27 Jun 2012

Essay Topic: Waiting for the [Medical] World to Change

Specific Purpose: To discuss the significance of waiting times in the Emergency Department (ED) and the best management options for the problem.

Central Idea: The worsening problem of patient waiting time in the ED is a multilevel problem and as such requires a multilevel solution that includes elements of Lewin’s model of change

INTRODUCTION

I.Studies have shown that just staying longer than 8 hours in the Emergency Department has been shown to increase your chances of a heart attack or myocardial infarction. This of course only applies to patients that present in the ED with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction. (Horwitz, Green, Bradley, 2010).

II. Reveal Topic:However this nonetheless highlights the increasing problem of waiting time in the ED, a problem that requires urgent attention and solution

III. Credibility Statement:As a student involved in the healthcare industry, and as a decent human being, I know how frustrating it is to lose a patient in the ED just because of long waiting times, especially since these are patients who in the first were rushed there for immediate care. I would like to share therefore the insights I have gleaned in searching for solutions to this problem.

IV. Relevancy Statement:Prolonged waiting times can greatly increase the likelihood of adverse outcomes and complications and the number of people who leave the ED before being attended to, and can decreases patient satisfaction. Addressing the problem can therefore improve the quality of care that these patients receive.

V. Preview of Body: To help you understand how to best tackle the problem of prolonged waiting times, I would like to discuss first the nature and causes of the problem, and then offer solutions that have been proven effective in research studies. I would also talk about the importance of evaluating the results of interventions through Lewin’s model of change and SWOT analysis

BODY

I.The Magnitude of the Problem

A. Growing rates of patient consults at the Emergency Department (Forero, McCarthy, Hillman, K. 2011)

B. The decreasing number of hospitals that meet the recommended wait times for Emergency patients (Horwitz, L. I., Green, Bradley, E. H. 2009)

II. The underlying causes of the Problem (Forero et al. 2011)

A. Access block and overcrowding

B. Three levels of the problem

1. patient-centered factors

2. Hospital factors

3. Clinical factors

III. Fine-tuning the Emergency Department

  1. Lewin’s model of change
  2. The three-leveled approach (Forero et al. 2011)
  3. Triage-related solutions (Oredsson, Jonsson, Rognes, Lind, Göransson, Ehrenberg, Asplund, Castrén, Farrohknia 2011)
  4. Applying Lean Manufacturing Principles in the ED (Ng, Vail, Thomas, Schmidt 2010)
  5. The UK National Health Service example and the importance of reevaluation (Pimlott 2010)

CONCLUSION

I. Summary Statement: Most hospitals face a challenge to attend to the rising number of patients being brought to the ED and still maintain acceptable waiting times. After going through some of the underlying causes of the problem and possible interventions, it is clear that there is no clear cut solution to the problem. Emergency departments therefore have to adopt appropriate measures while at the same time monitoring their programs to fine tune and optimize patient waiting times.

II. Memorable Closing Statement: At the end of the day, the interventions I just presented are not simply to address long waiting time, but most importantly to offer patients a chance of a long lifespan.

References:

Forero, R., McCarthy, S., Hillman, K. (2011). Access block and emergency department overcrowding.Critical Care, 15(2), 216.

Forster, A.J., Stiell, I., Wells, G., Lee, A.J. and Walraven, C.V. (2008). The effect of hospital occupancy on emergency department length of stay and patient disposition. Academic Emergency Medicine, 10(2), pages 127–133.

Horwitz, L.I.., Green, J., Bradley, E.H. (2010). US emergency department performance on wait time and length of visit.Annals of Emergency Medicine, 55(2), 133-141.

Ng, D., Vail, G., Thomas, S., Schmidt, N. (2010). Applying the Lean principles of the Toyota Production System to reduce wait times in the emergency department.Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine, 12(1), 50-57.

Oredsson, S., Jonsson, H., Rognes, J., Lind, L., Göransson, K. E., Ehrenberg, A., Asplund, K., Castrén, M., Farrohknia, N. (2011). A systematic review of triage-related interventions to improve patient flow in emergency departments.Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation, and Emergency Medicine, 19(43).

Pimlott, N. (2010). Waiting. Canadian Family Physician, 56(7), 624.

Tidd, J., Bessant, J. and Pavitt, K., 2005. Managing innovation tools: SWOT Analysis. [Pdf] Available at: <http://www.managing-innovation.com/tools/SWOT%20Analysis.pdf>. [Accessed 20th May, 2012]

Filed under: Essay topics — Tags: , — admin @ 5:43 am

Sample Essay: Children, Things We Throw Away

Rickie Solinger demonstrates in the article “Race and ‘Value’: Black and White Illegitimate Babies, in the U.S.A., 1945-1965”, which can be located online,  that abortion’s controversial status in society is also an issue which reflects the power of the state on women’s bodies. For example, white women were encouraged after the war to deliver a child instead of abort it and were thereby often pushed to give their child up for adoption, whether they desired this or not. On the other hand, African-American women were encouraged to keep their children and punished, instead of aided socially and economically, because Black illegitimate children were deemed less desirable, and hence a burden, because of their color. In this context, the reader, including me, cannot help but support abortion given how the deprivation of women of this choice undermines their power over their fate and underscores their submissiveness and existence at the mercy of the state’s preconception of what is right for them; a preconception that can be often shaped by external factors like taxes and race instead of what is actually in the best interest of the woman and child. The article by Solinger is thus extremely useful in providing a comprehensive historical review of the issue of abortion, which helps contextualize the current significance of the problem.

The source by Solinger is reliable because it is based on factual historical data. Each claim is supported by references to other researchers, making the source therefore very relevant in understanding the background of abortion in the U.S and its connection to other issues like race and class. For example, as Solinger makes clear in the article, abortion is an act that has been always sought by women. However, male doctors, politicians, policy makers, and legislatives have undermined females’ capacity to make this choice based on their own preconceptions of femininity and motherhood. For example, after the Second World War when adoption among white unmarried women became more common, male doctors generally refused to give permission to women to have an abortion, even when signs of psychological or emotional problems were evident, as they believed it undermined their femininity and future ability to be a good wife and mother. Certain doctors simply refused based on the principle that women should bear responsibility for their sexuality. This reason is in fact what motivated some doctors to deny women abortion unless they agreed also to sterilization. What is interesting and important to note is that this last scenario affected mostly the poor women of color who had no choice but to oblige and surrender to the fact that they had no power over their bodies or fate. It has become clear that Solinger relies on elaboration and detailed factual analysis to support her arguments which makes the article reliable and useful to back up a thesis regarding abortion.

This online article is also useful because putting things in historical perspective, as Solinger does, helps underline the undeniable fact that women have both before and after the significant Roe v. Wade sought abortions and a way to deal with an unexpected and undesirable pregnancy. However, the state has always found a way to control the female body, either by limiting the opportunity for abortion and/or making it against the law and thereby endangering the lives of those who sought it illegally, or by pushing white women to give up their children while encouraging Black females to keep theirs, thereby determining the fate of child and mother based on the domineering ideas of race, femininity, and class. In other words, Solinger helps the reader understand through this article how abortion remains a significant and controversial issue in the U.S because it underlines the state’s tradition in undermining women’s power over their body. It is this point that re-affirmed my belief that no government should have a say in the choices and decisions that women can take regarding their bodies and fate as women and mothers. All these reasons and evidence within the article make it a relevant source.

“The Bible’s Teaching Against Abortion” by Frank A. Pavone examines, contrary to Solinger who is concerned with facts and historical data, the religious and spiritual background regarding the issue of abortion. This online resource is presented as reliable and relevant. It is supported by dozens of Biblical excerpts. The source clarifies how abortion is one of the issues that never fails to raise heated controversy between those who support freedom of choice and independent action including with regard to matters of life and death, and a second group that remains opposed to then notion due to its deprivation of a potential, helpless and innocent human being of the chance to grow and live. The website sheds also light on how controversy regarding the morality of abortion has existed since thousands of years, even before the arrival of Christianity. Issues that served to raise disagreement with regard to the lawfulness of abortion centered throughout this extended period of time around the questions of when a fetus can be official deemed to be formed, whether or not one can view a fetus to be an independent life on its own rather than merely a part of his mother’s body and hence her property, and the rights of the individual adult to the making of a choice alike; a choice that could alter one’s life beyond what was desirable or endurable on a personal and economic level. These arguments do also shape the debate and is also strengthened by what critics describe as Biblical ambiguity about the issue of abortion. The website affirms however that when an approach is adapted that includes the analysis of Biblical ethics regarding life’s sanctity in general and does therefore not just focus on the manner of presenting the subject in the Old Testament or the lack of available evidence about the beginning and end of life in the Bible as a whole, it can be concluded that God’s Word reveals his views regarding the sanctity of life, including that which is found in the womb.

