21 Aug 2011

Essay Topic: Black Women in Wars

African women living in war-torn African states such as Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Somalia, among other states have surely felt the impacts of conflict to their lifestyle. For instance, the brutal war in Liberia transpired in three successive phases, which lasted fifteen years from 1989 to 2003. The war in Sierra Leone began in 1991 when Revolutionary United Front of Sierra Leone guerrillas, who were being trained in Liberia, made invasions in their own state.
The war brought on board many actors and lasted ten years, until January 2002. Additionally, the civil strife in Ivory Coast started in 2002 when insurgents in the northern region attempted to overthrow President Laurent Gbagbo; though after international involvement, an accord was agreed upon in 2003. It can be noted that all the wars led to the deaths of many women; some were displaced, while some lost their breadwinner husbands. Presently, all but Ivory Coast are largely at peace. Peacekeepers are on the job or closely in control. The United Nations and global aid bodies are helping recovery. Some light arms have been recovered by the governments; some expatriates have gone back to the countries. Ivory Coast is recovering from the latest political instability that was sparked by the refusal of former president Gbagbo to concede defeat after he was defeated in the country’s elections held late 2010.
Although most African states are largely at peace, which sound unclearly hopeful, in actuality they are so disintegrated, so troubled and, more so in the instances of Sierra Leone, and Liberia, the situation is so distraught and indigent that they may not be capable of securely practicing or enjoying the fruits of peace. In the recent past, Sierra Leone arguably substituted Afghanistan as the tail-end ranked state on the United Nations’ index of human development; the reports gauges literacy levels, healthcare and poverty (Voice of America 1.
As is the case in Afghanistan, the state is a society of widows. Notably, of all those who endured the West African conflicts, it was hapless populations who underwent most suffering. Specifically targeted in terrorist acts as a war strategy, they were rendered homeless, exiled, abducted, tortured, assaulted, injured, maimed and executed. And of all the ordinary populations who suffered, no population segment suffered as excessively as women. Presently, millions of females in such three West African states are still under pressure recovering; for them, the conflicts aren’t actually over at all.
The level of sexual violence and rape in Ivory Coast, when the armed conflict transpired has not been properly evaluated. Majority of the women have suffered gang-rapes or have been kidnapped and forced to be sexual slaves by fighters. In addition, rape has usually come along with torture, including sexual torture one the victim. Unfortunately, all armed sides have executed and continue to implement sexual violence with amazing aplomb, meted on women under the age of 12 to 63. A more topical and thoroughgoing revelation by Human Rights Watch indicates the rape of minors as young as three was prevalent in the countries (Africa Action 1).
At the time the civil strife transpired, women and young girls were captured in their dwelling places or at roadblocks erected by the militaries, or were located in their hiding places in the scrubs. Some of them were raped in front of their families or in public. Some were coerced to witness the execution of spouses or parents. Eventually they were whisked away to military barracks or camps, to prepare the soldiers’ meals during the daytime, only to be gang-raped under the cover of darkness.
Majority of the women suffered rape so ceaselessly and so viciously with sticks, gun barrels, knives, burning coals, some die in the process. Several others sustained injuries and trauma that still remain, many years after the conflicts. Majority still find it difficult to settle or stand, or walk. A number have long lost their capacity to see or their recollections; many more got infected with venereal diseases and HIV.
On the other hand, in Liberia, when the conflict came to an end in 2002, over a million Liberian nationals had been rendered homeless in their own country. Nearly a million others had reportedly fled the country. In a state of three million persons, the statistics translate to 30 percent of the citizens gone. Moreover, more than 270,000 people were killed. And here also, the simple targets were females (Voice of America 1). A World Health Organization report in 2005 suggested that a whopping 90 percent of the women in Liberia had experienced sexual and physical violence; 75 percent of whom suffered rape.
In Kolahun, Lofa County, where the conflicts were high, and women survivors her scars to prove the torment they underwent: a string of parallel straight ridges beginning just under the ear and running down, to the neck. For instance, guerrilla militias in the Charles Taylor forces of the former president of Liberia, who died while being tried by the International Criminal Court for crimes against humanity charges, held women tightly and gradually, inch by inch, tore the flesh of the victims’ neck in blood.
But that isn’t all. Taylor’s militias went breaking fingers of women. For instance, one woman survivor living in the region had her back slammed so vehemently with firearm butts that one foot and a hand are presently paralyzed. In the small rural community of Dougoumai, a woman referred to only as “the sick lady” exists. Her sister opines she was seized by mercenaries waging war against the Taylor regime and was recurrently gang-raped by ten men (Voice of America 1). The militias rammed their rifle butts into her rear– evidently an ordinary technique, which resulted to the paralysis of her legs.
