11 Nov 2012

Essay Topic: The Healers: Varieties of Experience in Doctoring

This article discuses different reasons why people may decide to specialize in medical practice. It is a fact that there are different reasons why people socialize in medical practices. Moreover, there are different fields of medicine that a person may decide to specialize in. Specialization in different fields in medicine depends with a person. There are some people who specialize in medical practice for the purpose of stabilizing financially, while there are some people who specialize in medicine due to past experiences with diseases or health condition. The article has clearly illustrated different reasons why people may decide to specialize in different fields of medicine, for example, the illustration on Dr. Paul. Medical practice involves handling people’s lives, and specialists should not use the profession as a way of making money because it might lead to loss of lives due to incompetency. Therefore, medical specialists should engage in medical practices for the purpose of providing quality health services, and not concentrate on the high rewards associated with the profession (Kleinmann 209-227).

For God’s sake shake your booty: The Second original mystery

This article discusses the relationship between God and man and how God expects man to behave to enhance their relationship. The arguments of the author are clear and concise. However, the language the author has used does not fully comply with the expectorations of the target group. The article is targeting Christians and religious groups, while it has used terms such as shake your booty, which are not considered religious. The author should consider using religious terms to enhance credibility and appeal to the target group. The words used in the article ought to be in line with religious expectation on language use (Keene

Works Cited

Keeney. “The Second Original Mystery.” Keeney. For God’s sake shake your booty. New York: Plutarch, 1996. 25-55.

Kleinmann. “Eight Medical Lives.” Kleinmann. The Ealers: The Varieties of experience in doctoring. New Orleans: ACM Press, 1987. 209-227.

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Essay Topic: Negligent Tort

Introduction

Negligent torts are the most important torts in contemporary law. Negligent torts do not only concern deliberate actions. Instead, they also occur when entities or people fail to act in a reasonable way to individuals they owe a duty to. The action of negligence found in such tort leads to monetary damages or personal injury. This concept of negligence is based on the principle that all persons have to exercise a certain degree of duty care in order to avoid harming others. Everyone has a responsibility of not only caring about the result of their willful actions, but also mind about injuries they occasion to other people by their desire for normal skill or care when managing their properties or other people. Negligence by itself is not a wrong act; what makes it to be legally wrong is the character that defines that act. This study will mainly focus on analysis of the concepts of negligent torts, duty of care, proximate causation, and the different types of available remedies for finding of negligent tort liability.

The concept of negligent tort is a major section of law in the legal system of United States of America. Some laws consider it a breach of a contract in which the legislation gives a remedy in monetary damages.  Additionally, when the law imposes a specific duty on a given individual, and enforces a duty of care to which every similarly situated people have to adhere to, and those people happen to breach that imposed duty, those people become liable when that breach causes injury. In the same manner, a negligent tort represents immoral that is caused by the failure of an actor in adhering to the duty of care that the law requires it to comply with under specific circumstances.  The duty of care that is imposed by law differs based on the relationship and the actions between the victim of the tort and the actor (Egteren & Smith, 2002).

Whereas various negligent torts have different elements based on the different jurisdiction, four essential elements must be proved to confirm the occurrence of a negligent tort: duty, resulting damages, breach, and causation.  In essence, a negligent tort is constituted when an individual owes a service or duty to a victim; the person that owes the specified duty has to violate the obligation or promise; that violation must cause an injury; and the causes of the injury should have been rationally foreseen because of the neglectful actions of that person.

According to Siliciano (1929), the terms of duty of care imposes certain duties and rights on contracting parties. The duty of care in negligence torts can be imposed explicitly or expressly. It defines the obligation of one individual to another. The duty of care binds humans to one another in the community and provides the front door in recovering incurred loss as a result of negligent torts: all claims of negligence have to go through the “duty portal” connecting the scope of recovery of negligent torts with harms from accidents.

Proximate causation exists in negligent torts when the plaintiff suffers injury because of natural conducts of negligence. The only form of remedy available for finding of tort liability is to ensure the plaintiff establishes both the proximate cause and negligence. It is usually not required for liability that the negligence of the defendant to be the last proximate cause of a particular injury. Various types of remedies are available for finding of tort liability: when the plaintiff’s injury has numerous proximate causes, when causes of the injury occur at the same time, or when the causes of the injury of the plaintiff occur in combination (Mallor, Barnes, Bowers & Langvardt, 2010).

In conclusion, negligent torts are product of people failing to do what is expected of them thus resulting in loss or injury, or doing what they are supposed to do in a worn way that causes loss or injury. Elements such as duty of care, and proximate causation are necessary to determine a negligence tort. In settling disputes arising from this tort, several remedies such as compensation are necessary.

