nominal interest rates would increase.  This increase would be to slow the increase of inflation and lower it to a more stable and economically favorable point.

d. During recession, some economists argue we should wait for the economy to correct itself. What must happen to resource prices for the economy to self-correct from a recession? What are some pros and cons of waiting for the economy to self-correct from recession? (list 2pros and 2cons)

-Self-correcting economies can happen according to some economist.  They wish to leave the economy alone and let the economy correct itself.  There are many different pros and cons to listening to the economists that believe in this theory.  The pros of waiting for the economy to self correct can be  that the national debt does not increase due to government spending, and the workforce will correct itself without government interjection and increase debt by the government.  The cons of waiting can include, the time it takes for the economy to self correct itself can seem devastating not only for the public but for the political party that is in place during this time, and prices of resources can fall too much and the opposite effect that is wanted may take place such as falling further into a recession versus out of it.

e. Some economists argue for improvement in education, infrastructure, health care, research and development of new technologies to increase economic growth. Some economists argue for lower taxes to increase incentives to work, save and invest. How would these supply enhancing policies help pull the economy out of recession? Which of these policies are you in favor of and why?

-Economist argue for many things when it comes to the increase in economic growth.  Some of these items are the improvement in education, infrastructure, health care, and research and development.  When these items are improved then the possibility of an improvement in the economy can occur according to the economists that argue for these items.  Other economists argue for lower taxes to increase incentives to work, save, and invest.  These supply enhancing policies can help pull the economy out of the recession because lower taxes help people spend more, save more, and invest in their future for hard times.  This stimulates the economy and therefore increases economic growth.  Improving education for example can not only help more people enter the workforce but can add income not only to the teachers of the schools but to the schools itself therefore allowing them to buy and pay more.  The policies that I am in favor of is the improvement in healthcare.  The reason that I favor this improvement is because when more people are healthy because of better healthcare and the possibility of curing more things then the workforce grows and therefore not as many people need to be on government subsidiaries and the government expenditures go down on things such as disability and can be spent on things that will grow the economy more.

2. The economy during an Inflationary Boom: Answer the following questions assuming an economy similar to the U.S with real GDP growing 5% per year over the last two year, unemployment at 3%, and inflation at 12%

a. Consider the 3 macroeconomic goals: full employment, low inflation, and economic growth. Why is full employment important for the U.S economy? Why is low inflation important? Why is economic growth important? Which is these goals are we failing to meet based on the information above for question 2?

-Macroecomic goals are set for the success of an economy.  These goals which include full employment, low inflation, and economic growth our very important in order for the economy to remain stable and successful.  Full employment is very important as part of an economic goal because when not enough people are working then there is a shortage of supplies that are needed and when there is more people needing work then work is available then government expenditures such as unemployment rises and therefore causes a shortage of funds on other projects that might be more important.  Low inflation is very important to the economy because when inflation is low then the dollar is worth more.  This is because when inflation is high then the dollar is worth more then a dollar therefore causing items to be less then their actual worth.  Finally economic growth is the most important when it comes to the economy.  With economic growth the economy remains stable because it shows that people are buying and selling at the right amounts.  When economic growth is low then it means not enough people are buying or selling and this stalls the economy.  Based on the information above for question two the goals that are failing in this example are full employment and low inflation.  Though unemployment in this example is lower then in the first there is still some unemployed people therefore we are not at full employment.  Also, the economy is failing at low inflation at 12% which means that the value of money is too high and therefore not worth as much as it could be.

b. During inflationary boom periods, some economists recommend using contractionary fiscal policy. would the federal government increase or decrease government spending if they wanted to reduce inflation? , would the federal government increase or decrease taxes if they wanted to reduce inflation? What will this do to the federal budget deficit? What will this do the nation debt?