Moreover, they crashed her hands, hence rendering her hands useless. In the recent past, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the United Nations Fund for Population Activities visited the surviving women living in Lofa County, the core of Taylor’s offensive. Over 98 percent said they were rendered homeless during the final phase of the armed conflict; more than 90 percent lost their jobs; more than 72 percent lost at least a kin.
In Sierra Leone, where horrifying the ordinary man was the primary war strategy, the war against women and kids were, as Human Rights Watch has indicated, even more atrocious. All warring factions in the conflict perpetrated countless killings. Official reports record appalling criminal activity: fathers coerced to rape their daughters; brothers coerced to rape their siblings; child soldiers were forced to gang-rape old women, before cutting off their hands; pregnant women were disemboweled alive and the breathing fetus removed from the uterus to satisfy militias’ gambling on its sex status.
These criminal activities, which go against primal norms, aim to damage not only the victims but the entire culture. In the recent past, every manner of terror has been perpetrated on women and girls in Liberia, Ivory Coast and Sierra Leone for being inferior in gender.
In an interview a guerilla fighter in the Democratic Republic of Congo, smiled saying he had “made love” to several women. When asked if all the females were willing, he chuckles, admitting that majority fight him, but he subdues them by calling for reinforcement from his colleagues. Additionally, when such an act is labeled by the interviewer “rape,” the militia insists that sexual violence happens in times of war and that peace is not normally accompanied with rape.
It is notable; nonetheless, that the peace accords signed in the West African region did not entirely trickle down on women, in terms of ending any forms of aggression against the female gender. Studies indicate that well over 50 percent of the women residing in two Liberian provinces, incorporating the capital, Monrovia, had experienced at least one brutal sexual harassment during a one-and-a-half-year period in 2006 to2007, years following the end of the war (Voice of America 1).
Black Women in Wars, Especially in Poor African Countries. Alice Auma Lakwena-The woman who inspired thousands into Battle with mere sticks and stones.
January 1986 was a perfect era for numerous Ugandans; it was the period when the present President, Yoweri Museveni, came to authority. Majority of the middle and western areas of the nation delighted, but in the region of the ACHOLIS, there was a feeling of obscurity; it seemed all they had battled for had been lost. The ACHOLI had lost their authority in Uganda, their control and feeling of identity. They had acquired that authority by being several of the finest soldiers in the military of Uganda, becoming individuals of control and autonomy (Allen 370). Into this manly custom of soldiers and warriors, enter an important woman who was short of all the recommendations. She was deprived, un-learned, plainly lacked and still it was this female who would become the mother of the greatest battle in Uganda.
Alice Auma Lakwena stayed in the little city of Obit, a city where she survived through selling flour and fish. She was married twice but divorced in both instances as she could not give birth. Lakwena stands for messenger in the Acholi idiom and Alice definitely became that. Led by her spirit, she started a movement that would conscript up to fifteen thousand males and guided them into war in opposition to the new administration army in Uganda without modern weapons but plainly sticks and stones. She gave them a stern spiritual system, involving the rejection of witchcraft, stay virtuous, no smoking, drinking, or disagreeing, to surrender all sin in their being and bestow themselves to the duty of cleansing the Acholi individual and the country of Uganda (Allen 372).
Lakwena employed a mixture of legend, voodoo and traditional customs with her exclusive sort of Christianity thrown in. She became a motivator of Acholi individuals; this priestess hero entered her people’s chronology at their period of want and desolation and the period was just correct for her mission to take effect and cultivate. The initial attack in opposition of the National Resistance Army took action close to Lira in Northern Uganda. Equipped with bags of stones, sticks, singing songs, spraying water all around, their bodies smeared with oil to stop the bullets they marched into battle. Amazingly to the majority, they imposed major losses on the National Resistance Army that initial day even while the rocks did not detonate into grenades, and the bullets were not halted by the oil, the warrior priestess soldiers triumphed.
What is astonishing is that she never hit in furtive. She would candidly publicize the looming attack of her troops. Her militia, armed with sticks and stones, with the wails of battle, motivated by the warrior princess, progressed against a military with fatal weapons. The association supplemented arms later on and several of NRA soldiers were murdered in battle and even superior officers were executed and killed. Alice Lakwena did not fall short of soldiers and augmented new regions in and close to the Acholi region of Northern Uganda. It was remarkable to many how this female with no education could motivate numerous individuals (Allen 399). She took her forces to Eastern Uganda where again, her movement triumphed and even a superior officer from NRA was captured.
Alice passed away in a refugee site in Northern Kenya in 2007, following a long term disease and is still mentioned in Uganda by those she motivated, those she battled and those that were in the way of her army. Despite being childless in her natural life, she gave birth to the greatest battle in Uganda. Alice was the mother to what would be the battle of battles in the Pearl of Africa. Something she possibly never perceived in her mind when she carried on with her undertaking. Alice Lakwena will persist as someone exceptional in the pages of Uganda’s past.