The website is thus relevant to include in the discussion of abortion because it sheds light on the spiritual and religious context shaping the issue. The fact that it is well-researched and supported by historical references and Biblical passages makes it a reliable source to comprehend the spiritual angle shaping the issue. The website helps also clarify that while the debate about abortion might appear to be mostly inspired by the controversy between secularist individualists and Biblically inspired believers, it is interesting to note that the history of abortion goes back much further in time. For instance, before Christianity’s arrival, abortion existed in Greek and Roman society, which were both unconcerned with the rights of the unborn and did not regard the fetus’ right to life as valuable as its parents’ rights to choice. Even during this time, the question about the time when the fetus was officially formed dominated the debate. With the beginning of the Bible times after the Old Testament, the question of abortion was again introduced through several passages that left people however divided about the nature of divine will concerning the subject given how these particular texts approached abortion as a loss of property rather than a problem that provokes concerns about the sanctity of life. What highlights the status of the fetus as property in the Bible is for example the idea that if a person causes a miscarriage, he must pay a fine to the husband and woman, and is thus only to be trailed for the death of a human being and receive the punishment of execution if he causes also the death of the female.

Both sources by Solinger and Pavone are thus useful to include in a paper with a thesis about abortion. The sources can be located online but this does not meant that they are not reliable. Though they approach the subject each from a different angle and perspective, one historical and one that is mostly religious and spiritual, both do nevertheless shed light on the subject and help further an understanding of what defines the controversy today.

References

Pavone, F. F. (n.d.). The Bible’s Teaching Against Abortion. Pro Life – Anti Abortion Facts and Pro-Life Arguments. Retrieved May 28, 2012, from http://www.priestsforlife.org/brochures/thebible.html

Solinger, R. (2007). Race and ˜Value: Black and White Illegitimate Babies, in the U.S.A., 1945“1965. Wiley Online Library. Retrieved May 28, 2012, from onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-0424.1992.tb00154.x/abstract

Filed under: Sample essays — Tags: , , , — admin @ 5:25 am

26 Jun 2012

Sample Essay: Recessions in the United States and the Great Moderation

Introduction

Recessions surge the degree of insecurity within a society and several provoke fears and speculations. Questions such as, why are recessions not thwarted by economists and policy regulators before they occur? Are they caused by defaulting financial intuitions? Why can countries not prevent recessions by strictly governing its potential perpetrators? The essence of all these questions is, why does a recession occur, and why can we not foresee and stop it? However, the answers are many. Intense speculations and fears can cause the stock market to crash. A change in a trading partner’s foreign policies can significantly affect a country’s economy and cause inflation. An economical crisis in an acknowledged economic power can cause a recession in many other countries. Recessions can also occur when the government in a country collapses, either due to a coup d’état or due to the sudden death of a prominent leader. Similarly, the natural disasters, terrorist attacks, or wars can also cause recessions. It can be concluded that the fear of recessions stems from the fact that they degrade the lives of the common people due to factors, such as, rising unemployment rates, national debts, and the plunging valuation of a country’s currency. This paper attempts to analyze the nature of recessions by studying three periods of economic recessions in the United States: 1980–1982, 1990–1991, and 2001. As has been mentioned before, covering all the aspects or reasons behind recessions is difficult, and thus, for the purpose of this paper, Ben Bernanke’s analysis of the Great Moderation will be employed. To begin with, the Keynesian policy of economics—that views changes in the collective demands and thus, increases in spending habits as the powerhouse that propels economic growth—is considered.

Keynesian Policies and Recessions

As its name suggests, the Keynesian policy was developed or propounded by British economist John Keynes, whose work, The General Theory of Employment Interest and Money at the turn of the nineteenth century changed the way economic policies were viewed until then (Boyes and Melvin, 2010, p 218). Keynes pointed out that an economy could be in a state of equilibrium with a GDP that is less than its potential, and that in times of a recession, governments should change their economic policies in order to curb the recession (Boyes and Melvin, 2010, p 218). At a time when people believed that the government should not be directly involved in the macroeconomic policies of a country, Keynes showed that an economy cannot simply subsist on private expenditures—especially during a recession (Boyes and Melvin, 2010, p 218; Buchanan, 1977, p. 10). He imparted the knowledge that the governments should start spending more to initiate monetary outputs and incomes (Boyes and Melvin, 2010, p. 218; Buchanan, 1977, p. 10). In other words, he believed that the fear of a recession makes people want to hoard their money without trusting the banks to keep it safe for them, and this only further destabilizes the economy. Thus, to instigate people to spend and invest, the government should make changes in its policies, such as decreasing interest rates.

Research analyst, Laura Summers (2009) echoes these facts in her article on the subject. She states that the Keynesian theory views recessions as being engendered from disorders—such variability in oil prices, wars, or natural disasters—within the economic system, which affects the aggregate demands, especially in terms of investments (2009). Consequently, the situation becomes compounded by the reactions of the investors, the public, and the government. Saving within households, which is generally regarded as an indication of a healthy economy, only further worsens the recessions. Thus, a “negative feed-back loop” is created and the situation develops into a “paradox thrift” (Summers, 2009). With less money circulation, unemployment rates increase as companies have less money to spend due to decreasing consumption levels and investments. In 1977, Buchanan (p. 129) presented his proposal based on the Keynesian policy that for maintaining stability in an economy, the government should present budgets that transparently show the national targets against the expenditures, which should be followed to the tee unless there is a national emergency.

The Recession of 1980–1982

The recession of the early 1980s actually began in the 1970s and affected most of the globe in its onslaught. In the United States, the economic downfall was caused by more than a single factor. Among the many factors that contributed to this recession, the Iranian Revolution that surged up the oil prices is the most well known (Meltzer, 2010). The energy and oil crises in the 1970s accrued to bring in the inflation in 1980–1982 (Meltzer, 2010). This is direct opposition of the less number of shocks in the following period of the Great Moderation, when there were relatively lesser shocks (Bernanke, 2004). It should also be remembered that the United States was involved in an intense cold war with the communist world in this period, and that tensions were compounded by the increasing threat as both sides gained access to nuclear power—another shock. It is thus possible that the greater number of economic shocks caused this recession—in contrast to the lesser economic shocks during the Great Moderation (Bernanke, 2004). This recession thus became a double dip recession, possibly due to the mistakes made in deciding the monetary policies in this period. The W-shaped curve of the GDP in this period as shown in figure 1. represents this fact (The ABC’s of Recessions).

In 1979, the then newly appointed chairman of the Federal Reserve System, Paul Volcker[Editor1] , propounded a strict monetary policy that he believed would significantly aid in reviving the country from the recession (Meltzer, 2010). In between 1980 and 1982, inflation reached a high of 17 percent and a low of 5 percent as the monetary policies were being amended in the middle of the year (Meltzer, 2010). However, the high interest rates and employment rates continued until 1983 and 1985, respectively (Meltzer, 2010). Volcker because believed that inflation at 11 percent was getting out of hand, and its curbing should be the main goal of the government (Meltzer, 2010). The price inflation was indeed out of control as economists struggled to understand the difference between the projected and real inflation and juggled with various economic theories (Meltzer, 2010). The change of the gold standard into the floating form in reserves only aided in adjusting the exchange rate policies, but challenges on the domestic inflation rate front could not be met (Meltzer, 2010). Moreover, the Volker attempts to control the monetary policy during this recession actually instigated another recession. The strict monetary policies, which had been amended based on the Kyenesian theories, were brought in the middle of the financial year, and strategically poised to make their entrance during the elections. The banks had been asked to reduce their reserves a discount rated were brought down to 10 percent in 1980. Thus, there was a considerable increase in monetary aggregates for about five months in 1980, but once the effects of the disinflation began to be felt, the cracks of the recession began appearing again. From all these factors, it would seem that Bernanke’s (2004) observation that a recession can be caused by economists who have defaulted because they were unable to understand the economy well could be true for the 1980s recession.

The Recession of 1990–1991

Bernanke (2004) states that the three reasons for the Great Moderation that followed the 1980–1982 recession are favorable changes in the monetary policies of the country, structural changes in the economy, and good luck. The factors mentioned above show that Bernanke’s (2004) observation that the output volatility and inflation volatility increases in the 1970s and early 1980s corresponded to the poor monetary policies. Only once the macroeconomic volatility was reduced at around 1984, did the Great Moderation begin to spread roots (Bernanke, 2004). Thus, the global recession of the early 1980s ended fairly early in the United States, but it severed the power of the communists by bringing an end to the Soviet regime. The United States thus thrived in a long period of peace in the later part of the 1990s. Good monetary policies, the factor Bernanke (2004) seems to favour the most, were perhaps the most significant contributing factor for the Great Moderation. Nevertheless, the ability of a good economic structure to prosper without any economic shocks cannot be ruled out as reason for the low macroeconomic volatility of the Great Moderation (Bernanke, 2004). Thus, at the beginning of the 1990s, the United States’ economy was at its peak, but by July 1990, the country went into an eight-month long recession, and it emerged from it in March 1991 (Stock and Watson, 2002, p. 159).