-Economist have many theories when it comes to what to do during a inflationary boom period.  An inflationary boom period means that inflation is high due to too much money in the economy and therefore the value of that dollar is lower then it could be.  One of the ways that economist recommend for such periods of time is using contractionary fiscal policy. During this policy the government would decrease its spending.  The reason for this decrease is that the amount of money in the economy is lowered because of less spending.  Taxes during this time period would increase therefore pulling some of the money out of the consumers hand and back into the reserves.  Also, due to the lesser spending by the government and the increase in taxes both the federal budget deficit and the nations debt would decrease.

c. During inflationary boom periods, some economists recommend using contractionary monetary policy. To pursue contractionary monetary policy, would the Federal Reserve increase or decrease the money supply? Would the Federal Reserve buy or sell U.S Treasury securities? Would the Federal Reserve raise or lower the discount rate? Would the Federal Reserve raise or lower reserve requirements?

-The Federal Reserve has different ways to deal with the inflationary boom periods.  One of these ways is to follow economists recommendation of using contractionary monetary policy.  What this policy means when it comes to the Federal Reserve is that the money supply would be decreased.  This decrease would lessen the amount of money in the economy and therefore slow down the economy causing it to even out versus continuing to grow at higher inflation rates.  Also, the Federal Reserve in order to pull some of the money out of the economy would sell U.S. Treasury Securities.  These securities would be given to people in order for them to hold onto till a time where the securities are being bought again allowing for the consumers to save during this time but not with actual money.  Finally the Federal Reserve would raise reserve requirements for the banks.  This increase would cause the banks to have to have more in their reserves therefore less loans would be accepted and processed.

d. During inflationary boom periods, some economists believe we should wait for the economy to correct itself. What must happen to resource prices for the economy to self-correct from overheated boom phase in the business cycle? What are some pros and cons of waiting for the economy to self-correct when the economy is overheated and inflationary? (list 2pros and 2cons)

-Even during inflationary boom periods some economist believe that the economy should be allowed to self-correct itself versus the government getting involved.  Based on this in order for the economy to self-correct from overheated boom phase in the business cycle resource prices must rise.  The reason for this rise is so that less companies would buy products and therefore supply and demand will even itself out.  There are many pros and cons that have to do with waiting for the economy to self correct. The pros for this can include the economy will more naturally correct itself versus the possibility of over slowing the economy and falling into a recession, and layoffs of employees happen at a slower rate therefore allowing families to prepare for the loss of jobs.  The cons for this theory can include the speed of which the economy corrects itself can be much slower, and not enough people at government facilities to cover the increase in unemployed workers.
e. Some economists argue for improvement in education, infrastructure, health care, research and development of new technologies to increase economic growth. Some economists argue for lower taxes to increase incentives to work, save and invest. How would these supply enhancing policies help reduce inflation? Which of these policies are you in favor of and why?

– Many economists argue for many things during hard times.  Some economists argue for improvement in education, infrastructure, health care, and research and development of new technologies in order to increase economic growth.  Other economists argue for lower taxes to increase incentives to work, save, and invest.  These supply enhancing policies would help reduce inflation because more people would be educated on what an inflationary boom is and they would save money in order to help slow the economy down.  Also saving during a time of economic growth will allow these families that do loss their jobs during times of high inflation a fall back in order to not lose their lifestyle.  The policy that I favor is the increase in investment and savings.  The reason that I favor this policy is because not only will help the families in the long run but investing and saving during inflationary periods gets the money out of the hands of the consumers and into banks allowing the banks to have their higher reserve requirements and the economy to slow down at the correct rate.

