20 Dec 2011

Essay Topic: Apple Inc


Apple Inc is a leading American corporation that manufactures computer software and consumer electronics. The company is credited for designing products such as the Macintosh range of computers, the iPad, iPhone, and the iPod. Computer software made by this company range from the iLife, the safari web browser, the iOS, and the iTunes among others. The company is currently operating over 350 stores in various countries around the world alongside an online store that offers both software and hardware. In this year, Apple Inc was ranked as the largest company in the globe with regard to market capitalization (Seitz 5). It is equally a company with the largest market in the world with regard to both revenue and profit generation. The company was founded in 1976 and later incorporated the following year. Before the year 2007, this company was known as Apple Computer Inc. The shift to the current name reflects the ongoing innovation in its range of products and market diversification. By September last year, this company had nearly 50,000 employees on full term basis. Apparently the company has a very established reputation in the electronics industry. The shares of this company are traded on the NASDAQ stock exchange market.


Apple was founded by the late Steve Jobs, Ronald Wayne and Steve Wozniak in the year 1976.  The company was later incorporated the following year (Young and Simon 35). From 1976 to 1980, the company concentrated on the production and sale of the Apple I and Apple II computers. With the introduction of computer designers in the late 70s, the company adopted the Apple III computers. The later was geared at enhancing a competitive advantage over both Microsoft and IBM. With the incorporation of Xerox PARC in 1979, the company launched the development of Apple Lisa. This company later went public and generated the highest capital in history following the IPO. Between the year 1981 and 1985, the company faced a battle of choices between products with regard to the Macintosh and the Lisa. Later in 1983, the Apple Lisa was given priority over the Macintosh and thus became the first personal computer traded by the company (Reder 185- 209). Though the Lisa had the graphical user interface, its marketability was limited by its high pricing. The sale of the Macintosh was launched in 1984 but its marketability was equally limited by high pricing. The company later shift to the Laser writer which traded well at a customer friendly price.

Having survived several struggles, the company launched the Macintosh Portable in its range of products in the year 1989. Later in 1991, the company launched the powerbook and system 7. The later upgraded the operating system and subsequently increased revenue generation for the company. With the success offered by the introduction of the Macintosh, the company launched the Centris to compete with other consumer software on the market. The later did not amount into any profits for the company following consumer dissatisfaction. The company later plunged in to the design of alternative products from 1991(Reder 185- 209).

In order to create a better computing platform, the company partnered with both Motorola and IBM in the year 1994. During the same year, the company launched the power Macintosh.  Apple Inc returned to profitability in the period between 1988 to 2005 following market diversification (Wong 23). The company also managed to acquire several properties and companies during this time. Later in 2006, the company began manufacturing Intel based computers which subsequently increased its profitability. The introduction of the iPhone, the iPod, and the iPad in the period between 2007 and 2011 has subsequently increased the market share and profitability for the company. The company is currently headed by Tim Cook following the retirement and subsequent death of Steve Jobs.


Apple is a company based on consumer goods and competes with various other consumer goods companies. However, to foster a competitive advantage over its rivals, the company runs a unique advertising strategy for its products (Ahrens 34). Having established a unique reputation in the range of its products, the company enjoys a very large customer base around the entire globe. Apple Inc has diversified its market and range of products to increase its profits and market share. Among its highest traded products is the iPod which enjoys global recognition.

Global Business Development Strategies

With the lead role in innovation and research in the technology industry, the company led the globe with the introduction of the iPod. This made Apple Inc a major market stakeholder in music players. The company later plunged into the phone industry in the year 2007 with the introduction of the iPhone (Brigham 58). The company has greatly revolutionalized both the music, phone and computer industry by signing major companies into its services and products (Merrion 2). Among its main strategies in global business is the diversification into innovative products that are considered difficult to launch and operate by its rivals. The differentiation in its products allows it to command a relatively high market price. The company has equally vested a lot of its resources in research and innovation.


Apple Inc is a leading multination corporation in the technology industry. Though the company faces stiff competition from IBM, HP, and Dell, its business strategies have always put it on top. The company is currently enjoying an added competitive advantage in the technology industry following the successful plunge in to both the music and phone industry.

Works Cited

Ahrens, Frank. “Apple Set to Open in Japan First Retail Store Outside United States.” America‘s Intelligence Wire 27 Nov. 2003: 34.

Brigham, Daves. Intermediate financial management. Mason, Ohio: Thompson South- Western. 2007. Print.

Merrion, Paul. “Inventor of Music Player Takes a Bite Out of Apple.” Crain’s Chicag  Business 28 Nov. 2005: 2.

Reder, Margo. Case Study of Apple, Inc. for Business Law Students: How Apple’sBusiness Model Controls Digital Content Through Legal and Technological Means.” Journal of Legal Studies Education 26 (2009): 85-209.

Seitz, Patrick. “Apple Sees Healthy “iPod Economy.” Investor’s Business Daily 5 Dec. 2005:  A5.

Wong, May. “Apple Sets Pace in Consumer Electronics.” America‘s Intelligence Wire 15  Dec. 2005: 23.

Young, Jeffrey and William Simon. iCon Steve Jobs: The Greatest Second Act in the Histor  of Business. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. 2005. Print.

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