The[Editor2] actual commencement of this recession can be traced back to 1987, when stock markets across the world crashed miserably (Browning, 2007). In the United States, this impact was felt relatively low, as with the elections around the corner, the reactions to this recession were almost missed. Browning (2007) states that no one remembers this recession because it did not “seriously hamper economic growth.” Thus, as Bernanke (2004) would state, the lesser number of shocks buffered the economy from a complete downfall. However, while the impact of the recession was not felt at the beginning by mid-1990, as the Gulf War gained momentum and oil prices increased, there were a few months of recession (Browning, 2007).

While the shocks were, however, felt gradually, the consumer buying behavior saved the country from suffering excessively in this period. Bernanke (2004) mentions that after the 1981–1982 fiasco, the methods by which central banks should charge interest rate became an important matter. Economist John B. Taylor developed a model based on the price and wage of the time using the Keynesian models. Bernanke (2004) believes that the employment of this model for deciding nominal interest rates could also be a significant reason behind the Great Moderation. It can also be viewed that the low impact of the 1990–1991 recession (and even the 2001 recession, as has been mentioned ahead) was due to the effectiveness of the Taylor curve model.

Stock and Watson [Editor3] (2002, p. 199–200) believe that while there were strong indications of decline in the volatility of economic activity, the real GDP had significantly decreased in the middle of 1980s. This, they state, was apparent in the difference in the rate of consumption, production of durable goods, residential fixed investment, and in the production of structures across all quarters. Thus, it can be seen that this recession did not actually affect all sectors. They too are in agreement with Bernanke (2004), who was the chairperson of the Federal System of Reserves in this period, that there is no clarity about the reasons behind the Great Moderation. They believe that it could be the improved monetary policy or Federal System changed response to the inflation from the mid-1980s onward that might be some of the reasons. They also agree with Bernanke (2004) on the point that whatever the reasons behind the Great Moderation, it did help in reducing the output volatility, which is known to edge an economy towards a healthier path.

The Recession of 2001

The recession of 2001 has been called a “short” and “shallow” recession like the 1990–1991 recession (Kliesen, 2003, p. 23). Like the 1990–1991 recession discussed above, it was occurred after a period of economic expansion and ended in November 2001, before its actual impact could be felt with full force (Kliesen, 2003, p. 23). Figure 2 shows a U-shaped GPD in the 1990–1991and 2001 recessions, an indication of typical recessions that are preceded by a period of economic expansion followed by a downfall and recovery (The ABC’s of Recessions). In fact, this does give rise to the question if every period of expansion should be carefully regulated because of the recession that can potentially follow in its aftermath (Kliesen, 2003, pp. 23–24). As the National Bureau of Economic Research states that to be called a recession, a economic downturn should last for at least nine months on an average, this “recession” falls short by this benchmark (Kliesen, 2003, p. 23). It is found that this recession was somewhat a shock to the economists (Kliesen, 2003, p. 27). Thus, economic forecasters had had overestimated the ability of the economy in this period (Kliesen, 2003, p. 27). Moreover, it was wrongly estimated that the economical growth after September 2001 was expected to decline (Kliesen, 2003, p. 27). Like the recession of 1990–1991, varied consumer spending resulted in some sectors getting affected by the recession more than the others (Kliesen, 2003, p. 28). An unexpected decline in the net exports due to the appreciation of the USD and a worldwide decline in slowdown in economic activity also contributed to this recession (Kliesen, 2003, p. 27).

Toward the end of his speech Bernanke reinstates his faith in the ability of the good monetary policies to thwart of buffer the impact of a recession by stating that even the favorable shifts in the Taylor curve in the Great Moderation period could have been instigated by good monetary policies. He makes four statements that stand by his opinion on this: (1) The monetary policies could have stabilized inflation, which in turn stabilized the structure of the economy. (2) Although shocks are thought to be exogenous events, many-a-times, these shocks are actually instigated by expansionary monetary policies. (3) A good monetary policy can also safeguard the economy against shocks by being sensitive to the distribution of the shocks. (4) Finally, alterations in the inflation expectations are actually perpetrated by monetary policies and often mistaken to be exogenous shocks, and so, a good monetary policy will negate this effect. In the 2001 as well as in the 1990–1991 recessions, the low impacts on the economy were owing to the same policies that were being followed in the wake of the 1980–1981 recessions, that is, in the Great Moderation period. Thus, the four points stated by Bernanke above could very well be the reason behind these low-impact recessions.

Conclusion

Using Bernanke’s analysis, it can be observed that in the recession of 1980–1982, the economists were probably unable to understand the economy well enough to take appropriate steps to safeguard it. It can also be concluded that the increased inconsistency in the economy, that is, more economic shocks could have furthered the decline of the economy in this period. The exact contrasting factors were found to be the reasons behind the Great Moderation in the following period. The next recession, that is, the one between 1990 and 1991, was a short one and almost neglected by the people of the country. However, economic volatility has been said to be the contributing factor behind this recession. It is also found that Bernanke’s (2004) concepts regarding the Great Moderation—that the improved monetary policies were crucial to the growth in this period—are in coherence with the findings of other researchers. The 2001 recession is comparable to the 1990–1991 one in that it resembles the short duration for which it lasted and the fact that it was followed by an period of economic expansion. It can, however, be concluded that finding the causes behind recessions is extremely difficult, and while improved monetary policies are an potential cause behind an expanding economy and vice versa, this fact cannot be marked on stone. Moreover, it can also be seen from the 1980–1982 recession that Keynesian theories, while relevant even today, should not be adhered to blindly. The Taylor curve, a important model based on the Keynesian theories has been known to be helpful in deciding the nominal interest rates of central banks. It is possible that this model was responsible for buffering the United States from the recessions of 1990–1991 and 2001 as well as for aiding the prosperity of the country’s economy during the Great Moderation—although Bernanke favors monetary policies as the major contributing factor.

References

Browning, E.S. “Exorcising Ghosts of Octobers Past: Despite Housing Slump, Crashes Such as in 1987 Likely to Stay Memories,” (October 19, 2007), The Wall Street Journal. Accessed on April 30, 2012 http://online.wsj.com/article/SB119239926667758592.html

Bernanke, Ben S. Remarks by Governor Ben S. Bernanke At the meetings of the Eastern Economic Association, Washington, DC (February 20, 2004). The Great Moderation Accessed on April 30, 2012 http://www.federalreserve.gov/boarddocs/speeches/2004/20040220/default.htm.

Boyes, William and Melvin, Michael. Economics. Eagan: Cengage Learning, 2010.

Buchanan, James M. Democracy in Deficit: The Political Legacy of Lord Keynes, Online Library of Liberty, 1977.

Kliesen, Kevin L. The 2001 Recession: How Was It Different and What Developments May Have Caused It? The Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis (September–October, 2003), pp. 23–37.

Meltzer, Allan H. A History of the Federal Reserve—Part VIII: Volcker Imposes Monetary Austerity (1979–1986),  Futurecasts Online Magazine, 12(8) (August 1, 2010). Accessed on April 30, 2012 http://www.futurecasts.com/Meltzer,%20History%20of%20Federal%20Reserve,%20v.%202%20%28VIII%29.htm#Recession%20of%201980-1982.

Summers, Laura. Thoughts on the Current Recession: Keynesian Economics (May 1, 2009), Utah Foundation Research Brief. Accessed on April 30, 2012 http://www.utahfoundation.org/reports/?page_id=437.

Stock, James H. and Watson, Mark W. Has the Business Cycle Changed and Why? Ed. Mark Gertler and Kenneth Rogoff (April 5–6, 2002), NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2002, 17. Accessed on April 30, 2012
http://www.nber.org/chapters/c11075.

The ABC’s Of Recessions (August 15, 2009). Accessed on April 30, 2012 http://www.targoz.com/blog/the-abcs-of-recessions.html.

Appendix

Figure 1. The W-shaped GPD of the 1980–1982 recession shows that this was a double-dip recession

1980–1982 W Recessions

Source: The ABC’s Of Recessions (August 15, 2009). Accessed on April 30, 2012 http://www.targoz.com/blog/the-abcs-of-recessions.html.

Figure 2. The U-shaped GPD of the 1990–1991and 2001 recessions shows that they were typical recessions with a period of economic expansion followed by a downfall and recovery

1990–1991 & 2001 U Recessions

Source: The ABC’s Of Recessions (August 15, 2009). Accessed on April 30, 2012 http://www.targoz.com/blog/the-abcs-of-recessions.html.


[Editor1]YOU CAN DELETE THE COMMENT BOXES BY RIGHT CLICKING AND CHOSING DELETE COMMMENT BOX

Bernanke mentions him as well.

[Editor2]I have followed the pattern of mentioning the major attributes of each of the recessions and comparing them to Bernanke’s observations. So, the 3 basic reasons (2 if you look at the good luck factor as a consequence of the lesser number of shocks) for the Great Moderation have been mentioned for all the recessions. So Bernanke is present everywhere!

[Editor3]This is a study that agrees with Bernanke’s observations.