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07 Sep 2010

Sample Essay: Iraq Democracy

It is part of the objectives of the American government to support Iraq in establishing a democratic government. They have military civil affairs in Iraq helping the local sheiks and leaders on how they could set up their local democratic government after long years of dictatorship. The civil affairs worked with the local sheiks in forming a local government in the area. Apparently, they had difficulties in finding representation in certain areas other than security forces. In Jazeera, they are giving more emphasis on reconstruction projects to stir the economic growth. Furthermore, the American civil affairs are also teaching the locals of the region on how they will face living in the transition from dictatorship to a functioning democratic system (Munson, 2010)). Part of civil affair’s responsibility is to serve their diplomats in the area in doing every support they have for the local sheiks. The affairs are also serving Iraq as advisers for the democratic process. Overall, they found out that many of the local sheiks are interested to learn about the democratic system and adapt it eventually. In the transition, the civil affairs presented to the local leaders of the region about the importance of having transparency in the government. They are working to educate the people about democracy, and during the process most of the civil affairs have to write all about it and they have to stick to the standards. During the early stage, the civil affairs focused on the Jazeera Council who will handle most of the reconstruction project in the area. It is the Jazeera Council who will control the funds for reconstruction. In this stage, the civil affairs also have to teach everything to the council including on how to account the money. Many scholars believed that the transition to democracy in Iraq will take time; although, the American coalition show willingness to do and finish their work before leaving Iraq.

The hostility between the minority Sunni and majority Shiite (Everest, 2010). Many scholars believed that there is no valid comparison between the American Revolution and with the overthrow of Hussein regime in Iraq. In the American Revolution, they took several years of struggles before obtaining their parity with the mother country. During the American Revolution, the Americans have to cover relatively small colonies against the powerful empires in the world which is Great Britain. The Americans fought against the objective of Great Britain to retain autocratic control over the affairs in American colonies. The revolution took place during the era of new ideas and enlightenment regarding liberty and equality. The only synergy between the overthrow of Hussein regime in Iraq and the American Revolution is the kind of government which they are trying to develop in Iraq. There are claims that in examining democratization, America model is not the only model considering that its process was not indigenous to the Iraqi people. It is known that Israel has democracy; however, the American government has structured form of government including their election system. In the overthrow of Hussein regime, anti Saddam Iraqis faced several challenges due to Furthermore, the sectarian and ethnic diversity in Iraq contributed to make it more difficult for democratization. on the other hand, during the American Revolution, large Anglo colonials rebelled against the British crown; however, they don’t have any difficulty involving diversity and they don’t have to cope with the same power that have arisen in Iraq. Finally, in the overthrow of Hussein regime there is no peace proposition promising that the poor and illiberal democracies will still be surrounded by autocratic countries. Unlike the American Revolution, they had the leading figures on Enlightenment ideology. It shows that until now Sunnis and Shiites are still hostile to one another.

According to Greek philosopher Aristotle, democracy is not the best form of government after he compared it with other forms of ruling such as monarchy and oligarchy. Aristotle emphasized that democracy is for and by the people who is far different from monarchy wherein the ruler has he interest of his country (Hummel, 2010). For Aristotle, true form of government should have rulers that are leisured and propertied in order for them to invest their time in producing virtue. Aristotle believed that the best practicable state is the one which virtue has the best of influence wherein the political functions should be assigned to the few rich and other functions to the many poor, to produce a balance of the classes. Aristotle believed that it wasn’t right for the government to disrespect the citizens and it wasn’t right for the government to seize a land from citizen. However, in eighteenth century the things started hopping when the Europeans started making waves with some revolutionary ideas. During the Age of Enlightenment, there are philosophers who went around encouraging people to seek alternatives against the oppressive government. After the Revolution War, the Americans chose democracy and they don’t give favor to monarchy knowing that its form of government is comprised of hereditary rulers who share the same bloodline. The Americans after the Revolution believed that they fought for independence in the first place was to free themselves from government structures that don’t have consent for the people. They prefer the democratic form of government which the people hold the power to rule themselves. The founding fathers of democracy believed that at some point America will become a big nation and by the time it happens, there will be no way they could possibly get everyone together to vote and agree on every single thing.