Leymah Roberta Gbowee is a Black African peace activist accountable for arranging a peace movement that brought a conclusion to the Second Liberian Civil battle in 2003. This resulted to the voting of Ellen Johnson Sir leaf in Liberia, the initial African country with a black woman president. She was born in Central Liberia. While she was the age of seventeen, she progressed to Monrovia, when the Second Liberian Civil battle sprouted. She qualified as a stress analysts throughout the civil battle in Liberia and was employed as a counselor with the ex-child soldiers of Charles Taylor’s army (Nagbe 7). Bordered by the sights of battle, she recognized that if any alterations were to be implemented in community it had to be by the black women. She is a mother of six, and in 2002, Leymah was a communal worker who planned the Women of Liberia Mass Action for Peace.
The harmony association began with the regional women praying and chanting in a fish market. She planned the Christian and Muslim women of Monrovia, Liberia to implore for peace and to hold peaceful demonstrations. Together, they conducted out a sex thump in which Liberian women rejected to have relations with their partners throughout the battle. Due to the rejection, Charles Taylor accepted to meet Gbowee and guaranteed to take part in peace talks in Ghana. The females joined forces at the venue of the peace talks and rejected to depart until a consensus was arrived. Gbowee then spearheaded a designation of Liberian women to Ghana to progress to implement pressure on the battling groups through the peace procedure. They conducted a soundless demonstration outside the Presidential Palace, Accra, conveying on a consensus through the mired peace talks (Nagbe 7).
Leymah Gbowee and Comfort Freeman, leaders of two differing Lutheran churches, arranged the Women in Peace building Network (WIPNET), and subjected a declaration of purpose to the president. The statement read that the women were silent previously, but following the murder, rape, dehumanization and infection with illnesses, and viewing their children and relations harmed, battle educated the women in saying no to war and yes to harmony. Gbowee insisted that the demonstrations would not concede until peace triumphed. The lobby group brought a conclusion to the Second Liberian national war in 2003 and resulted to the voting of Ellen Johnson Sir leaf in Liberia, the initial African country with a black woman leader.

