23 Feb 2011

Sample Essay: Jack Kerouac and Miles Davis: Self Motivated Egotists or Voice for the Times?

The Post-War era in the United States gave rise to a counterculture called Beat Generation.  Strictly speaking, the beat generation was for a group of writers who emerged in the 1950s that included Jack Kerouac.  An expanded definition would include other artists, such as musician Miles Davies, who influenced how music became a high art form.  In essence, it was a literary movement that later evolved to include changing attitudes and perspectives in people (Crystal).  This counterculture movement was born out of disgust for the consumerism that gripped society after the war.  People had more money to buy things they did not use to need, which had worsen over time (Belden).  The rise of the American middle class reshaped the landscape and put values on newer things.  The beatniks, as how people who followed this bohemian lifestyle were called, were often associated with “crime, delinquency, immorality, and amorality” (Parkins).  However, for the beatniks, they simply followed a lifestyle that was characterized by liberation of the spiritual and sexual selves while demystifying the use of drugs.  The beat generation revolutionized art, music, and writing in post-war America.  These mediums expressed protest against the middle-class culture that was prevalent during this period.

Kerouac and Davis had been among the most influential in their own forms of art.  Kerouac created influence through his books, such as On the Road, Visions of Cody, and The Remembrance of Things Past (Clark 103).  Both of these artists had their own shares of criticisms, Kerouac in particular for the way he brandished his lifestyle in the books he wrote.  Criticisms against Davis were mostly targeted on his temperamental and demanding nature (Advameg).  Despite the negative things written about these two artists, it cannot be denied that they were truly influential in reshaping arts and culture during their time.  Kerouac and Davis were not self-egotists but voices of their times.  Davis made it possible to resurrect Jazz in its pure form and elevate it to high art; Kerouac epitomized the bohemian life and the weariness that came to people who lived in a world that was focused on materialism.

Miles Davis

Miles Davis became a voice of the time because he was able to use his talent not only for self-fulfillment but to separate from what was in fashion in the musical industry.  Rather than become just another member of a bebop band, Davis rose into prominence by innovating and developing new musical styles between the 1950s and the 1990s.  He led the way in changing the musical landscape through his own “lyrical, introspective, and melodic style,” as well as through his recordings and choices of collaborators.  Jazz evolved because Davis pushed it forward (All About Jazz).

Davis was born in Alton, Illinois on 25 May 1926 to a middle-class family.  He began to play the trumpet at 15, and was a professional musician only two years after.  It was in 1947 to 1948 that Davis rose to fame as a member of Charlie Parker’s bebop group.  But he left the group to restore the more melodic elements of jazz.  Davis participated in a project with arranger Gil Evans, Gerry Mulligan, John Lewis, and Johnny Carisi.  This resulted to the release of Birth of the Cool in 1949, which was also the birth of the West Coast jazz school.

His career almost came to halt because of his addiction in the 1950s.  Fortunately, he was able to bounce back to record solo hits, such as “Airegin,” “Doxy,” “Oleo,” and “But Not for Me.”  He formed the most celebrated quintet in 1955, which dominated the jazz scene until the 1960s (Advameg).  The quintet disbanded, and Davis formed a sextet in 1964.

Davis recorded Kind of Blue in 1959, which showed his innovativeness in creating music.  Kind of Blue was a jazz improvisation that has an elegantly simple and resoundingly beautiful sound (Teichroew).  This record featured musicians, John Coltrane, Cannoball Adderley, Paul Chambers, Jimmy Cobb, Wynton Kelly, and Bill Evans, who were also part of the quintet.  Kind of Blue was important because it established modal jazz.  It was endowed with a “mysterious tension” with a shocking but not unpleasant simplicity (Teichroew).

The collaborations that Davis engaged in with his fellow musicians showed that he was not self-centered or merely acting out his egotism.  He wanted to create a new brand of music that would better appeal to his sense of artistry.  Perhaps this attitude was shared by others during this time because they were able to appreciate what Davis had done to music.  The music industry was likely looking for something in music to elevate it to greater depths.  Despite his temperamental side, Davis was regarded even during his time as a genius in his craft.  This kind of acknowledgement would not be lightly given to people who did not deserve it.  Being difficult to work with sometimes is often attributed as an artistic quality.  Davis then can be excused for this weakness in light of his influence in the music industry.