It is argued that the American government is supporting to bolster the protection of unborn life. It shows that the effort of government is not sufficient without a legal support and it is inadequate to secure legal protection of life. Pro-life movement claimed that jailing women who get abortions is not a fair representation of their argument. They believed that the general body politic is willing to have abortion restricted by human law, but not prohibited. At one time, pro-life movement taught that the Constitution should be interpreted in light of the unalienable right to life which was stated in the Declaration of Independence (Paul, 2010). Right now, the movement is trying to call upon the Congress to propose an amendment to the Constitution to eliminate any doubt that unborn child possess life legally and scientifically. The church has strategically chosen to take incremental steps to conform human to God. Pro-life movement believed that human life should be valued from implantation until its natural death. On the other hand, there are pro-life that are not exclusively associated with Christian morality. Mainly, their viewpoint is that any destruction of human life is considered morally and ethically wrong and it is not mitigated by any benefits. Furthermore, there are pro-life advocates that are against the introduction of birth control especially the hormonal contraception and copper IUD that prevent the implantation of embryo. For them, pregnancy begins at fertilization and certain forms of contraceptives work like abortifacients. Even the Catholics endorse that hormonal contraception has effect to fertilization. Apparently, the position of pro-life movement is not exclusively connected to religious beliefs regarding the sanctity of life. Most of the opinions in the issue of abortion is being reflected on religious groups. The Church opposes abortion and they are after the safeguarding of life and the well being of the pregnant woman.

Generally, a welfare state is a government that provides for the welfare of its citizen. In the process, the government is involved in the lives of the people particularly in providing their physical and social needs. The main objective of the government in welfare state is to assure the equitable standards to its people and create economic equality. In welfare state, the government has important role in providing housing, education, sustenance, healthcare, other goods and services to its citizen (Mitchell, 2010). On the other hand, some nations don’t really have true welfare states considering that goods and services are only given to certain people who meet eligibility requirements. Overall, a welfare state is socialist in nature redistributing the wealth and taxing the middle and upper class to provide goods and services. In terms of the general welfare clause of the US Constitution, the government has the right to collect taxes to pay the debt and provide defense and general welfare of the Americans. In the Constitution, the power of the Congress was specified including their powers in regulating commerce between states. Based on the tax regulations, the government will be considered to be operated exclusively for social welfare purposes such as bringing civic betterments and social improvements. However, there are claims that the promotion of social welfare is carrying business with the general public and they are almost similar to other organizations that are operated for profit. Overall, social welfare should be understood as the well being of the people as community. It shows that general welfare clause holds no power outside of specific items government to control and regulate. It must always remember that the Constitution was written for the government, and the general welfare refers to government itself and not of individual citizens.

In the United States, gender roles are seen as dynamic and they considered it as a product of cultural contexts in which men and women are socialized. They believed that gender roles are based on attitudes and cultural beliefs of the people that change within the historical frames (Anselmi, 2010). In the United States, the role of women undergone significant transformation wherein most women nowadays assumed the roles and behaviors traditionally viewed as for men. The meshing of gender roles predominates in Western countries especially the industrialized area. They believed that gender role orientations has great link with the behavior of the people and can be reflected in athletic participation and alcohol consumption. In the past decades, the Americans have made strides in adjusting and accepting the new definition of gender roles. Based on the Bureau of Labor Statistics, women make up almost 50 percent of the total workplace. It shows that the presence of women in the workplace including their behaviors and attitudes had change. United States government are now requiring the companies to come up with policies that are family friendly to cater women workers such as by implementing flexi time, job sharing, and on-site child care policies. The government is also concerned with the issues involving sexual harassment, and they feel that companies need to be cautious in dealing with it. In the last generation, the United States is dealing with revising its traditional gender roles knowing that there have been significant changes in gender roles affecting the workplace, school, and home affecting the American population.

Generally, affirmative action on racial policies refers to programs that are providing advantages for people of a minority group seen to have been discriminated in terms of their access to employment, education, social welfare, and healthcare. Affirmative action promotes employment equity requiring the institutions to increase their hiring of mandated groups. In some areas, they introduced the use of racial quotas to avoid discrimination during the hiring or application process (Crawford, 2010). Indeed, affirmative actions on racial policy require institutions of being race-blind and act against discrimination. They ensure equal opportunity and encouraging ethnic minority to join even in their police force. In my opinion, affirmative action on racial policy should be implemented knowing that the United States is composed of a diverse community. Through affirmative actions, there will equal distribution of education, jobs, and wealth. It is proper to support the affirmative action on racial policy considering that many of the minorities are underrepresented. It is only through affirmative action on racial policy that the Americans can correct the history of discrimination against minority group.