Clothed in white t-shirts to signify harmony, and figuring in the thousands, Leymah Gbowee spearheaded the women in what became a political movement in opposition of hostility and their administration. She has become triumphant in beseeching other African administrations for harmony. Leymah Gbowee is the main personality in the 2008 documentary film entitled Pray the Devil Back to Hell (Nagbe 7). The movie has been employed as a promotion instrument in post warring regions for instance, Sudan as well as Zimbabwe, assembling Black women in Africa to implore for tranquility and safety. Leymah Gbowee is the senior manager of the Women Peace and Security Network Africa, founded in Accra, Ghana and is responsible for establishing associations across West African sub-areas in maintenance of women’s capability to thwart, turn away and finish wars. She is a founding participant and previous director of the Women in Peace building Program/ West African Network for Peace building (WIPNET/WANEP). She also acted as the elected commissioner for the Liberia Truth and Reconciliation Commission.
Mbuya Nehanda – Led In Resisting Colonization by the British. The invasion by the British resulted to the obliteration of the political, monetary as well as profitable and religious array of the individuals of Southern Africa. The obligation of the hut tax, compelled labor, repression of religious endeavors and land estrangement crystallized African opposition. The military movement to drive away the British, referred to as the Chimurengas or the battle of liberation was begun by the Ndebele in May 1896 and their traditional foes, the SHONA, combined them in October of the similar year. The exceptional aspect of the Chimurenga was the pioneering duties conducted by three MHONDORO: Mukwati in Matabeleland, Kagudi in western Mashonaland and Nehanda, the only woman, in central and Northern Mashonaland (Cairnie 165-170). They hit directly at the center of Shona traditions and hence detained the minds of the individuals by efficiently persuading them that Mwari accused the whites for all their anguish and ruled that the whites should be taken from the land.
Nehanda Charwe Nyakasikana was regarded to as the woman embodiment of the revelation spirit Nyamhika Nehanda. Regarded to as Mbuya Nehanda, she is generally called the grandmother of current day Zimbabwe. She encouraged the SHONA individuals to drive away the British from the land, motivating them to strengthen the battle and rallying them on. Using covert messages to converse with each other, Nehanda efficiently harmonized her hard work. Kagudi was arrested but Nehanda escaped the British a while longer until she was ultimately arrested in December. They both were accused of killing an African policeman and the Native Commissioner Pollard, and sentenced to bereavement by hanging.
Nehanda’s passing phrases were that her bones would rise again, envisaged the second Chimurenga, which terminated in the autonomy of current day Zimbabwe. Facing the advanced expertise of the British, the insurgence astonishingly lasted until the end of 1897 in spite of British actions of revulsion and cruelty. Though the British casualties were statistically less, they symbolized one tenth of their inhabitants (Cairnie 165-170). The main aspects of Nehanda’s cults were ancestor reverence and spirit custody, which persevere among the individuals of current day Zimbabwe. Through the Second Chimurenga, Ian Smith, then Prime Minister of Rhodesia, in an above ground leaflet drop, summoned the names of royal MHONDORO in a distressed attempt to attenuate widespread back up for Zimbabwe African national Liberation Army. The spirit of Nyamhika Nehanda got a new medium in an old woman, who was whipped to shelter by ZANLA guerillas. The unconquerable Mbuya Nehanda, innovatory prophet and ruler of the initial Chimurenga, has currently been buried in Zimbabwe’s Heroes’ Acre.

Aya Virginie Toure is a peace activist in Cote d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast). She became recognized for arranging fellow women in non hostile demonstration in opposition of President Laurent Gbagbo who declined to seize being the president of Ivory Coast in the presidential election to Alassane Ouattara. Toure worked to assemble women as the deputy Director for Ouattara’s Ivorian presidential voting. In the rally of the Republicans (RDR), the leading political party in Ivory Coast, Toure is the appointed President of the Rally of Republican Women. She spoke in opposition of Gbagbo and his interior ring of individuals who were purportedly sending taxpayers’ contribution out of the nation as their individual income (Bender et al 271-358).
Aya Virginie Toure arranged many peace demonstrations all through Ivory Coast throughout the 2010 to 2011 Ivorian calamity. In a fervent interview on BBC news, Virginie contrasted the progressing second Ivorian civil war to the 2011 Libyan national battle and requested for back up from the intercontinental society. She asked for armed forces interference to take away Laurent Gbagbo from authority in the similar manner Charles Taylor was forced to step down in the second Liberian national war.
In December 2010, Aya spearheaded hundreds of women in a diplomatic demonstration through the progressing crisis in Abidjan, the financial capital of Ivory Coast. They thumped pots to caution the advent of the militias. March 2011, she headed fifteen thousand women who collected in the town of Abidjan, in Ivory Coast, to demonstrate in opposition of the serving leader Laurent Gbagbo, who persistently declined to step down following his lose in November’s leadership voting. Several of the women were dressed in all dark clothing while others were totally naked, both of which are dreaded taboos in Ivory Coast (Bender et al 271-358). In Africa and Ivory Coast, it is like an abomination. The women were cursing the leadership of Gbagbo.
Other black women carried leaves signifying peace, and shouted that they did not recognize the unlawful leadership of Gbagbo. As the demonstrators who were singing and dancing, moved into the uninviting environs of Abobo, tanks approached the demonstrators. The women rejoiced, supposing the new advents had come in back up of their rally. But the men in the approaching troops begun shooting and killed seven of them. During the worldwide women’s’ day, Toure mobilized forty five thousand women in a nonviolent demonstration all round the nation. The women were once again met with young men equipped with machetes and repeated firing into the air at Koumassi.
In response to the demonstrations, Leymah Gbowee gave a proclamation of back up for the nonviolent demonstrations of the Christian as well as Muslim women in the Ivory Coast and contrasted them to those of her country. At the ECOWAS meeting in Nigeria a one thousand women demonstration was arranged by peace activists in West Africa in back up of the female of Ivory Coast. They dressed in white t-shirts and symbolized nations all over West Africa involving Ivory Coast (Bender et al 271-358).
They subjected press liberation and presented declaration to the ECOWAS heads of nations. March 23, Goodluck Jonathan, leader of Nigeria recommended the United Nations to surpass a declaration to take influential activities, stating volatility facades a peril to safety in West Africa. At the end of March, the United Nations Security Council resolution was acquired commonly, demanding that Laurent Gbagbo resign as leader and permit worldwide realized leader Alassane Ouattara to take over. The declaration obligated approvals on Gbagbo and his close acquaintances. The declaration was funded by France and Nigeria.