Jack Kerouac

Jack Kerouac became the official voice of the beat generation through his writings, which chronicled his unconventional lifestyle and work.  Like the other beatniks, he shied away from conventional mentality through the study of Eastern religions, use of drugs, and sexual liberation.  It can be said that Davis’ experimentation with music and his desire to separate from bebop was influenced by Kerouac’s writings (Parkins).

Kerouac epitomized what it was to be a beatnik writer.  He has lived what he has written.  This means that he travelled extensively in order to transcend from the humdrum of existence (Johnson 131).  “The only people that interest me are the mad ones, the ones who are mad to live, mad to talk, desirous of everything at the same time,” Kerouac said in his book On the Road (Kerouac 30).  Kerouac’s travels and experiences have become his own subjects in his books, revealing what the beat generation was all about.  His kind of writing and his lifestyle ultimately made him an icon of the era.  One Road has catapulted him to fame, even if he did not get rich for that book.  From the conventional section of society, the book was superficially accepted.  Some called it off-beat, pleasurable, or intriguing.  To the beatniks, however, it was their essence that was described in its pages (Millstein 27).

Kerouac was Canadian-American, being born in Massachusetts of Canadian parents.  He lived a life of conventionality until an injury during his football years introduced him to Celine and Shakespeare.  Since then, he never went back (Johnson 129).  During the 1950s, he became associated with other beatniks, particularly Allen Ginsberg.  He was always observing and writing about things and people in his environment.  Kerouac, however, was often attacked by anxieties and fears about his personal life.  He was assailed with doubts about the wisdom of writing his thoughts and hoping to make a living out of it, especially that he has a mother to support.  His family and relatives all thought that he should get a job in order to help provide for the family (Clark 106).

In other words, Kerouac did not have a very supportive environment when he was just starting out.  Still, he kept on despite pressures from his family to lead a more stable lifestyle. Other artists would have surrendered in the face of difficulties and extreme pressure from family and relatives.  This kind of attitude cannot be considered an expression of egotism.  As an artist, Kerouac was convinced that he was doing the right thing (Clark 106).  His defiance and his persistence to lead the life that felt right for him became the reason why he became an icon or the voice of the beat generation.  There were many people who did not like what they were seeing society after the war and tried to show their protest by living lives that opposed conventions and expectations.  Kerouac, in opposing materialism and consumerism, reduced his needs to a knapsack, sleeping bag, notebook, and pen (Johnson 131).  Joyce Johnson herself found it “heartbreaking beautiful” to see how a man could reduce his needs to necessities (131).  Other beatniks were also profoundly influenced by Kerouac even if mainstream America had not liked the values espoused in his writings.


Both Kerouac and Davis were not egotists who only acted for self-gratification.  Instead, they were real voices of their times.  Kerouac changed not only writing conventions but essentially the way of life.  Davis refused to succumb to what was popular and instead sought to find the kind of music that would please him as an artist.  These two people have been in the midst of the counterculture that opposed the consumerism that was taking root in America.  They opposed the buying frenzy that equated happiness with material possession.  Kerouac, in particular, was brave enough to pursue a path that lacked support from his family.  His steadfastness to an ideal has rightly placed him as an icon of the 1950s.

Works Cited

Belden, Joshua.  “Consumerism in American Society.”  2010.  Ezine Articles.  15 December

2010 <http://ezinearticles.com/?Consumerism-in-American-Society&id=3571337>

Clark, Tom.  Jack Kerouac: A Biography.  New York, NY: Thunder Mouth’s Press, 1984.

Crystal, Gary.  “What Was the Beat Generation?”  2010.  wiseGEEK.  15 December 2010


Johnson, Joyce. A Beat Memoir.  USA: Houghton Mifflin, 1983.

Kerouac, Jack. On the Road. USA: Penguin Group, 2007.

“Miles Davis.”  2010.  Advameg.  15 December 2010 <http://www.notablebiographies.com/


“Miles Davis: Biography.”  2010.  All About Jazz.  15 December 2010


Millstein, Gilbert.  “Books of the Time.”  New York Times, p. 27.  ProQuest Historical


Parkins, Keith.  “Jack Kerouac.”  2005.  15 December 2010 <http://home.clara.net/


Teichroew, Jacob.  “Album Review: Kind of Blue by Miles Davis.  About.com: Jazz. 15

December 2010 <http://jazz.about.com/od/classicalbums/fr/KindofBlue.htm>

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08 Feb 2010

Sample Essay: Comarism


Western culture refers the traditional customs of the European origin it entails the political system, religious beliefs, ethical values and the social norms. The politics of the West have been shaped by different phases of civilization dating from the medieval periods.  Western culture is not homogenous since it hosts migrants from diverse cultures and political ideologies.