27 May 2012

Essay Topic: Things People Say by Neil Degrasse Tyson

For Tyson, “people undervalue the role of evidence in formulation an internal belief system” and that they “hold fast to ideas and notions based purely on supposition.” Although the author cannot find any reason for this, the fact remains that people simply describe what is “simply true no matter what.” Nevertheless, the point is that whatever we have to say, it must be accounted for by concrete evidence resulting from accurate observation, just like what Aristotle had done when he observed certain elements of space.

Most of the false things that people say are actually influenced by several factors. One of these is a false way of proving things, such as the one used by Aristotle when he concluded that heavy things fall faster than light ones. This is wrong since gravitational force is constant but the difference in the time it takes for things to fall to the ground first is affected by air resistance.

Another thing that influences the things that people say, especially the false ones, is religion. The author gives an example of the belief of the Catholic Church which states that “stars don’t change.” Thus, there is no record of a supernova in Catholic Europe in 1054.

The rest of the false beliefs fall into the category of popular knowledge, which is usually considered as “immune from falsehoods that were easily testable.” According to popular knowledge, the North Star is the brightest but actually the Big Dipper is brighter. The Sun is called a yellow star but actually it is white. Whatever goes up does not necessarily come down again if it has escaped the gravitational pull of the Earth. Many people believe there is no gravity in space but actually the pull of gravity of every heavenly body extends to the space, but “with ever-diminishing strength.” The Earth’s magnetic north pole is actually in the south, and there is actually more frequent solar eclipses than it is possible. Moreover, the equinox is not exactly 12 hours of day and 12 hours of night as what most people believe, because refraction of sunlight would make the sun appear above the horizon even minutes before it actually rises.

Addicted to Health by Robert H. Bork

The government’s irrational policy of controlling tobacco companies is actually caused by “moral self-righteousness, greed for money, and political ambition.”

Such irrational policies of the government extend to forcing smokers to pay huge taxes.

What are the inconsistencies of the government when it comes to these policies? First, the non-smokers simply made the smokers feel guilty and the government is using this particular difference in opinion to their own selfish advantage. Second, there is no guarantee that peace will prevail if the last cigarette smoker stops smoking. Third, automobiles would even kill more people than alcohol but cars are not banned. Fourth, the government is claiming that their strict measures are of benefit to teenagers and children when in fact their rules affect adults more. Fifth, the government bans the advertising but they allow the selling of cigarettes.

Sixth, the government does not restrict the selling of tobacco abroad. Seventh, the state does not actually lose money from cigarettes because smokers die early and thus some of them would not be able to avail of their Medicare and Medicaid and the Social Security pension, thus the government can save so much from them. Eighth, tobacco companies should pay $308 billion for 25 years but these companies in fact win the litigation cases filed against them. Ninth, advertising is banned but people smoke not because of advertisements but because of peer pressure. Tenth, the plaintiffs of these cigarette companies are guaranteed billions of dollars in compensation each year. Without the cigarette companies, the plaintiffs would not be able to earn as much and they would not be able to achieve their goals as the National Association of Aspiring Governors. Eleventh and lastly, the lawmakers proclaim the law against smoking as full of “sobriety, courage, and righteousness” as they show the citizens that they have defeated the evil cigarette companies, when in fact they also have evil motives for their acts.

The author’s point is that if individual responsibility is denied, we allow the government to control our behavior freely.

Writing MLA Papers

If one is to write MLA papers, or papers for the Modern Language Association, one should first develop a supporting thesis. He should then organize the evidence relating to that thesis. After this, he should do his research in order to find sources that support the argument. While doing this, providing the background of the subject is important as well as a definition and explanation of the terms. Claims must also be supported with evidence from authoritative sources. At the same time, objections must be anticipated when writing supporting statements.

Writing an academic paper is also all about avoiding plagiarism. In order to avoid this, one should be able to properly and exactly cite quotations and borrowed ideas, which excludes common knowledge such as Martin Luther receiving the Nobel Prize.  The borrowed information must be enclosed in quotation marks. Moreover, summaries and paraphrases must be expressed in one’s own words bit still need to be cited. In order to do this well, one must carefully try not to copy the same phrases and sentences from the selection being paraphrased.

The gathered sources must then be integrated but at the same time, the use of quotations must be limited and the use of punctuation marks must be carefully done. In the integration of sources, there should be signal phrases that would provide smooth transition between one idea and the next as well as to introduce a direct quotation. While integrating the sources, statistics and facts must be carefully combined with the text and at the same time, authority must be established for the sources.

Lastly, sources must be properly documented not only within the text but also at the end of the paper in the Works Cited section. While in-text citations need only the author and page number if there is any, the Works Cited section would need the date of publication, the publisher, the address of the publisher, and the full name of the author as additional information.

Filed under: Essay topics — Tags: , , , , — admin @ 2:16 am

15 May 2012

Essay Topic: Acknowledgement to the Staff of Laser Quest for Providing the Quest for Success Team Works Program

Background:

The Blue Wolves baseball team has been in a constant losing streak for a period of six months and the managers do not know why. The managers went to a game and found out that the baseball team has constant arguing among themselves and disorganization.

Aim:

The aim is for the Blue Wolves baseball team to learn how to communicate effectively, learn how to cooperate with each other, and establish organization so as to work together to win more games.

Objectives/Outcomes:

The objective is for the Blue Wolves baseball team to go to a recreational event called Quest for Success Team Works Program that focuses on practicing communication skills, teamwork, effective leadership, and organization. The outcome would be that the Blue Wolves baseball team would play well and win more games.

Development Assets:

X Communication X Organization
X Team Work X Leadership
X Cooperation

Number of participants: 15

Location of program: LazerQuest Downers Grove, IL.

Number of staff: 2

Risk Management:

The staff at LazerQuest will make sure that the game arena is clean and free of objects that will cause harm to the participants.

Charge fee: $170 for group packages

Promotion, partnerships, sponsorships: N/A

Budget: $100 for food and drinks

Method of evaluation:

The training professional for the Quest for Success Team Works Program will evaluate how the Blue Wolves baseball teamwork together in playing lazer tag as a team by video recording the game, and therefore telling them points they need to work on or have achieved after the game.

Program Content:

Quest for Success Team Works Program includes a workbook, video, strategy, and discussion sessions that is used to explore learning concepts. Before the lazer tag game, the Blue Wolves baseball team will watch the video on teamwork skills, which they will then write notes on. After the video, the training professional will pass out workbooks and the Blue Wolves team will answer questions in the workbook that was brought out in the video. Then the training professional would have the coach to map out a game plan for the rest of the team to win the lazer tag competition. He will also allow the rest of the team to have their input on how to go about on the game plan. Then after the Blue Wolves team has finished discussing their game plan, they will go into the Lazer Tag game arena and implement what they have learned from the video and workbook into a team effort to win the game. After the game, the Blue Wolves team will go back into the discussion room and watch the recorded video of them playing. The training professional will ask questions of what they did as a team in order to win the game and will encourage them to implement those same teamwork skills when they are playing baseball games. If the Blue Wolves team has lost a game, then the training professional will ask them what do they think went wrong in the game arena after showing them the recorded video. The Blue Wolves baseball team will then discuss the problems and try to implement those resolved problems into their next baseball game.

Time Line:

The Quest for Success Team Works Program is only half a day, from 1 pm to 6:30 pm on Saturday.

Filed under: Essay topics — Tags: , , , — admin @ 2:14 am

30 Apr 2012

Essay Topic: Economic Crisis

The thesis projected by Money-Financed Deficits and Political Democracy, chapter 8 of Democracy in Deficit is that of “the continuing confusion generated by a stubborn failure to distinguish carefully between genuine public borrowing and money creation.” (p.79) This failure has caused important shifts not only in monetary policy but on US politics in general, including the current economic crisis and the social and political results of it.  It is very important to note that: “fiscal adjustments—budgetary management, the creation of deficits or surpluses—provide the primary instruments for the implementation of macroeconomic policy.”(p.79)

The authors argue that the Keynesian destruction of pre Keynesian norm, without an adequate replacement, has brought on the situation that has stared to emerge in the late 1970s making budget deficits into a normal course of events. (p.95-96) This has not only had an effect on the monetary system, but the policy of budget deficit as a normal system has caused important political shifts in the United States and worldwide. The politicians have started spending more then tax revenues, which is a problem that is at the root of the current economic crisis.

According to Buchanan and Wagner, purely Keynesian systems cannot work in the neo liberal system, but could work in a mild dictatorship. (p.79-80) The problem of Keynesian economic systems not being able to function in modern democracies lies in the fact that professional politicians have used the possibility of budget deficits to ensure stability during their terms but did not look forward, causing finally the deficit to become too elevated and finally threaten the world economy. The Keynesian system should work in a way that the enlightened few have the control of the monetary policy, but in the modern politics there is no center of power where an enlightened few can effectively isolate themselves from constituency pressures” (p.98) The only way Keynesian policies can work in a macroeconomic system is through a combination of the Keynesian and traditional system in which the technocratic influence should be substantial.