Lalla Fadhma n’Soumer in Kabyle was a significant person of the KABYALE resistant movement through the initial years of the French colonial conquest of Algiers. The effect of her participation was such that she has been viewed as the personification of the war. Lalla is a term used to regard to women esteemed as saints. N’Soumer was born in the Kabyle town. Established sources note that she demonstrated an influential and obstinate personality from her untimely young life (Salhi 79-101). For example, she emphasized on following teachings in the Koran in her parent’s institution, very uncommon conduct for a female child in that tradition. At the age of only sixteen, her relations organized for her wedding, as was tradition. Though, she declined so as to go back to her spiritual schooling.
Consequently, being regarded as a woman obsessed by the spirit, she pursued a life of severity, focused to the endeavor and research of religion, and progressed her schooling. Her reputation became widespread so much that Muslims from all Kabylie came to her for counsel and give her presents. To every person, the young girl appeared not only devoid and astute, but in addition youthful and pretty: she took much concern of her body as well as clothes, and routinely dressed in expensive ornaments. The French started their inhabitation off Algeria in 1830, beginning with a landing in Algiers. As inhabitation altered into colonization, Kabylia insisted the only area free of the French administration. Demands on the area heightened, and the longing of her people to fight away and safeguard their region also heightened.
A turning period in Lalla Fadma’s being was the settlement in Kabylie of a strange man who portrayed himself as Mohamed ben Abdallah. He was almost certainly an ex-lieutenant in the military of Emir, conquered for the last period by the French. He denied to give up at the war, and settled at Kabylie. From there, he started a war in opposition of the French military and their friends, frequently using guerilla techniques. Baghla was a persistent combatant, and expressive in Arabic. He was also very spiritual and various legends tell about his techniques (Salhi 79-101). He frequently went to summer to speak with the High ranking associates of the spiritual society and Lalla Fadhma was soon engrossed by his great character. At the same period, the unrelenting participant was drawn by a woman so decisively prepared to take part, by any way probable, to the battle in opposition of the French.
With her stimulating speeches, she persuaded numerous men to battle as volunteers prepared to pass away as martyrs, and she included, in association with other women, took part in combat by availing cooking, treatment and console to the warring armies. Fadhma was individually available at numerous battles in which Baghla was include, specifically the war of Tachekkirt triumphed by Baghla troops, where the French General was captured but was able to run away. Tired of progressive war activities from the Kabylie movement, General randon, selected Marshal of France, resolute to hold out in the late spring, what was referred to by the French the appeasement. For the attack she collected a troop of close to forty five thousand individuals grouped in numerous columns to hit.
Overwhelm was unpredictable for the community individuals, being out figured and out armed by their foes, and their homes as well as families crashed one following the other in just several months. The initial tribe to be conquered was that at YIRATEN; on their province the French begun to construct a fort. A sturdy protective line was able to halt, with major defeats and only momentarily, the attackers at other provinces recognition to a spontaneous hit derived from channels concealed in the territory (Salhi 79-101). Established sources say that Lalla Fadhma participated in the war and commanded that the armed forces must be attached to each other with chains so no one was enticed to run away.
In several days, though, employing armaments, the French army was able to penetrate the defenses and all the main tribes surrendered. Lalla Fadhma n’Soumer was captured as a captive mutually with close to two hundred additional women and young ones, who were taken with her to an imprisonment site at the Zaouia under the rule of a regional authority devoted to French. On 26 December 1854, Baghla was murdered; several resources assert it was as a result of the sedition of several of his associates.
The confrontation persisted with no compelling principal and a commandant competent to direct it competently. For this motive, through the first months of 1855, on an asylum constructed top of Azru Nethor climax, not away from the community where Fadhma was nurtured, there was a big assembly between participants and significant numbers of the clans in Kabylie. They accepted to award Lalla Fadhma, helped by her brothers, the authority of fighting. After numerous years following her passing away, Lalla Fadhma’s reputation persists alive and current all through Algeria, and in exact in her area, Kabylia. Particularly, numerous players and bands painted pictures and wrote songs about her, one of the greatest well-known songs devoted to her is by Tagrawla, an Algerian group.
An Algerian feminist linked was renamed Daughters of Lalla Fatma N Soummer in her tribute. Lalla Fadhma, and her illustration of a persistent and courageous lady, is still fascinating at the current time; specifically when in 1995 her vestiges were moved to the conqueror’s cemetery of El Alia, Algiers, the definite day and instance of the ritual was not proclaimed in progress, but only exposed to the media what had taken place after it occurred. The Algiers power were viewed by the media as discomfited to do this move just after passing a bill about Family Code which was enormously cruel with women; in this manner, the powers would not have to safeguard probable disagreeable demonstrations by the women’s relations which unearth in Lalla Fadhma an imperative stature exemplifying an intensely sovereign and contemporary woman (Salhi 79-101).