From 1900 until the time of Alexander the Great, there was a sharp contrast between the East and the West which to the great war between the Greeks and the Persians. During this time, the West was considered to be at the classical stage. The Roman Empire was built upon the Greek democracy and it spread its agenda all through the empire as they conquered Europe including the Hellenic world during the first century BC. For more than five hundred years, Rome Empire maintained the political ideologies of the Greek east and consolidated it with the Latin West though, just like Greece, it was no longer democratic. The ancient Rome was a civilization that came up from a city state which was founded on the Italian Peninsula circa in 9th century and grew to a huge empire. After twelve years of existence, the Roman civilization took a political shift from monarchy, to a republic and finally to an autocratic empire. It dominated the Western Europe using roman legions and by giving roman privileges and citizenship to the entire empire.

Woodrow Wilson who was the twenty eighth president of the United States was also the one of the greatest scholars in the progressive Era. The treaty of the Versailles was a peace treaty found at the end of World War I. It is this treaty that ended the war between the Germans and the others known as the allied powers. It was when Wilson was president of America that the treaty was signed, that is in the year 1919. Wilson believed in self determination collective security and international law and these principles helped him to go though the dark ages of the Versailles times. He also believed in democratic government and a league of nations.

It was note then that countries like Britain, Italy and France might have looked down upon Wilson and philosophies but as we speak all these nations and even others like Germany conduct their European policy with respect to Wilson’s ideas. These ideas were at some point viewed as a mere vision is now very well regarded as fundamental. Wilson a European statesman had a lasting respect till to day and his ideals are still very influential.

As Christianity took root in the Roman world, it absorbed much of the Roman culture and traditions thus laying basis for the advancement of Western civilization after the fall of the Roman Empire giving rise to the medieval west. After the fall of the Roman Empire, Europe was faced with political anarchy with many principalities and kingdoms warring. However, when the Frankish kings took over, they realized political stability and unity thus evolving into feudalism. With feudal system, most of the noble lost their traditional source of power. The teaching of the church preserved the politics, arts, education, while the culture was drastically transformed as the Greek and Roman paganism was replaced by Christianity.

The men in the medieval period sought power through the church. The modern western culture was based on the idea of democracy as the ideal form of the society.  The medieval period was then followed by renaissance which was triggered by the Greek and Arabic influences. From the late 15th century up to 17th century, the western culture began to spread to the entire world, the western political thinking also started spreading to the rest of the world. Despite the past empires in the Western politics, democracy and concept of freedom is a distinguishing factor of the Western people form non-western people. The eras of the middle age and the modern times that advocated for separation of the state from the church has paved ways for advancement and development of distinctive political norms.

The civilization that followed medieval period was the Renaissance and reformation. This period ranged from 1500 to 1650 and it contributed in the change of the political ideologies in the western world. It was the actual onset of the feudal even after the establishment of feudal institutions in the entire Western Europe, this feudal failed to realize a unidirectional political revolution. Feudalism came up as a result of the state society where land was the main source of wealth and military was the basis of power specifically in the agrarian societies. However, in France and England, this period led to the establishment of strong monarchy. This period was characterized by the by reformation caused by a catholic monk Martin Luther who publicly denounced the catholic beliefs including the institution of papacy. During the same time, there arose the western empires which build trade unions with other nations in Africa. After trading with Africa for along time, the western government began establishing colonies in Africa.

The last type of civilization that contributed to the current political situation in the west is the progressive era. Woodrow Wilson who was the twenty eighth president of the United States was also the one of the greatest scholars in the progressive Era. The treaty of the Versailles was a peace treaty found at the end of World War I. He did not gain much from Versailles and the senate did not ratify this treaty but his vision that contained great belief for diplomacy for the country and the world at last did not disappear just like that they became very relevant in setting the tone not only for America but the whole world. This was a period of reforms in the United States and it lasted for forty years (1880-1920).

The main purpose of this era was political purification. The blacks and the illiterates were excluded from vote. Immigration form southern and Eastern Europe were cut back. There were significant changes at the national levels.  They exposed the corruption cases and scandals in the national magazines. This era is also characterized by various revolutions which were to change the West forever causing new political ideologies and change in the society. The very first of these revolutions began in North America which was the territory of the British. Inspired by Enlightenment ideals, some leaders saw it very possible to realize an ideal nation. Another revolution that reshaped the western politics was the French revolution. The same enlightenment ideals that cause American Revolution aided the revolution in France at the time France was under economic crisis.