Essay Topic: Personal System of Classroom Management

Philosophy of class room management

Students must believe the fact that school supports learning. Thus, the expectations students hold challenges them in an equitable way. In assessing the effectiveness of the class, the confidence of the teacher in teaching and classroom management abilities form the basis of my classroom management philosophy. If a teacher isn’t confident, then her students wouldn’t be either (Zauss). As far as my philosophy of classroom management is concerned, I will model the learning around the five principles of discipline and a love for learning, curiosity and respect. In order to develop and manage my students, I will make sure that the class is carried out in a professional way, and rules and regulations are present while misbehavior is discouraged. Where the environment of the class would be well organized, it would also act as a sound tool for stirring creativity in my students, engaging them to further in the development arena.

I believe that every child in the class must be involved so that the learning is jointly attained. Evidently the needs might vary, but having discussions with the students about their feelings and experiences within and outside the boundaries of the school as well as the problems they face, would help a lot in creating a classroom community. This way, the students would feel that they are meaningful and will thus make them feel significant and belonged that will reduce the unacceptable behavior. There are also many intervention strategies that I will follow, such as enabling students to identify topics directly related to their culture and background, and helping them, using work samples in the classroom in order to make the students resourceful, along with ensuring that a supportive learning environment is developed having clear expectations from both sides and providing opportunities for all students to be a part of the community.

Basis of the philosophy:

The basis of my philosophy of classroom management lies upon three basic theories of Canter, Glasser and Rudolph Derikurs. This is so, because the system of classroom managementdoes not tolerate any sort of misbehavior which is consistent with the Canter model. This model states that the teacher remains consistent with the treatment of discipline and the students who behave well are recognized. The model also states that misbehavior should not be tolerated at all and must be dealt with accordingly (Sturt). However, the model also states a rather negative approach to begin the year with the students as it states the use of warnings, letters, and detentions. The way misbehavior is being dealt with thus brings in the second theory that my philosophy follows.

Till now, it has been established that if misbehavior is detected in the class, it must be discouraged. However, it must also be understood that in order to reduce misbehavior, the assumptions that the child holds regarding the achievement of the goals must be understood in my philosophy. This statement brings in the model of logical consequences embedded in my philosophy, which states that there are 4 mistaken goals of misbehavior that are:attention seeking,  power seeking, revenge seeking, and appearing inadequate behavior that can be dealt with, provided the student identifies a sense of belonging and significance (Sturt). My philosophy also revolves around the fact that the management system must hold the values of love, respect, and achievement. The theory by Glasser backs up this idea and further states that schools can be developed without failure (Sturt).

The Five Principles

According to the 5 principles of discipline, strict standards of professionalism and ethical considerations will be set when I will interact with my students. The kinds of behavior that I wish to inculcate in my students now and would like to see in the future are a positive attitude, consideration, and taking initiatives. Other than that, personal responsibility and an effort to learn will also be inculcated in the students through establishing strong rules and regulations. As for the moral qualities, I will make sure that the students understand the importance of this through established environment learning, a strong compatibility with their fellow classmates, and their involvement in planning the program. It will be made sure that the environment generated in the class remains compatible with needs, interests, and preferences of the students along with the presence of continual helpfulness, preservation of dignity, and teachers’ charisma to highlight a sense of community.

It also required that my students should conduct themselves in a responsible manner (Roach). Therefore, the provisions included for such contain the likes of:

Managing to reduce the causes of misbehavior.

Establishing a sense of community through collaboration and joint decision making.

Keeping the students informed through open communication that is clear and effective.

Building dignity through speaking and collaborating with them to teach them the art of decision making.

Establishing group spirit.

Bringing in parents so that meaningful participation can be achieved.

Establishing fair and bias free relationships that will aid towards resolving class problems.

There is also a need for intervention when disruptions, neurological-based behaviors or other actions like these are identified. In such situations, the strategies I will use will revolve around interventions that are suitable to both me and my students. I will use the appropriate words and helpful things to say when misbehavior is identified, other than that; I will also make sure to not use words that should not be used and will develop a sound procedure that will be followed when misbehavior is identified that the students will be aware of. In this way, the students will learn the consequences of their behavior and will understand to accept responsibility that will help them avoid any disruptive behavior in future.

My classroom and its practices:

Through my experiences in the field, I came to realize that system that is central to the assertive discipline model is a classroom discipline plan created by the teacher and implemented at the beginning of the school year or academic term. The plan includes three major components: a set of classroom rules, types of positive recognition for students who obey the rules, and a hierarchy of consequences for students who disobey the rules (Wiley). However, in my own classroom, I use the assertive discipline towards the end of the school year only.

Nevertheless, when this approach is most needed, I give them each a “driver’s license”. I first explain that I came up with the idea by reflecting on how I am held accountable in the “real world”. Together, we list all of the things an adult is responsible for and typically agree that being able to drive is one of the biggest responsibilities a person can have. Even though they aren’t old enough to drive, kids understand the basic rules of the road and what it means when a cop pulls up behind you with his or her siren on. I then explain how a driver’s license works in the classroom. First, like good drivers, they can behave appropriately and be left in peace. It is likely, though, that if a rule is broken, I’ll see it and “pull them over”. We list all of their responsibilities and decide what they can get “pulled over” for. The list is limited to common issues during the last couple months of school – arriving late to class, forgetting supplies, interrupting, being loud or disrespectful, and not following directions. I demonstrate “pulling them over” by putting a single punch in their driver’s license. I am at liberty to decide whether the offense deserves a warning or a citation. The citation is a small sheet of paper with reflection questions and room for a parent signature. The fun part for the kids comes at the end of the week when they receive points for good behavior. Every day they go without getting “pulled over” earns them one point. At the beginning of the following week they can trade in their points for small prizes. Although it is a bit complex, this technique has worked well because the rules are clearly defined and awards are attainable. They end up monitoring and reporting themselves most of the time.

I used Assertive Discipline my first year of teaching but over the years I have found an eclectic approach to work best for my classroom. We establish our expectations as a community of learners from the start of the year. We may change rules during the year if we think it is necessary. We have class meetings where discipline is discussed and suggestions are given. We praise those among us who work hard and deserve a pat on the back. We encourage those who may need encouraging. We focus on the positive. This seems to create a manageable classroom atmosphere that is conducive to the learning environment. For two years now I have been implementing The Nurtured Heart Approach for the more extreme behavior problems. This approach has phenomenal results and benefits the whole class.

In order to create a tone of warmth and safety in the class room, I will make sure to greet students as they enter the classroom, which is both professional and warm; according to Wong (1998),shaking each student’s hand as he or she walks through the door is a great way to achieve this. I will also make sure that I have a sense of humor that will help create a warm, inviting atmosphere. Other than that, my focus would also be on group-building activities during the first few weeks of school, which will help create the trust and safety essential for active, collaborative learning.

During my experience in the field, I have realized that professionalism directly impacts the effectiveness of teaching and also impacts the quality of students’ education. Some examples I have observed of professional behavior by teachers during my internships have been the following which will also be inculcated in my class.

Being prepared with a schedule and lesson plans for the entire day and not having to “ad-lib” or pull something out of a hat.

Teachers who do not become flustered or frustrated in the classroom due to student behavior.  They are able to maintain control of the class without being a “dictator”.

Teachers who maintain their own education by participating in education seminars and classes in order to keep up with changes and ideas in teaching.

Teachers who not only expect respect but who earn it by respecting their own students and peers. They treat their students with the same kindness and respect that they themselves want to receive.

References:

Roach, J. Class management, [Available online] on 6th April, 2012 at:    http://jamesroach.net/education/PETE/classmanagement.html

Sturt, G. Classroom Management, [Available online] on 6th April, 2012 at:    http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:SXZuI7iQVjcJ:homepage.ntlworld.com/gary.sturt/classman.htm+http://homepage.ntlworld.com/gary.sturt/classman.htm&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=pk

Wiley, Manage diversity in your class room, [Available online] on 6th April, 2012 at:    http://media.wiley.com/product_data/excerp.

Wong, H. (1998) The First Days of School: How to be an Effective Teacher,Wong publications.

Zauss, E. A., Educational Philosophy of Classroom Management, Educational Resources for Teachers [Available online] on 6th April, 2012 at:  https://sites.google.com/site/amandazauss/educational-philosophy-of-classroom-management

Sample Essay: SocioCultural Values of Green Sea Turtle, Chelonia Mydas

Throughout the history, human beings have struggled to find a satisfactory answer to the question of identity. Some of the prehistoric philosophers made a clear distinction between body and the soul and they were known as dualists, while others considered a human body to be the active as well as passive construct in itself. The modern philosophy has been concerned more about the role of consciousness as it makes the identity of self. It is believed that a self without consciousness is nothing but a floating existence that does not have an ability to sense anything and build perception. Self that can build perception is the one that can be taken into consideration. Self-concept refers to the capability of a self to perceive its own existence through different domains like gender, sex, society, environment and race. Self-concept is not an easily comprehensible phenomenon because it differs from self-awareness in a sense that it discovers the characteristics of self through a multidimensional analysis.