Conclusion

Generally, the violence meted against the female gender continues. Murderous brutal attacks, not astoundingly, cannot be eradicated in a hurry. In West Africa, as is the case in other regions of Africa such as the DRC and Somalia, rapists thrive and use the act as war strategy; it has become a practice carried flawlessly into the contemporary Africa that is largely at peace. Nevertheless, where usual policing and justice mechanisms have been rendered obsolete by war, former combatants and ordinary men alike normally prey upon females with impunity. Even so, it may not be easy to know precisely how common the challenge is, because girls and women who have been raped are usually too humiliated by the despicable acts to report them.
Most rape cases are committed by a friend or member of the relations and are habitually “influenced” by a token cash payment. Although, rape is currently illegalin many African nations, irate parents in Africa increasingly report cases of child defilement to authorities. For instance in Kailahun District, Sierra Leone, womenmobilize efforts to fight brutal attacks and sexual violence meted against them. Domestic violence, wife-battering, marital rape, torture, emotional abuse, economic marginalization, and such like acts are also widespread and have soared across the African continent, and technically continuing the customary hostility of war.

Annotated Bibliography

Africa Action. Africa: Women in Post-War Reconstruction, (Web, 30/04/2011). Retrieved from http://apic.igc.org/docs99/aft9909.htm
The paper explores the African women living in war-torn African states such as Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, and the Democratic Republic of Congo, among other states have surely felt the impacts of conflict to their lifestyle.
Allen, Tim.Understanding Alice: Uganda’s Holy Spirit movement in context. Africa, 61.3 (1991): 370-399.
This paper indicates that majority of the middle and western areas of Uganda delighted, but in the region of the ACHOLIS, there was a feeling of obscurity; it seemed all they had battled for had been lost. She has made enormous contribution toward the liberation of women from the pangs of war in the country.
Bender et al. Proto-Micronesian Reconstructions. Oceanic Linguistics, 42.2 (2003): 271-358.
As noted in the work Bender and the rest suggest Aya Virginie Toure is a peace activist in Cote d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast). She became recognized for arranging fellow women in non hostile demonstration in opposition of President Laurent Gbagbo who declined to seize being the president of Ivory Coast in the presidential election to Alassane Ouattara.
Cairnie, Julie. Women and the Literature of Settlement and Plunder: Toward an Understanding of the Zimbabwean Land Crisis. English Studies in Canada, 33.1/2 (2007): 165-188.
According to Cairnie (165-188) the invasion by the British resulted to the obliteration of the political, monetary as well as profitable and religious array of the individuals of Southern Africa. The obligation of the hut tax, compelled labor, repression of religious endeavors and land estrangement crystallized African opposition.
Nagbe, Horace P. Promoting Gender Equality in Postconflict Liberia: Challenges and Prospects. Peace & Conflict Monitor, (May2010): 7.
Leymah Roberta Gbowee is a Black African peace activist accountable for arranging a peace movement that brought a conclusion to the Second Liberian Civil battle in 2003. This resulted to the voting of Ellen Johnson Sir leaf in Liberia, the initial African country with a black woman president.
Salhi, Zahia Smail. Between the languages of silence and the woman’s word: gender and language in the work of Assia Djebar. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 190. 1 (2008): 79-101.
According to Salhi, Lalla Fadhma n’Soumer in Kabyle was a significant person of the KABYALE resistant movement through the initial years of the French colonial conquest of Algiers. The effect of her participation was such that she has been viewed as the personification of the war. Lalla is a term used to regard to women esteemed as saints.