Samuel P. Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order (1996).

Thompson, William; Joseph Hickey (2005). Society in Focus. Boston, MA: Pearson

Bonnett, A. 2004. The Idea of the West

Davidson, Roderic H. (1960). “Where is the Middle East?”. Foreign Affairs 38: 665-675.

21 Jan 2010

Sample Essay: IQ Testing Tells Us Little About The Person's Innate Abilities. They Merely Reflect The Educational Level Of The Individual


An intelligent quotient test shows the mental abilities of an individual compared to others of the same age. Each and every person has the specific mental abilities which can be measured and may be used to predict the education performance and financial success of an individual.


In a school situation, Intelligent quotient was initially used to detects students with the lower intelligent. This was principally done to ensure that those students with lower intelligent were given special education programs. The IQ test was done to compare the intelligent of a student to what his or her intelligent is expected to be relative to the student’s age. The outcomes of the test were given in terms of the score.  The high IQ score was given to a brighter student who had a higher intelligent than a normal child of his or her age. The students who scored lower than what is expected for a student of his or her age was assigned lower IQ score (Kaufman, & Lichtenberger, 1999).

The use of the IQ test in the past or at present was or is basically to determine problems in the learning process.  This test could be use to detect the performance of an individual in a school situation or at work places. It has been observed that the individuals who get high IQ score can perform better in school or at work. This test has been in use by many schools and companies in identifying those people who may require special attention. It was also used by the schools to assist them in enrolling students to the right grade and, at the same time various organizations adopt this method to help them in identifying the right employees to recruit in the company.

However, According (Anastasi, 1961), the IQ test faced the claims on its effectiveness in the measurement of the innate abilities of the person. Even if IQ test can measure the abilities of the child, we believed that this intelligence can change based on the conditions a child is exposed to.

In a modern society, IQ test is used to measure not only a child’s intelligent but also psychological abilities of an adult person, where  the scores are given relative to other adults who have also went through the same test. A number of factors have been seen to influence the intelligent level of a person as discussed by the different theorist. As a result, this has created criticism on the validity and reliability of the IQ test. These factors include, age, culture, motivation, labeling, heredity, and environment among others.

The research on age for example shown that a child who is two years old and has  a two years advanced mentally has an IQ score of 200 but the same child six years later and still advanced mentally two years measure an IQ score of 120. The age different of the child has really led a different score hence has been viewed not appropriate measure of a person intelligent (McClelland, 1974).

Motivation is another factor that may affect the individual’s abilities.  For, example, if an individual is positively motivated physically and mentally, then this may affect the IQ intelligent test.

According to (Weschler David, 1939), intelligent of a person is based on inheritance. For example, he noted that twins usually have a positive correlation in IQ score test. Another aspect that has been considered to affect the intelligence of a person is the environment. School performance likewise would be affected by the environment and this can take time to be changed.

The proponents of this factor argued that though people are born with some intelligent abilities, the environment where they are reared on could perhaps shapes their intelligent as well. For example, a child that is not given due attention for a long time while still young will develop intelligence disabilities later in life. On the other hand a child that is given enough care will show better intellectual abilities in life. The test on the identical twins that are reared together will shows a close or the same IQ score , while those  twins that are reared a part will give different IQ test, (Jensen, 1969)

There is no accepted universal definition of intelligent, however, intelligent can be generally be defined as what an intelligent test can measured. The problem with this definition is that it does not describe the potential of a person or give the precise nature of intelligent as expected. Quinones strongly believed that intelligent is culturally relative and refute that IQ test could correctly measure intelligent of a person across different culture. This claim was also supported by Kaufmamn. However, he argues that this problem is not as serious as in the previous model of the intelligent test. In the modern society, the theorists of the intelligent test have improved their review process to ensure that measurement of the intelligent are independent of culture (Kaufman, 1983). It is however, obvious that those reviewers seen as being culturally biased has little effect on the overall intelligent scores. However, it should also be noted that the intelligent is mental ability independent of culture.