Self-concept refers to phenomenon that has a broader scope for the analysis of an individual. It is more like self-assessment but is not confined to the physical characteristics of the self. According to Jopling (2000), “When applied to the question “Who am I?” the intellectualist approach would hold that it is both rational and self-evidently desirable for persons to maximize their self-awareness and their self-knowledge, with a view to rendering the self, and the conditions under which the self develops and flourishes, as transparent as possible”, (p. 59). Self-concept deals not with the temporary state of existence but it is more concerned with universal judgment of one’s capabilities.

The statement “I am bored” exemplifies the temporary state of a self because this state lasts only for a few moments of time, while the statement “I am punctual” refers to a permanent state of self. Self-concept refers to the self-assessment, self-discovery and the esteem of the concerned existence and it may change with time because of a number of factors. A negative trend in self-assessment may lead to an identity crisis as the self finds its capacities to be diminishing with time.

Erik Erikson, a famous Freudian psychoanalyst, suggests that there are eight stages of development that may shape the identity of an individual (Sharkey, 1997). It is important to be noted here that he believes that it is the childhood years that are vital to an individual’s development as the stimulus, during those years, will eventually help him in the process of self-actualization. According to him, it is the very first year of birth that helps a child to build trust in the world and that is the first phase, where the self struggles to recognize its own existence. Erikson is of the belief that an individual seeks independence at the age of 3 years and that is where the teachers can determine the level to which an individual is independent to act. If a child does not experience independence in that particular time then it develops mixed feelings of shame and doubt. An individual that has experienced this kind of treatment in childhood is going to be dependent on others as he grows up (Sharkey, 1997).

The age between 3 to 6 years is an important one to deal with because in that stage the child develops an internal stimulus to take initiatives. The one, who is ignored by his guardians in this stage, is going to suffer from a mixed feeling of anger and sadness. If the child, at this stage, is not encouraged by parents then he is going to develop an aggressive behavior. An individual, who develops this kind of feelings, can later on become a sadist and may start discouraging others (Boeree, 2006). Just because he was not given a chance to rise up, he seizes to believe that others are to be given a chance in their lifetime. The feelings like “I can’t do it” may disturb the individual psychologically.

The fourth stage of development at the age of 5 to 12, according to Erikson, determines the level of self-confidence that is to be achieved by the child. In this age, a child is ready to take up challenges and has developed sense of time and space that he lives in. It is the time, when a child is eager to develop his capabilities by getting involved in productive activities. The interaction with other individuals helps him in developing moral values that are in harmony with the society. If a child is teased or discouraged at this time then he is likely to develop a sense of inferiority, which may prove detrimental in the later stages of development because he loses confidence. The next stage of development occurs from the age of 13 to 19 years. This is where the real crisis of identity starts to emerge as the individual seeks a purpose of his existence (Boeree, 2006).

Some individuals may find themselves in the trap because of getting confused about their role in life. This confusion eventually leads to an isolated behavior as the individual experiences a continuous struggle to recognize his real role. The sixth stage of development is an emotional one because it brings confusing questions for an individual. An individual might feel afraid of getting rejected by his friends and parents and might end up in isolation. In this stage, an individual may struggle to find love for him and end up in believing that he is not loved by anyone. The sixth stage of development is the one that happens to mature individuals. An individual, in this stage of development, is more concerned about health, married life, leisure, aged parents and his own children. A person in this stage of life follows a status quo to earn a specious life for his family (Sharkey, 1997).

The eighth stage is the one that happens to an individual, who is about to die. It is where an individual seeks accountability from himself. This is where the recognition of life is made possible. Some may look into their past and feel comfortable about the way they lived, while others might feel miserable about their lives and become sad. By explaining the 8 stages of development, Erikson believes that the perception about self is formed through a set of influential stimuli that are received by an individual through societal interaction. He takes an account of two kinds of feelings that an individual may experience throughout his lifetime; one might develop a sense of success, while the other one may highlight the failures. These feelings would easily make a person or break him because they help in forming negative and positive perception about self. They really help a person in the pathway to self-discovery.

Abraham Maslow, a famous psychologist, proposed theories about motivation. His work is concerned with the factors that may help a person to solve identity crisis. Maslow believes that self-actualization is the real discovery of one’s self. He links self-actualization with the fulfillment of psychological, self-esteem and safety needs. He is of the belief that self-actualization can only be attained if a person’s needs are fulfilled. Maslow is concerned with the individuality of a person because he believes that the external environment has a negligible impact over the self as the integrity, unity and consciousness are internal capacities (Sivers, 2008). It is the external environment that brings distress and restlessness to an individual because it won’t let an individual do what he is best at.

Maslow is of the belief that a person should not let the external stimulus overpower him because it is the inner-self that provides the clues about how exactly one should act. The external stimulus brings discontent with it because it is quite different than the choices that are made by an individual. Maslow deems it important for an individual to realize his self-worth before taking guidance from an influential external stimulus. Self can only emerge if an individual provides it the way to do so (Sivers, 2008). Self-actualization is all about discovering the principles of nature that are inculcated in your moral system.

Self-actualization starts when an individual recognizes the difference between what he wants to do and what he ought to do. If he chooses to be honest then he is taking up the responsibility, which, according to Maslow, is self-actualization. People that listen to others would end up doing nothing because no one is there to help you out in difficult situations because of their selfish capacity. An individual that listens to his inner voice is the one that discovers his self (Sivers, 2008).

According to Maslow, you do not need to be concerned about what others think of what you do. The way you act can become unpopular and you may be criticized for doing it your way but it is all about how you carry yourself in that situation. You do not have to worry about how insignificant your act may look but the real worth of your act can only be realized, when you do it yourself. It is important to recognize the good and the bad so that you can act accordingly (Sivers, 2008). Finding what you are and what you are not may help you disocver your true self. This way, you can also discover the things that may be essential to consider before grooming yourself.

Maslow argues that acceptance is the key to a successful self-discovery. You need to be the one, who accepts his surroundings the way they are because it helps in cherishing relationship with nature and people. Maslow believes that human beings can discover themselves by relying heavily on their inner impulses that may help them in choosing the realistic way. The inner-self must be autonomous to make decision. For Maslow, transcending is better than coping (Sivers, 2008).

Karen Horney, a renewable thinker, would support Maslow’s theory because she believed that the drive, to identify self, originates from one’s inner self. Self-identity, for Horney, is the struggle to identify the potential of one’s own self. She believes that self-discovery helps an individual to recognize the purpose of life. Horney divides self into two parts; real and ideal self. Real self pertains to the person who you actually are, whereas the ideal self is an imaginary existence that a person wants to imitate. She presents ideal self to be the role model for an individual because it is an imaginary reflection of what a person wants to become (Solomon, 2006). Horney, like Maslow, thinks that being honest is the first step in the process of self-actualization because it helps in realizing the true potential of self. Horney believes that change is inevitable and a person needs not to be resistant to change because it makes you the person that you want to be (Dewey, 2007).

Harry Stack Sullivan, a notable psychiatrist, would develop six stages of development that, according to him, would systematically shape the behavior of an individual. Sullivan believes that people discover themselves as a component of external environment because they form their perception through the feedback that they receive from people in their surroundings. Sullivan believes that people have a “good me” and “bad me” philosophy of self, which is formed through a positive and negative feedback respectively. An individual distinguishes himself from others by affiliating the notion of “I and you” with the society. Self-system is built in a way that an individual draws security measures to handle any situation that may pop up (Nursing theories, 2011).

The negative feedback from the society develops an egoistic self. Individuals tend to show aggressiveness because of being ridiculed by the society. According to Sullivan, an individual may create self-defense techniques to avoid conflict with other individuals. The security measures may be taken by his self-system in order to avoid anxiety and frustration. The “I and you” concept dominates the thought process of these individuals and may create situations, where the individual finds himself to be the only fighter in the battle against the “bad world” (Nursing theories, 2011). Sullivan’s concept of self is similar to that of Maslow because he thinks that individual forms a perception about himself by interacting with the members of the society.

Karl Jung, an imminent psychologist, believes that self is much more than what we think of it. According to Ewen (2003), “Carl Jung At first a supporter of psychoanalysis, then broke with Freud to establish his own theory. Believed that the unconscious is extremely important but disagreed with Freud in many respects: Human nature is both good and bad. There are important instincts in addition to sexuality and aggressiveness (including individuation, the forerunner of the humanistic concept of self-actualization)”, (p. 1). He believes that culture has something to do with who we are because it makes up the identity of individuals.

Jung was of the belief that self is something more than ego and it should be analyzed through a broader perspective. It is not what we think it is. Self is what it really should be. There is some power that makes the self what it is. According to Huskinson (2004), “It is generally thought that Jung primarily developed his concept of the Self primarily from his own concept of the ‘transcendent function’, and from Eastern Mysticism, which frequently refers to notions of totality”, (p. 56).