References

Egteren, V.H., Smith, R.T. (2002). “Environmental regulations under simple negligence or strict liability.” Environmental and Resource Economics, 21(4), 367-396.

Mallor, J.P., Barnes, A.J., Bowers, T., & Langvardt, A.W. (2010). Business Law: The ethical, global,and ecommerce environment (14th ed.). New York : Irwin/McGraw Hill. ISBN: 978-0-07-337764-3.

Michael, R & Koenig, T. (2005). “Tort of Negligent Enablement of Cybercrime.” Environmental and Research Journal, 15(3), 45-67.

Siliciano, J. A. (1929). “Negligent Accounting and the Limits of Instrumental Tort Reform.” Hein Journal, 30(4), 56-61.

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02 Nov 2012

Essay Topic: Case Study

The most critical project goal on the project path is finalizing test subjects: Fully four tasks (preparing the product and the placebo, creating a data analysis database and hypothetical test data) hinge upon finalizing test subjects alone, with no other element of the project having more than a single presence as a predecessor for the next phase. While normally this project would see an earlier completion time due to having two branching paths for much of the later steps, the limited number of workers available to do the work means that the total duration of the project is equal to the total duration of each task (minus five days for Tony’s test database which can be done in parallel with the subject testing), or 120 units.

The NutroBalance project, to research and produce a safe UltraMAX weight-loss supplement targeted at athletic women, will begin on February 22, 2010. Four employees total have been assigned to the project: Sarah, a test subject recruiter and screener; Robert, the drug analyst; Tony, the IT professional; and Lisa, the statistician. The estimated length of the project is 125 days. Since there is no maximum length, there has been no need to assign overtime; thus, we plan on spending $2000 for compensation for Sarah, $425 for Tony, $2310 for Robert and $500 for Lisa for a total of $5235 in compensation. The assumption for this cost is that these personnel are either not paid when not working or, far more likely, are working on another project for the company: If they have to be paid for twiddling their thumbs, the project cost increases markedly.

The largest resource constraint is the number of personnel by far. There are branching paths in the project: Even if the sixty-five days necessary to test subjects couldn’t be made more efficient in any way through parallel work and specialization of duties, or any other element of the project could be made more efficient similarly, the fact remains that testing the database with hypothetical data is done far earlier than inputting actual data even though there is a split in the mission path. Moreover, Sarah’s work is entirely at the start of the project while Lisa’s is at the end. The only parallel path that is conducted at all is Tony working on the test database while Robert actually tests, and Sarah has ten days after developing hypothetical test data before Tony can even begin using that work. However, this schedule was conducted assuming that there were no other workers available for these tasks.

The primary risk to project completion is that if any worker is sick, if any task takes longer than expected, or if there’s any problems (especially during the sixty-five days of subject testing), the entire project has no redundancies due to its highly linear direction, despite a large amount of available manhours. As it is, if the project gets past the testing with no difficulties, it is not likely to fail.

Executive Summary

The UltraMAX project is ten days and $500 behind schedule due to an unexpected delay in the process of screening test subjects. Doing so appropriately is crucial for the entire project: Improperly cause test subjects can cause the entire sixty-five days of actual testing to produce bad data that has to be thrown out in its entirety. Thus far, identifying target consumers went a day faster than expected, and recruiting test subjects went exactly as quickly as expected. It is especially unfortunate because Sarah’s work is the most expensive and her work is what took longer.

The most crucial way of getting the project back on track would be to assign Sarah or a new resource to Tony or Robert’s work, as their twelve day goals are the major hurdles. If finalizing test subjects could be completed in three days rather than five (a reasonable assumption given how well identifying target consumers went), data-base and subject testing could be completed in fifty days rather than sixty-five (more difficult given that testing must have a minimum time but possible if elements are done in tandem with the workers who are waiting for their next phase of the project), and actual data inputting could be done in five days rather than seven, the project would be back on track.

17 Oct 2012

Essay Topic: Racist Speech and/or Freedom of Expression

There is one thing regarding human rights issues where the United States are ahead of most democracies, and that is the common law trials where law is established through precedents an where a person is judged by a jury of his or her peers. Nevertheless other countries with British legal tradition share that feature. There is however one issue regarding which the United States respect the freedom speech more then any other democracy in the world, racism and hate talk.  Racists and haters in Canada, UK, Sweden, Bosnia and Russia are not allowed to express or publish their hateful thoughts and opinions directed against people that are different to them, or they will most likely end up in jail. (Bleich, p. 17-18)