IQ test was also criticized as being the self fulfilling prophecy issue. For instance, the individuals who are expected to score low will eventually do so. According to the work done on a self fulfilling prophecy, black student has been regarded as being affected by the stereotype vulnerability. However, Kaufman in his work asserts that the stereotype vulnerability does not affect the black only, but have been seen to affect the white people also. Therefore, according to this claim, it is evident that labeling an individual earlier does not necessarily mean that they are really victims of the circumstances mention.

Another claim is the idea that IQ test could correctly measure the person’s innate abilities or intelligence. Weschler however claimed that students who score highly on a mathematical test could definitely perform well in vocabulary. This has been taken by some individuals that all mental abilities may be determined by some of the intelligence level. However, this view has been refuted by Jensen claiming that there exist various dimensions to intelligent and hence IQ test are not appropriate for testing abilities such as music and mechanical talents. We should understand that, most of the intelligence ideas are seen in individual’s sense of fairness. For example, a particular student may not be good in mathematic, but is good in other subjects such as music or mechanical engineering (Jensen, 1969).

Jensen argued that IQ test does not measure correctly all the human abilities that may be viewed as features of intelligent. According to Jensen lack of accepted definition of intelligent is what causes IQ test not to be valid. He further asserted that intelligent is like other scientific concepts that can be measured even before understanding the meaning of the measurement.

Some of the claim about the IQ test is that it wrongly stratifying people by race, gender, class and culture and hence it reduces the significant of creativity and technological know-how. It also bring a concept that human being have inborn unchangeable intelligent abilities that reflect their achievement in life.

Learning abilities have been tested for many years using an IQ test where those children who scored less than what their IQ score in expected are considered to be disabled. The problem with this method is that it does not indicate what can be done to help this child. The ability of the child is shown by his or her behavior either at home or in a classroom. In this sense, if the learning process is appropriate, then the child behavior could also be improved, and thus, IQ test should at all be disregarded.

Even some of the strong supporters of the IQ test, such as Anastasi and Jensen argued that the IQ achievement discrepancy model is faulty. They claimed that this model lack the real issue of whether it can be useful when correctly administered.

Factor analysis has been used to measure the validation of IQ test, since it breaks the test into several different factors, and then, it shows how these factors are intercorrelate to particular level. However, this method does not indicate that the general intelligent of a person can be tested using the IQ test. The claim is that, IQ test some times may decide to compare an intelligent child from a dull one by giving a test on particular items.  The fact that an intelligent child failed the test on a particular item does not imply that such items are appropriate for disguising this child from a dull one since such item may have been drawn out or put in a particular place on the age scale.

The validation of the IQ scores as been viewed many times as the measure of the school performance order. This refutes the idea that IQ test is a measure of cognitive capacity of a person. Testing of the intelligent based on the performance on a particular items cannot really shows the achievement or level of a bright child from a dull one. Furthermore, the capacity test can only be measured based on the current behavior of an individual which could predicts his or her future behavior. Therefore according to this claim IQ test seems to be unnecessary measure for testing people’s abilities.

IQ test has been viewed to be full of a lot of speculations. Its concept is not well understood by many people and the method it applies does not provide a good explanation of how the intelligence is tested in relation to the other factors such as environment and culture.

Intelligent of a child can be determined by the changes that occur in a school situation. The variations of the school programs have been observed to increase or boost the child performance later in life. For instance, if the variation in the school programs does not change the child abilities then the IQ test which basically measure the skills of the child, may be deemed as a real measure of a fixed capacity. However, this performance will not last longer before it changes, and thus, the IQ test have greatly failed to improve the intelligent and instead encouraged only apparent achievement of a person.

Lastly, it is clear that the IQ test achievement discrepancy model is highly flawed. Kaufman argued that the IQ discrepancy model is based on the fundamental misunderstanding of the Wechsler scores which, according to him were not to be used to as a single summed number Kaufman &Lichtenberger, 1999). IQ test does not give the general innate abilities or the educational performance of the child. One wonders what validation or the hypothesis is provided by this test. The ideas and the rules set does not seems credible for the testing of the intelligent


Though many people have refuted IQ test, human being can not do without these test. However, those individuals using these tests should be well educated to be conversant with what the tests means to us. Actually IQ test are not the real predictors and does not shows some features such as the goodness of a person. Total ban of the IQ test is not important, however the testers should develop a modern process of testing intelligence that can appeal and be useful to people. From the above discussion, it is clear that the intelligence of a person depends not only on the ideas and the skills of the person but also on other several factors which may either be externally or internally located. Therefore, we can conclude that an IQ test does not provide an essential measure for testing the innate or educational potentials of a person.