Religion, according to Jung, is the binding factor because it gives meaning to all that you experience. Jung believes that the ones that suffer from neurosis are those that do not believe in religion. Jung put an emphasis over the fact that it is the true self of an individual that is important to be explored. The self, according to Jung, has infinite opportunities to explore in this world and it should not be confined with the domains that physique is acquainted with (Creative personal growth, 2006).

In the concluding lines it can be said that most of the philosophers consider self to be a product of societal stimulus. Many think that we are what we think we should be. The notion, that self is a product of experience, would suppress the stance of Maslow and Horney, who believe that self-actualization is what constructs the dimensions of self, while Carl Jung puts an emphasis over the fact that it is the religion that makes the true self. Whatever could be said, the ambiguity about the question of identity continues to prevail.

References

Ewen, R B. (2003), An Introduction to Theories of Personality, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ

Jopling, D A. (2000), Self-Knowledge and the Self, Routledge, New York

Huskinson, L. (2004), Nietzsche and Jung: The Whole Self in the Union of Opposites, Brunner-Routledge, New York

Solomon, I. (2006), Karen Horney and Character Disorder, Springer, New York

Boeree, G. (2006), Erik Erikson, retrieved on Apr 12, 2012, from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/erikson.html

Sharkey, W. (1997), Erik Erikson, retrieved on Apr 12, 2012, from http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/erikson.htm

Dewey, R. (2007), Karen Horney and Self Analysis, retrieved on Apr 12, 2012, from http://www.intropsych.com/ch13_therapies/karen_horney_and_self-analysis.html

Sivers, D. (2008), Maslow’s 8 ways to self-actualize, retrieved on Apr 12, 2012, from http://sivers.org/maslow

Creative personal growth, 2006, Carl Jung and his ideas on self, retrieved on Apr 12, 2012, from http://www.creative-personal-growth.com/carl-jung.html

Nursing theories, (2011), Sullivan’s interpersonal theory, retrieved on Apr 12, 2012, from http://nursingplanet.com/theory/Sullivan’s_interpersonal_theory_of_personality.html

Essay Topic: Self-Concept Seen Through the Eyes of Philosophers

Throughout the history, human beings have struggled to find a satisfactory answer to the question of identity. Some of the prehistoric philosophers made a clear distinction between body and the soul and they were known as dualists, while others considered a human body to be the active as well as passive construct in itself. The modern philosophy has been concerned more about the role of consciousness as it makes the identity of self. It is believed that a self without consciousness is nothing but a floating existence that does not have an ability to sense anything and build perception. Self that can build perception is the one that can be taken into consideration. Self-concept refers to the capability of a self to perceive its own existence through different domains like gender, sex, society, environment and race. Self-concept is not an easily comprehensible phenomenon because it differs from self-awareness in a sense that it discovers the characteristics of self through a multidimensional analysis.

Self-concept refers to phenomenon that has a broader scope for the analysis of an individual. It is more like self-assessment but is not confined to the physical characteristics of the self. According to Jopling (2000), “When applied to the question “Who am I?” the intellectualist approach would hold that it is both rational and self-evidently desirable for persons to maximize their self-awareness and their self-knowledge, with a view to rendering the self, and the conditions under which the self develops and flourishes, as transparent as possible”, (p. 59). Self-concept deals not with the temporary state of existence but it is more concerned with universal judgment of one’s capabilities.

The statement “I am bored” exemplifies the temporary state of a self because this state lasts only for a few moments of time, while the statement “I am punctual” refers to a permanent state of self. Self-concept refers to the self-assessment, self-discovery and the esteem of the concerned existence and it may change with time because of a number of factors. A negative trend in self-assessment may lead to an identity crisis as the self finds its capacities to be diminishing with time.

Erik Erikson, a famous Freudian psychoanalyst, suggests that there are eight stages of development that may shape the identity of an individual (Sharkey, 1997). It is important to be noted here that he believes that it is the childhood years that are vital to an individual’s development as the stimulus, during those years, will eventually help him in the process of self-actualization. According to him, it is the very first year of birth that helps a child to build trust in the world and that is the first phase, where the self struggles to recognize its own existence. Erikson is of the belief that an individual seeks independence at the age of 3 years and that is where the teachers can determine the level to which an individual is independent to act. If a child does not experience independence in that particular time then it develops mixed feelings of shame and doubt. An individual that has experienced this kind of treatment in childhood is going to be dependent on others as he grows up (Sharkey, 1997).

The age between 3 to 6 years is an important one to deal with because in that stage the child develops an internal stimulus to take initiatives. The one, who is ignored by his guardians in this stage, is going to suffer from a mixed feeling of anger and sadness. If the child, at this stage, is not encouraged by parents then he is going to develop an aggressive behavior. An individual, who develops this kind of feelings, can later on become a sadist and may start discouraging others (Boeree, 2006). Just because he was not given a chance to rise up, he seizes to believe that others are to be given a chance in their lifetime. The feelings like “I can’t do it” may disturb the individual psychologically.

The fourth stage of development at the age of 5 to 12, according to Erikson, determines the level of self-confidence that is to be achieved by the child. In this age, a child is ready to take up challenges and has developed sense of time and space that he lives in. It is the time, when a child is eager to develop his capabilities by getting involved in productive activities. The interaction with other individuals helps him in developing moral values that are in harmony with the society. If a child is teased or discouraged at this time then he is likely to develop a sense of inferiority, which may prove detrimental in the later stages of development because he loses confidence. The next stage of development occurs from the age of 13 to 19 years. This is where the real crisis of identity starts to emerge as the individual seeks a purpose of his existence (Boeree, 2006).

Some individuals may find themselves in the trap because of getting confused about their role in life. This confusion eventually leads to an isolated behavior as the individual experiences a continuous struggle to recognize his real role. The sixth stage of development is an emotional one because it brings confusing questions for an individual. An individual might feel afraid of getting rejected by his friends and parents and might end up in isolation. In this stage, an individual may struggle to find love for him and end up in believing that he is not loved by anyone. The sixth stage of development is the one that happens to mature individuals. An individual, in this stage of development, is more concerned about health, married life, leisure, aged parents and his own children. A person in this stage of life follows a status quo to earn a specious life for his family (Sharkey, 1997).

The eighth stage is the one that happens to an individual, who is about to die. It is where an individual seeks accountability from himself. This is where the recognition of life is made possible. Some may look into their past and feel comfortable about the way they lived, while others might feel miserable about their lives and become sad. By explaining the 8 stages of development, Erikson believes that the perception about self is formed through a set of influential stimuli that are received by an individual through societal interaction. He takes an account of two kinds of feelings that an individual may experience throughout his lifetime; one might develop a sense of success, while the other one may highlight the failures. These feelings would easily make a person or break him because they help in forming negative and positive perception about self. They really help a person in the pathway to self-discovery.

Abraham Maslow, a famous psychologist, proposed theories about motivation. His work is concerned with the factors that may help a person to solve identity crisis. Maslow believes that self-actualization is the real discovery of one’s self. He links self-actualization with the fulfillment of psychological, self-esteem and safety needs. He is of the belief that self-actualization can only be attained if a person’s needs are fulfilled. Maslow is concerned with the individuality of a person because he believes that the external environment has a negligible impact over the self as the integrity, unity and consciousness are internal capacities (Sivers, 2008). It is the external environment that brings distress and restlessness to an individual because it won’t let an individual do what he is best at.

Maslow is of the belief that a person should not let the external stimulus overpower him because it is the inner-self that provides the clues about how exactly one should act. The external stimulus brings discontent with it because it is quite different than the choices that are made by an individual. Maslow deems it important for an individual to realize his self-worth before taking guidance from an influential external stimulus. Self can only emerge if an individual provides it the way to do so (Sivers, 2008). Self-actualization is all about discovering the principles of nature that are inculcated in your moral system.

Self-actualization starts when an individual recognizes the difference between what he wants to do and what he ought to do. If he chooses to be honest then he is taking up the responsibility, which, according to Maslow, is self-actualization. People that listen to others would end up doing nothing because no one is there to help you out in difficult situations because of their selfish capacity. An individual that listens to his inner voice is the one that discovers his self (Sivers, 2008).

According to Maslow, you do not need to be concerned about what others think of what you do. The way you act can become unpopular and you may be criticized for doing it your way but it is all about how you carry yourself in that situation. You do not have to worry about how insignificant your act may look but the real worth of your act can only be realized, when you do it yourself. It is important to recognize the good and the bad so that you can act accordingly (Sivers, 2008). Finding what you are and what you are not may help you disocver your true self. This way, you can also discover the things that may be essential to consider before grooming yourself.

Maslow argues that acceptance is the key to a successful self-discovery. You need to be the one, who accepts his surroundings the way they are because it helps in cherishing relationship with nature and people. Maslow believes that human beings can discover themselves by relying heavily on their inner impulses that may help them in choosing the realistic way. The inner-self must be autonomous to make decision. For Maslow, transcending is better than coping (Sivers, 2008).