World War II was the most violent armed conflicts in the history that continues to absorb the interest of military historians. World War II teach the Americans not only about the profession of arms, but also to military preparedness, global strategy, and operations in the coalition of war. The United States carried out its mission in defending the continental United States including other overseas possessions like in the Philippines. They launched limited preparedness campaign and they drafter series of war plans to deal with the threatening international situation (Davis, 2010). The focus of the Americans during World War II was on military policy. Unlike the participation of the United States on Global War on terror, they give greater emphasis on antiterrorism legislation that could significantly expand the police powers. Global war on terror requires the US government a wide range of actions and policies including the establishment and vast expansion of surveillance systems. This time, the United States forfeited its reputation as icon of justice and democracy, even among its closest allies. Scholars believed that the United States undermined it moral authority by having flouted the accepted rules or war.

9. Economic internationalism encompasses the quality and condition in order for the country to be international in the aspect of principles, character, attitude and concern. It is also considered as a belief in cooperation which is between the nations but for the purpose of achieving the common good (Thoma, 2010). One of the dimensions in economic internationalism is its classical theory wherein the assumptions are being regarded as the nations of community. Thus, the nations are interacting by means of trade. The nation can be described as individual but of economic and rational entity; economic internationalism is the economics of community but it is a community that a government may not even rule. This means the economy of the world is classified as national community. Furthermore, this dimension is underpinning such free trade with the assumption that there should be no international migration and investment.

10. The current debate on migration policy is the fact that it can bring higher economic benefits for the purpose of receiving the families, immigrants and at the same time the society. As previously studied, though migration policy is well-managed, organized and legal, the economy is still well affected due to increasing number of migrants in the country, particularly the United States. There are many migrants who are willing to work abroad and adapt the lifestyle of the country, because of their dreams that most of them can escape their hard lives in their own countries (Perez, 2010). But since, most migrants are willing to work with lower pay in order to survive and live in their chosen country; the citizens of that country cannot find any jobs because of rising competition from migrants.

Reference

Anselmi. Gender Roles. Retrieved August 2, 2010, from:

http://family.jrank.org/pages/686/Gender-Gender-Roles-Stereotypes.html

Crawford. Affirmative Action on Racial Policy. Retrieved August 2, 2010, from:

http://www.debatingracialpreference.org/PREFACE.htm

Davis, Todd. Global War on Terror. Retrieved August 2, 2010, from:

http://www.globalwaronterror.net/index.htm

Everest, Larry. New US War on Iraq. Retrieved August 2, 2010, from:

http://rwor.org/a/v23/1140-1147/1140/iraq.htm

Hummel, Charles. Aristotle. Retrieved August 2, 2010, from:

http://www.ibe.unesco.org/publications/ThinkersPdf/aristote.pdf.

Mitchell. Welfare State. Retrieved August 2, 2010, from:

http://www2.rgu.ac.uk/publicpolicy/introduction/wstate.htm

Munson. Iraqi in Transition Potomac. Books Publisher, 2009, pp 142-160.

Paul, Ron. Prolife Politics. Retrieved August 2, 2010, from:

http://www.lewrockwell.com/paul/paul240.html

Perez. Impact of Immigrants. Retrieved August 2, 2010, from:

http://www.migrationpolicy.org/

Thoma, Mark. Healthy Globalization. Retrieved August 2, 2010, from:

http://economistsview.typepad.com/economistsview/2008/05/a-strategy-to-p.html

14 Jul 2009

Sample Essay: Coastal Southern California, Expansion

Many aspects contributed to the expansion of Southern California’s coastal region. From prime location to expansion through business diversity, Southern California’s Coast became the stepping stone for economic growth. The land that indigenous tribes once inhabited for substance resource would become the window for economic stability in the U.S. Native tribes used the land for supplies and food and always took just enough for substance, but it was not until Anglo-American political and economic influence did Southern California’s coastal region really reach its expansion potential.