Works Cited

Africa Action. Africa: Women in Post-War Reconstruction, (Web, 30/04/2011). Retrieved from http://apic.igc.org/docs99/aft9909.htm
Allen, Tim. Understanding Alice: Uganda’s holy spirit movement in context. Africa, 61.3(1991): 370-399.
Bender et al. Proto-Micronesian Reconstructions. Oceanic Linguistics, 42.2 (2003): 271-358.
Cairnie, Julie. Women and the Literature of Settlement and Plunder: Toward an Understanding of the Zimbabwean Land Crisis. English Studies in Canada, 33.1/2 (2007): 165-188.
Nagbe, Horace P. Promoting Gender Equality in Postconflict Liberia: Challenges and Prospects. Peace & Conflict Monitor, (May2010): 7.
Salhi, Zahia Smail. Between the languages of silence and the woman’s word: gender and language in the work of Assia Djebar. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 190. 1 (2008): 79-101.
Voice of America. US Groups Help Africa’s War-Affected Women (Web, March 24 2011). Retrieved from http://www.voanews.com/english/news/africa/US-Women-Help-Africas-War-Affected-Women-118594794.html

18 Aug 2009

Sample Essay: Moral Issues Of Pornography

Pornography is a major issue that surrounds the society today. Many believe that pornography is the cause of increasing domestic violence not only in the country, but all over the world. To understand the moral issues behind Pornography, let us understand what pornography really is?

“Pornography sometimes shortened to porn or porno, is the explicit representation of the human body or sexual activity with the goal of sexual arousal”[1]

— (Web Definition, Pornography)

In my opinion pornography is one of the major reasons for increase in domestic crimes, and increased frustration in the society. In this paper we try to understand through some basic examples of society and theories, how pornography has a negative impact on our society. In this paper we try and understand;

The role of Pornography in increased Domestic Violence

Effects on Sex Crime

Effects on Sexual Aggression

Objections towards pornography

The case of “Ted Bundy” can be a very good example which shows that pornography not only increases the amount of frustration within the society but also causes domestic violence. It started with “Ted Bundy”, a handsome man who started to watch video’s related to pornography which later resulted in his increased frustration and desires to further extend his acts in order to satisfy him self. He confessed that he was responsible for killing 30 women after assaulting and raping them brutally.[2] Some people argue that the restriction on Porn causes increase in frustration and therefore, people engage into sexual activities. In my opinion this argument is totally meaningless because as we can see from Ted Bundy’s case, he had total access to porn which eventually resulted in his increased frustration. I am sure there are many other cases in society like Ted Bundy which are not noticed, people who commit acts out of frustration.

Some researchers who object my idea of direct relationship between pornography and sexual crimes come up with an argument that in European countries like Sweden and Nederland’s where pornography is legal and people have easy access to these activities, the level of frustration is below compared to countries like America.[3] In my opinion, when people have easy access to pornography they take out their frustrations on sexual workers involved and therefore, the increasing crime rate is not noticeable. The slight increase in Denmark and Sweden was thought by some most probably due to increased reporting as a result of greater and increasing awareness among women and police of the rape problem (Kutchinsky, 1985b, p. 323). This can be considered as one of the reasons for the decrease in crime rates of Europe especially in countries such as Germany, Netherlands, and Sweden.