Anastasi, A. (1961). Testing the Psychological Path, Macmillan Company, New York.

Jensen, A. (1969).   Boosting IQ and scholastic success? Harvard             Educ. Rev., 39, 1-123.

Kaufman, A. S., & Lichtenberger, E. O. (1999). Essentials of WAIS-III assessment. New            York:   Wiley.

Kaufman, A.S., & Kaufman, N.L. (1983). K-ABC interpretative manual. Circle Pines, MN:       American Guidance Service. (2 nd ed., 2004, KABC-II)

McClelland, D. (1974). Testing competence rather than Intelligence, in Gartner, Greer and         Riessman, eds., New Assault on Equality, Perennial Library, New York.

Quinones, M. (1997). Training for a Rapidly Changing Workplace: Applications of          Psychological Research. Rice University, Michigan.

Weschler, David (1935).  Measurement intelligence of the adult. Baltimore: Williams &Wilkins.

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06 Oct 2009

Sample Essay: Race and Your Community


In analysis of diversity in my community, the race relations are moderate and tolerable in my neighborhood with exceptions. In recent years diversity has expanded to increase the importance and acceptability in non-controlled environments that allows personal growth in race relations within communities. The fundamentals of exposing oneself to the particulars of race challenges provide an interesting investigation to how current experiences are now different than ten years ago. The review of my neighborhood proves the notion on how promising diversity has changed the local community.

Perspectives in Race in the Community

Currently living in the suburbs, the neighborhood has a 2 to 1 ratio, in which, the majority is the minority race in the community. In my immediate neighborhood, the experience with my fellow neighbors are a welcoming aspect due to the flexibility of tolerance. The diversified demographics within my community are races from different ethnicity not just black and white but Latinos, Mexicans, Jamaicans, and Japanese. The perspective in my community provides an understanding how diversity enriches the awareness of other cultural lifestyles within the context of interaction with different ethnic groups.

Do members of your community look like you? In what ways do they look the same or different?

The members in my community are welcoming and thoughtful by projecting respectfulness in sharing the same amenities in the neighborhood without conflict. For instance, the local community has a vast array of diversified backgrounds that do not intrude on privacy or make stereotype assumptions of neighbors, instead, the interactions are cordially with each other. The children are diversified and plays well with each other by learning each other unique personality and culture. The children provides an opportunity for the parents to learn the value of race in the community by free spirit of acceptance demonstrated by children. The interactions of the children presents an interesting learning experiences of different culture that encourages promising dialog amongst the parents.

Therefore, the differences in my neighborhood community there is the way one particular race dresses compared to another that signifies cultural differences. The language is another aspect that presents adapting to differences amongst other races that are within your immediate surroundings. The method of patience is the key to understanding the cultural barriers that prevents acceptance. For instance, the majority language communicated is English, therefore, one way that my neighbor does to interact amongst a diversified community is learning English by the assistance of a family member. The measure made by my neighbor influenced myself to broaden my adaptability to racial differences and being more willing to go out of my way to adapt to cultural barriers, such as language, for a solidify interaction.

How do leaders within your community treat people who are like you? How do they treat people who are different?

The leaders in my community are dominantly fair with law enforcement mostly black and white than another ethnic race – that presents a balancing of any bias confrontations.  The community leaders for district representatives are black Americans and present an approachable interaction amongst each other races that is encouraging for the local community. After several years, there was never a reported racial charged incident until just recently that was at the nearby gas station between an officier and a store owner. The racial dispute was diffused when it was reported that one of the officers was black with two white officers and presented a refocus in the initial accusation. According to Police Officer Jones (2008) “The trial and error when dealing with other races is finding the middle ground in any particular situation to drawing the right conclusion without preconceived stereotypes present.”

How do other members of your community treat people who are like you? How do they treat people who are different?

My observation of members in the local community is that they treat each other with respect and tolerance that can be challenging to demonstrate during difficult times.  However, the mixture of diversified people in the immediate neighborhood community provides a platform for adapting to race differences for approaching the matter in a positive mindset. Therefore, the interactions with people like myself and people that are different encourages the mannerisms and acceptance that is forwarding thinking and promising. In my community, the mixture of races at public gatherings for instance restaurants, parks, bars, or local concerts that showcases tolerance in race relations.

Do your texts or work manuals contains information by or about people like you?