The indigenous economies that inhabited much of the Southern California Coast where hostile to any explorers.  There is a historical pretext in their society, as each one was able to receive and adapt to his or her land.  In this evidence, they became a society that had a policy with its people, which dealt with the traditions of religion.  We can see this culture begin to have certain needs in order to maintain a healthy society and livelihood.  Their tribal groups were concerned with the causes of his or her relationship, in its interaction with their natural resources.  And because the indigenous people had utilized their land for the purpose of survival, their land became a symbolic representation to their lives (Handbook of North American Indians, Vol.4).

However, because of the size and the diversity of their tribal groups, this promotion would lead to conflict, as it was in the new frontier of Southern California.

Colonization throughout coastal Southern California was inevitable. The first Spanish colony was established in 1535 by Cortes, but only lasted one year (Beebe 477). The unsuccessful colonization of Cortes was due to motivation of powers. Through countless unsuccessful voyages made by the Spanish seeking riches from rumors of pearls (Beebe 74) to solidification of trade routes to Asia it was only a matter of time before there was motivation worthy enough. This motivation would come in the form of religious power. As stated in “Lands of Promise and Despair”, California was not colonized until it began to receive attention as a potential mission territory (74). Spanish mission presence would not only bring the opportunity of expansion north, but would also bring military strength, which accompanied the missionaries[1] and eventually lead to establishments Ranchers.

The Rancheros in the mid 19th century in Southern California were able to cultivate their land, and use it for vocation and trade.  This advancement allowed the Rancheros or ranch owners to use their resources to establish commerce in Southern California.  Evidence provided by the census shows that Rancheros began to increase farm resources such as cattle and tallow.

California at this time had become a place which was seen as a new frontier, and it was an attraction for various nations .  These residents began to take advantage of his or her estate, by a new process of cultivation which included its live stock.  The Rancheros were also behaving according to the traditions found in their estate, and agriculture was an important aspect to the indigenous people but also to the Ranch owners. This is an important aspect to realize, because they were able to proposer from farm land, unlike the modern development at the turn of the 19th century, which would have a different social impact on a resident there.  Kevin Starr in The Americans and the California Dream explains, “In part it reflected reality, for the final decade of California’s Mexican era was a confusion of revolution, counterrevolution, graft, spoliation, and social disintegration as Northern and Southern factions struggled for power in a series of internecine clashes…”  (Starr 8).

The Rancheros did behave in an aspect which, they have shared with the ancestors of North America.  However, California at this time was beginning to have a new frontier open up, and as technology communications began to advance, this ideal of Southern California would attract immigrants, and the citizens of North America.  Southern California was viewed as a place which accepted an identity which was established by tradition.  For example, this would have an impact on the development of Southern California later, when the United States government established public transportation in this region.  We can see the Rancheros understand this dilemma: the market price of his or her estate would grow, as there was a population spike in this region.   In cultivating their natural resources, they were capable in establishing this land, as an economic trend in Southern California. Its decision to have a new agenda; though its decision to have a new frontier in the U.S., would coincide and conflict with the priorities of other residents there.  The Rancheros have had a dealt in describing a new social aspect because now they were able to have a new ideal.  Furthermore, under this evidence we can see that the Rancheros were able to adapt, and explain this social change in its agenda.  From its land development, the Rancheros have used cattle and farming in order to take advantage of their estate.  The identity of the Rancheros were conflict of the Indigenous people, once the population had increased in Southern California, as an immigrant workers were hired in this region.  Furthermore, they were able to withstand what it was about the Rancheros which have grown up during this time.  In this regard it seems that the Rancheros have used its ability in fostering a new social agenda which differed from the indigenous people, because the Rancheros still were influenced by an anglo-tradition, in order to establish their own commerce and trade.  Once again, the Rancheros could be seen as a people who were able to adapt and withstand this social identity and still maintain their identity with the tradition of North America.  This has been defined by the Rancheros at the mid nineteenth century, who have used their estates, as a natural resource to strengthen his or her commerce industry.  Furthermore,  Kathleen Fanigan in “The Ranch House at Warner’s, ” helps to explain the commerce equity of this culture: “The erection of the house preceded the deed conveyance, the San Diego County Assessor’s office assessed Vicenta Sepúlveda in June 1857 for the following: 4 leagues of land (17,600 acres) valued at $2,200; 435 head of cattle — $2,610; 150 mares and colts — $900; 55 gentle horses — $1,650; 16 mules — $480” (4).  The Rancheros were able not to compromise this identity and in so far, as we are willing to look into this factor, we can see the numerous agendas which have judged the Rancheros into accepting a new social acceptance.  We can see that Rancheros have a new political agenda, and have understood these factors– population growth.  This is a representation of the outlook a Ranchero had during this era in Southern California.