Karen Horney, a renewable thinker, would support Maslow’s theory because she believed that the drive, to identify self, originates from one’s inner self. Self-identity, for Horney, is the struggle to identify the potential of one’s own self. She believes that self-discovery helps an individual to recognize the purpose of life. Horney divides self into two parts; real and ideal self. Real self pertains to the person who you actually are, whereas the ideal self is an imaginary existence that a person wants to imitate. She presents ideal self to be the role model for an individual because it is an imaginary reflection of what a person wants to become (Solomon, 2006). Horney, like Maslow, thinks that being honest is the first step in the process of self-actualization because it helps in realizing the true potential of self. Horney believes that change is inevitable and a person needs not to be resistant to change because it makes you the person that you want to be (Dewey, 2007).

Harry Stack Sullivan, a notable psychiatrist, would develop six stages of development that, according to him, would systematically shape the behavior of an individual. Sullivan believes that people discover themselves as a component of external environment because they form their perception through the feedback that they receive from people in their surroundings. Sullivan believes that people have a “good me” and “bad me” philosophy of self, which is formed through a positive and negative feedback respectively. An individual distinguishes himself from others by affiliating the notion of “I and you” with the society. Self-system is built in a way that an individual draws security measures to handle any situation that may pop up (Nursing theories, 2011).

The negative feedback from the society develops an egoistic self. Individuals tend to show aggressiveness because of being ridiculed by the society. According to Sullivan, an individual may create self-defense techniques to avoid conflict with other individuals. The security measures may be taken by his self-system in order to avoid anxiety and frustration. The “I and you” concept dominates the thought process of these individuals and may create situations, where the individual finds himself to be the only fighter in the battle against the “bad world” (Nursing theories, 2011). Sullivan’s concept of self is similar to that of Maslow because he thinks that individual forms a perception about himself by interacting with the members of the society.

Karl Jung, an imminent psychologist, believes that self is much more than what we think of it. According to Ewen (2003), “Carl Jung At first a supporter of psychoanalysis, then broke with Freud to establish his own theory. Believed that the unconscious is extremely important but disagreed with Freud in many respects: Human nature is both good and bad. There are important instincts in addition to sexuality and aggressiveness (including individuation, the forerunner of the humanistic concept of self-actualization)”, (p. 1). He believes that culture has something to do with who we are because it makes up the identity of individuals.

Jung was of the belief that self is something more than ego and it should be analyzed through a broader perspective. It is not what we think it is. Self is what it really should be. There is some power that makes the self what it is. According to Huskinson (2004), “It is generally thought that Jung primarily developed his concept of the Self primarily from his own concept of the ‘transcendent function’, and from Eastern Mysticism, which frequently refers to notions of totality”, (p. 56).

Religion, according to Jung, is the binding factor because it gives meaning to all that you experience. Jung believes that the ones that suffer from neurosis are those that do not believe in religion. Jung put an emphasis over the fact that it is the true self of an individual that is important to be explored. The self, according to Jung, has infinite opportunities to explore in this world and it should not be confined with the domains that physique is acquainted with (Creative personal growth, 2006).

In the concluding lines it can be said that most of the philosophers consider self to be a product of societal stimulus. Many think that we are what we think we should be. The notion, that self is a product of experience, would suppress the stance of Maslow and Horney, who believe that self-actualization is what constructs the dimensions of self, while Carl Jung puts an emphasis over the fact that it is the religion that makes the true self. Whatever could be said, the ambiguity about the question of identity continues to prevail.

References

Ewen, R B. (2003), An Introduction to Theories of Personality, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ

Jopling, D A. (2000), Self-Knowledge and the Self, Routledge, New York

Huskinson, L. (2004), Nietzsche and Jung: The Whole Self in the Union of Opposites, Brunner-Routledge, New York

Solomon, I. (2006), Karen Horney and Character Disorder, Springer, New York

Boeree, G. (2006), Erik Erikson, retrieved on Apr 12, 2012, from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/erikson.html

Sharkey, W. (1997), Erik Erikson, retrieved on Apr 12, 2012, from http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/erikson.htm

Dewey, R. (2007), Karen Horney and Self Analysis, retrieved on Apr 12, 2012, from http://www.intropsych.com/ch13_therapies/karen_horney_and_self-analysis.html

Sivers, D. (2008), Maslow’s 8 ways to self-actualize, retrieved on Apr 12, 2012, from http://sivers.org/maslow

Creative personal growth, 2006, Carl Jung and his ideas on self, retrieved on Apr 12, 2012, from http://www.creative-personal-growth.com/carl-jung.html

Nursing theories, (2011), Sullivan’s interpersonal theory, retrieved on Apr 12, 2012, from http://nursingplanet.com/theory/Sullivan’s_interpersonal_theory_of_personality.html

13 Mar 2012

Sample Essay: Work Ethic

There are many aspects in the society and individuals that have shaped the economy since the years of communism to the current times of capitalism. These factors are responsible for the former and current work ethics amongst people. In addition, the generational and cultural trends in the world have become distinct and this is a matter of concern as some of the trends are profitable while others lead to economic losses. The discussion in this paper examines the changes in cultural trends, economic situations and employee-employer relations.

What cultural/generational trends can you identify in employee relations and work ethics discussed in the two articles?

In the two articles, the matter of unemployment stands out. It is evident that the relations between employers and employees are not very profound and the Japanese case is used as a referral point. Between the two generations, it is evident that the way individuals relate to their employers is not usually appropriate. A case example is Masao Ohashi who after being jobless for over 15 years still cannot apply work ethics when applying for unemployment benefits. It is evident that the way individuals relate is astounding and this has led to the fall of many people thus leading to the probable unemployment rates in Japan (Thomton, 1998, p. 2). It is evident that there is a difference in generations because the way people relate is usually changing with times. The other matter that is of concern is the freeters. These are people who do not have a stationary workplace but are constantly changing jobs (Takashi, 2006, para. 9). These people pose a risk as they eventually make the economy to collapse since their productivity levels cannot be measured. In a survey carried out in Japan, people tend to switch from one job to the other and this leads to the overall decline of the work balance. In the long run, they may end up jobless, which may lead to an overall decline in the economic activities in the country.  Employees related poorly with their employers, but there has been a positive gradual change in recent years.

What aspects of this social, cultural, and economic situations described in the two articles would you attribute to communitarian and/or individualistic cultural tendencies?

There are many aspects of the community that have been changing and are perceived to go through constant changes, and the most notable is the way in which people relate. In earlier generations, people related with each other on the basis of communism. In the past communism world, people were forced to dress and think in the same way. This collectiveness meant that individuals had to develop unilateral ideas, which meant that they were subjected to the same treatment in the society. This led to stagnation in economic and social growth. This was a negative issue since it stood in the way of progress (John, 2000, p. 1). It is important to encourage individualistic ideas and this means that the communist ideologies were not favorable to the overall growth of the economy and individual strengths. The changing world has changed communist ideologies since people are becoming open minded and moving away from the unity of thoughts and ideas.

Difference in Japan and U.S in regards to employee-employer relations, unemployment, and work ethics

There is a great difference in the two countries in regard to these factors. This is because in Japan, the relations between the employer and the employee have not yet been fully realized and this has led to overall strain in the workplace. In the United States, the relations between the employers and employees are more profound in comparison with Japan. In addition to this, the unemployment rates in the two countries are high. However, the rates of unemployment in Japan continue to rise as more companies lay off workers. This negatively affects the economy and the country (Yūji, 2007, p. 29).

Conclusion

It is evident in the researched articles and reports that there is a significant change in terms of the social and economic structure. These trends have led to the distinct characteristics that are meant to dictate the way in which human beings relate with each other. Overall, culture has shaped the economic situations in many countries. In conclusion, therefore, there is no ultimate economic approach that could be termed as the best, but there are ways and means of getting the best out of all the approaches.

References

John, W. (2000). Individualism vs. Communitarianism. Journal of Social ethics , 1.

Takashi, K. (2006). Weak work ethic is holding back generation of ‘freeters’ and drifters. Japan: Japan Times.

Thomton, E. (1998). Japan Hidden jobless. Japan: Academic Search Elite.

Yūji, G. (2007). Jobless Youths and the NEET Problem in Japan. Social Science Japan Journal , 23-40.

« Newer PostsOlder Posts » Place Your Order Now
Academic Writing Services:

Business / Professional Writing Services:

Free Essay Tips / Writing Guides:
Tags:
100% Satisfaction Guarantee

We will revise your paper until you are completely satisfied. Moreover, you are free to request a different writer to rewrite your paper entirely, should you be unhappy with the writing style, level of research, communication, etc.

100% Authentic Research & Writing Guarantee

We guarantee that you will receive a fully authentic, 100% non-plagiarized work. Otherwise, we will just give you your money back.

100% Confidentiality & Privacy Guarantee

No one will ever find out that you have used our service. We guarantee that your personal information as well as any other data related to your order(s) will remain confidential to the extent allowed by law. It will not be shared with any third party unless you provide a written consent.