There was information in the related text and/or work manuals about people like me that provided imperative measures on how to deal with prejudice. In recent history, the determination of good race relations is the defining aspect of you within the context of expectations. The term prejudice was often described by people as an attitude towards someone or something, however, the related text outlined that it can also be considered by scape-goating and authoritarian personality. Therefore, the culture awareness provides the insight of identity and ceased prejudice against all people no matter the outer physical differences present.

Moreover, the gathered information provides the needed aspects to successfully draw sufficient data, in order  to render a correct perspective. The data gathered provides the needed balance being implenmented within my local community that is promising. The fundamental basis is outlining the overall characteristics that provides  the true understanding of myself and others like me by actually partaking activities in the community that are limited as preconceived stereotypes towards other races.

Do the local media represent people like you? If so, in what ways?
The local media represent people like me mainly due to the major national stations that are rooted here with international exposure. The local media have a variety of anchors and field reporters that has similar physical characteristics like myself. In addition, the content and the usage of words in the reporting are culture aware to relate to the concerns of the community. The programs on the local media stations are more diversified than a previous residence and state I lived in that provides people like myself to express culturally (Shermerhorn, 2008).

What are some similarities and differences between you and the people who are in leadership positions in your community? Do you feel minority group interests are represented within your community?
Actually, the similarly of leadership in my community is the physical characteristics and culture with limited differences related to income levels. However, the racial identity is similar in the law enforcement, county representative, and other leadership roles. For instance, the judges are more controlled by the majority race, however, their immediate assistants are minorities that does represent interests in my community.

According to County Tax Authority Representative, Tina Williams (2008), “Although, I am a minority and not the tax commissioner of the county, I know that my input to the commissioner matters on fair practices regarding people in my community.” I strongly feel that the reasoning for my assessment is due to the diversity if not in all the leadership roles but in respectful subordinate roles that does create a positive tolerance for race relations.

If you could resolve any inequities within your community, what would you change? How and why?

I would recommend more minority races in the ownership of businesses and higher leadership roles in my community. Therefore, the focuses of positive race relations can achieve the ybalance for equalit in my community. I am pleased by a self-assessment that my community is not negatively racially charged, rather, a commitment to keeping the peace. I do suggest that to keeping inequities within my community that major businesses that are a largely influential in the communities are lead by minorities. These measures will demonstrate a continued commitment to foster diversity.

I believe that the current status of race relations in my community is that subordinate roles held by minorities are an exceptional step in the right direction. Now, my community needs to expand these roles to show more diversity in the top level roles to limit any inequities or potential inequity. According to Jim Benson, an assistant manager of a prestigious restaurant (2008), “The ability to advance in a senior role within any industry in a local community just reinforces the concept of acceptability of race differences.”  Therefore, a more directed approach to place diverse leaders in all areas of businesses and community leadership roles assist in uniting the community (Williams, 2002).

Which main concepts from the text relate to race? Apply some of these concepts to your project.

Some of the main concepts of text related to race are the “Understanding Race and Ethnicity (2006)” that provides the needed understanding for all races to live and interact with each other. The ability to identify the physical characteristics of people by culture aspects, in which, the differences in race clearly separates any preconceptions of stereotypes.  The main concepts from the text related to race is the key to understanding the cultural differences as well as their formulated stereotypes render a position interaction and tolerance. Once, the preconceptions are made clearer and successful attempts to accept culture traits, preferences, and lifestyles are achieved the road to better relations increases. The technique for sharing space in a non-controlled environment presents an opportunity to effectively use patience to better interact with different races in ones community.


In the review of my community, I learned that race relations have improved compared to my parents that was fueled by an ethnocentrism mentality. However, I have discovered in the related texts that race relations can and should improve by implementing diversity more in communities to bridge ethnic groups together. The key concept for a community is to identify the culture differences that are at the basis for removing negative race relations to a more positive environment for families (Schaefer, 2006). The benefit for a more focus effort on the similarities rather than differences will allow the synergy of the humanity of races to solidify a more desired local community that works together.


Schaefer, Richard T., (2006) Racial and Ethnic Groups, 10th edition, Prentice-Hall, Pearson Education, Inc.

Shermerhorn, John, (2008). Organizational Behavior. Wiley, 10 Edition

Williams, Lloyd C., (2002). Creating the Congruent Workplace: Challenges for People and Their Organizations. Journal of Greenwood Publishing Group, Incorporated. 2002, 1 (2) 17-28

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