The Rancheros were able to behave in a tradition which did resemble the agriculture era of the indigenous people, yet the flux in the population increase of Southern California brought a different perception on its future.  In this modern frame of mind, the Rancheros became out of date, at least from the standpoint of land development from the U.S. government, in which it was to establish public transportation in this region, and which would also keep under control the number of residents.  Therefore, with this advent Southern California now became a region who was willing to accept, the traffic of laborers from other states, and able to utilize technology, in creating a new social agenda which had differed from the ranch owner.  For example, Charles Brace in The New West, or California, explains the geography of Southern California: “There could not be a stream of lava 140 to 150 feet thick, and 1700 feet wide (as it is in one point) without banks in which to flow… When it was poured from its volcano there could have been no Stanislaus Valley, now 2000 feet deep” (Brace 125).  And we can understand this description, and the development in Southern California in the late 19th century which was viewed, as not only a new frontier but also as a region which would implement, a modern course of events, which would include urban planning and transportation projects.  Also, this was a period when Gold miners began in the labor force due from the natural resources of Southern California.  For example according to the author Charles Brace in The New West, or California, “The causes of this retrogression I have spoken of elsewhere.  They lay in the unfavorable or undeveloped moral agencies here, the uncertainty of the tenure of land, the name attached to mining, and the distance of the country from the world’s centers of population” (Bruce346).  They were able to utilize this social boundary, and they were also able to discover from this social boundary a new frontier.  The social agenda of the resident had changed, due from the policies of the government, in creating a new image of this region which could embrace, the rise in its population.

There was also a political and Economic development in Southern California.  Once again, when we are reminded of California at this time, we can see this political upheaval begin to have its place, with the residents who had disagreed on this agenda. In this circumstance, his or her political stance would conflict with the mainstream.  Southern California, according to one author, “the causes of this retrogression I have spoken of elsewhere.  They lay in the unfavorable or undeveloped moral agencies here, the uncertainty of the tenure of land, the name attached to mining, and the distance of the country from the world’s centers of population” (Bruce 346).  This will help to explain the factors which would lead Southern California, not only to become an official state from the U.S. congress-, but also a region which would accept both urban and large estate– ranch owners– projects.  Furthermore, in this circumstance the identity of a modern state would impact the resident’s view of land development.   The resident in the late 19th century was able to have a new frontier, and which could be seen as a frontier which would open a new commerce.

The Southern California could now be seen  as an urban population, which would cause this previous landscape to change. Accordingly, this landscape would have its impact on the relationship between a resident and his or her region.  Then, they were also able to have a new social ground, not only from the situation of a laborer, but also from the perception of technology and communications.  According to the author, for example Kevin Starr in The Americans and the California Dream explains,  “In part it reflected reality, for the final decade of California’s Mexican era was a confusion of revolution, counterrevolution, graft, spoliation, and social disintegration as Northern and Southern factions struggled for power in a series of internecine clashes…”  (Starr 8).  Once again, from this process, the residents have had a new development of this social understanding, and a new development of how he or she would later accept this lifestyle from cultivating technology, as suppose to agriculture as the ranch owners had done, only a few decades ago at this era. Furthermore, the resident was able to adapt to this, and could be found in its development stages, first The U.S. government introduced the resident of this new frontier, which was associated with technology, and then promoting it as a land of opportunity.