The life standards of different sex workers in even in countries like America, which claims to be a country which equal rights for all, are not very humanly. The sex workers are exposed to many physical and mental threats. Some people may believe that these sex workers are indulged into sexual activities because it is their personal choice. However, in opinion it is not true. Human trafficking is a major issue that surrounds our society today. Mafia brings people from all parts of the world to this country and force them to engage in prostitution. Child prostitution is another severe crime against humanity. The story of “Carressa Phelps” is a shocking story which reveals the crime of child pornography in our society. Due to difficult conditions it became hard for Phelps to survive and she had no other choice but to turn towards prostitution in order to survive[4]. The government’s role here can be criticized because it is a government’s responsibility to ensure a good living standard for its citizens.

It is very difficult to get the exact amount of statistics as to how many girls in their teens or childhood turn towards prostitution in order to survive but according to an estimate from USA today around 100,000 to 300,000 young females in their teens are or have been engaged into prostitution in order to survive.

Pornography is a huge multi billion dollar industry but no one can argue that it is an industry which feeds on the lives of many innocent people.[5] Pornography has many affects on a society which includes increased frustration as proved in the case of “Ted Bundy”, it also results in increased crime rate as we can see that America is among countries high in rape cases. This is all an outcome of frustration that is present in the people today due to engagement into sexual activities like Pornography viewing. Another tall claim by the researchers believed that more exposure to pornography would result in lesser amount of frustration hence lesser amount of sexual crimes. It can be seen that the sexual awareness in Europe today is more than America, where people focus on issues such as abstinence and safe sex. However, there are a few facts which reveal that Europe is not safe in terms of sexual crime as well:

In a randomly selected study of nearly 1,200 ninth grade students in Geneva, Switzerland, 20% of girls revealed they had experienced at least one incident of sexual abuse (2002)[6]

A survey in United Kingdom found that 19.4 % of women have been victims of sexual violence.[7] 11.6 % of women in the Czech Republic reported experiencing forced sexual contact in their lifetime, and 3.4 % of those women reported they had experienced forced sexual contact on more than one occasion.

REFERENCES:

Web Definition for Pornography, Retreived from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pornography

Jen Abbeg, Legal, Moral and Ethical issues surrounding Pornography Retreived from http://media.www.collegian.com/media/storage/paper864/news/1999/01/27/UndefinedSection/Legal.Ethical.And.Moral.Issues.Surround.Pornography-1693828.shtml, Accessed on April 15, 2008

Todd, Kendall, Pornography, Rape and Internet Retreived from http://www.law.stanford.edu/display/images/dynamic/events_media/Kendall%20cover%20+%20paper.pdf Accessed on April 15, 2008

Kornblum, Janet. Child prostitution savior aims to save lives, USA today, Retreived from http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2008-02-26-carissa-child-prostitution_N.htm Accessed on April 15, 2008

Jenkins, Joe Contemporary Moral Issues, Heinemann, p. 96

United Nations Development Fund for Women, “Facts and Figures: Sexual Violence

In Non-Conflict. Situations.”www.unifem.org/campaigns/november25/facts_figures_3.php

United Nations Development Fund for Women, “Stop Violence against Women

Prevalence of Sexual Assault.” www.stopvaw.org/ PrevalenceofSexualAssault.html or
www.unifem.org

Web Definition for Pornography, Retreived from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pornography

Jen Abbeg, Legal, Moral and Ethical issues surrounding Pornography Retreived from http://media.www.collegian.com/media/storage/paper864/news/1999/01/27/UndefinedSection/Legal.Ethical.And.Moral.Issues.Surround.Pornography-1693828.shtml, Accessed on April 15, 2008

Todd, Kendall, Pornography, Rape and Internet Retreived from http://www.law.stanford.edu/display/images/dynamic/events_media/Kendall%20cover%20+%20paper.pdf Accessed on April 15, 2008

Kornblum, Janet. Child prostitution savior aims to save lives, USA today, Retreived from http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2008-02-26-carissa-child-prostitution_N.htm Accessed on April 15, 2008

Jenkins, Joe Contemporary Moral Issues, Heinemann, p. 96

United Nations Development Fund for Women, “Facts and Figures: Sexual Violencein Non-Conflict. Situations.”www.unifem.org/campaigns/november25/facts_figures_3.php

United Nations Development Fund for Women, “Stop Violence against Women: Prevalence of Sexual Assault.” www.stopvaw.org/ PrevalenceofSexualAssault.html or www.unifem.org

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