In this circumstance, we can the resident have a new understanding of this goal, and have a new agenda, in promoting an appeal on its own.  The Rancheros could be seen at this point, as opposing this new ideal which would be permanent on his or her landscape; yet the market value of his or her estate would subsequently increase. This trait furthermore would have its understanding with a citizen, then the resident  was also willing to adapt to what it was about the Southern California at this time.

Furthermore, in this indecision we can see that because of Southern California, they were able to harness, a new identity and furthermore, reach the conclusion of these new traits and come to the realization of it.  According to census for example, we can see a rise in the population of Southern California:

1860 21,208 +390%;

1870 24,248 +14%;

1880 49,785 +51%;

1890 175,527 +253%;

1900 271 910 +55%.

This circumstance can be seen, that the resident was able to embrace this new image of Southern California.  Once again, from the social and political views of this state, there was a new development which was beginning to proceed; it would have a social impact on the way in which people not only in other states but also in other nations, would later view this social identity.  And in so far as, the resident was able to accept this social identity, we can reach the conclusion as to what this social identity may than cause, in regards to the land development in Southern California.  From this circumstance there seems to be a divide between the frontier land, and an approach which is different to communicate, on the other majority and have established a new social and political upheaval.  Furthermore, in this circumstance, we can see this identity begin to shape the views of the Rancheros.

In this evidence, we are able to detect that this state was willing to have an understanding on its relationship with the immigrants.  According to the author, Finnigan, she helps to clarify the division between a ranch house and urban planning: “This adobe represents more than an aged dwelling, it gives us a glimpse of life through the eyes of a myriad of individuals who came from a variety of countries and backgrounds. This humble little structure provides the only visible evidence of the grand and tumultuous times from the mid-nineteenth century” (Finnigan 3).  Therefore, a resident would be able to adapt and to change, due from the promotion of a new labor who would be able to accept technology change and market value.

Southern California was willing to accept commerce and trade, as its main identity. This stance would evident in the projects being developed here, including manufacturing industries. We have a new perspective on hoe the southern California would view this political agenda.  This country was able to detect a new political understanding and was also able to understand what it was about their country which could impact the citizen.

Near the end of the 19th century, the social and political strife which had divided classes, for example some residents were oppose to the increase of immigrants, would decline in the Southern California region.  Now the resident could accept this change, especially after it been in an official state, and decide on a political party to promote its agenda.    In this circumstance, we can see a social and political agenda begin to have, a new development and also its beginning, in the foundations of a modern society.  Furthermore, under this circumstance, it seems that they were able to commit to this agenda, and in so far, as they were also willing to have this agenda dictate each others view. The resident was willing to accept this point of view, and also willing to see this have its appeal in their society’s social and political framework.

We can see their political agenda have a great appeal, and furthermore from a circumstance, we are now able to consider to what this appeal has implied onto their knowledge of land development.  Once again, we should consider that the resident was able to adapt in this narrative, and furthermore have an understanding in its tradition.  The Rancheros would still be able to conduct business though, due from the land mass of Southern California, and would later learn and accept the advancements of technology.  This helps to clarify the mindset of an average resident, who was witnessing two cultures develop and share each others traits for the benefit of the nation’s economy.  Furthermore, from this decision we can see the ways, they were able to consider this deal and furthermore, they were able to foster these traits.

Ultimately, Bruce explains,  “Under our Government, beyond all others, the school is the ground-work of order and liberty.  I think, if the time and obstacles be considered, no city in the Union has accomplished more for popular education than San Francisco” (75).  This would help to clarify the state of Southern California, and its regard to the future of a cosmopolitan lifestyle.  After the advent of the Rancheros in Southern California, the indigenous people witnessed their natural resources decline and were unable to interpret this change.


[1] The Jesuits paid the soldiers’ salaries, and they where granted the power to choose and dismiss military officers and civil authorities (Beebe 75).

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