Most Canadians and Europeans agree with such laws since they offer a simple solution to a human rights and freedom of speech issue that can and will cause problems and racial tensions. However in the United Sates one has the right to be a racist and a hater and therefore the right to express that opinion. Prohibiting hate talk and racist opinions is unconstitutional in the United Sates, and rightfully so, racists are also humans and have the right to express their opinion  just like anybody else since human rights should be the same for all. (Bleich, p. 17-18)

If a group of White Power members or sympathizers wants to have a rally or speak at the university they should have the same right as the Feminist, Muslim, gay or Hippy speakers. (First Amendment Center) Every public place in which a person can speak publicly should be accessible for all speakers. That is the only way a true democracy can work, anything else is a direct attack against the democratic process. This does not go only for white racists and haters it goes for all races, if an African speaker wants to say that all white people are scum he/she has the right to do it. However in: 2011, “a South African court banned “Dubulu iBhunu (Shoot the Boer),” a derogatory song degrading Afrikaners, on the basis that it violated a South African law prohibiting speech that demonstrates a clear intention to be hurtful, to incite harm, or to promote hatred.” (Benech, p2, 3.) This is an example of free speech limitations where the white community was the object of discrimination.

Many people might object to that view of things and say that racists and haters should not be allowed to express their opinions because they incite hatred and violence. However they are not allowed to publically incite violence. A racist might say that she or would like to see all black people killed but that is only his or her personal opinion. On the other hand if the same racist would incite a mob to lynching that would be a crime.

The Economist speaks about the down side of free speech as it reports about the racist claims by: “Glenn Miller, a write-in candidate to replace the retiring Kit Bond in the Senate.”(The Economist) Namely Mr. Miller does not like the Jews and claims they hold all the media as well as he claims that white people should stop watching “cons” play ball and should fight for their rights instead. The journalist is shocked by the fact that Mr. Miller can broadcast this over the radio but the radio station itself cannot censor the content of the advertisement in any way, it is the federal law. (The Economist)

Racism is bad, whatever race it may stem from, it influences the children negatively who in turn become intolerant adults. It is a very ignorant philosophy that thrives on insignificant physical differences between the people of different races. It is something that should not exist in the age of reason but it exists, and people simply have to deal with it. The only way racism can be eradicated is through education and by setting a good example to the next generation. It is also important for the community to keep up the education programs that will keep the kids off the streets and out of gangs that promote racial hatred. White and black gang leaders tell their soldiers that the other race is at fault for everything and that is why they should fight against them.

There should also be much more concern for the lack of equal opportunities racism then about the fact that a group of skinheads wants to hold a rally in a park. Actually there was quite a scandal back in the 1980s when a group of skinheads wanted to rally through a Jewish neighborhood. All hell broke loose and the Jewish community tried everything to stop the march. The case ended up in court and finally the Nazis decided to do the rally elsewhere, to them it was important that they were in front of  TV cameras for several months and that many have heard what they have to say.

In conclusion it is the best course of action to leave the racists alone and ignore them, the only they will stop doing what they do is if there is no one to listen to them. On the other hand if the state tries to prohibit them things will only get worse and they will go underground.

Works Cited:

Benesch, Susan. “Words as Weapons”. World Policy Journal (Spring 2012).

Bleich, Erik. The freedom to be racist?: how the United States and Europe struggle to preserve freedom and combat racism. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. Print.

Racism and free speech: Congress shall make no law… | The Economist.” The Economist – World News, Politics, Economics, Business & Finance. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Oct. 2012. <http://www.economist.com/node/15911528

First Amendment Center – news, commentary, analysis on free speech, press, religion, assembly, petition. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Oct. 2012. <http://www.firstamendmentcenter.org/free-speech-on-public-college-campuses>.

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08 Sep 2012

Essay Topic: Examining the Conflict of Good Versus Evil in Young Goodman Brown

Nathaniel Hawthorne’s short story entitled Young Goodman Brown is about a man who takes a journey to the forest and attends a congregation, but he does not know what is waiting him there. Goodman Brown, the narrative’s protagonist believes that his faith is consistent, true, and immovable, but as he takes his journey to the forest, readers realize that the main character’s faith is too shallow. He himself creates evil thoughts, which makes his faith weaker. As he walks to the forest, he becomes attached to evil and makes his belief disrupted. The conflict of good versus evil is depicted through Goodman Brown’s unstable mind, inconsistent faith, and distrust to the people around him.

The conflict of good versus evil emerges through Goodman Brown’s unstable mind—and only his wife, Faith, is trying to keep his faith still. When Young Goodman Brown is about to leave, his wife said: “Then God bless you! And may you find all well when you come back” (Hawthorne 190). Goodman Brown’s journey is for the benefit of evil, but Faith is trying to restrict her husband to continue his travel. When Goodman Brown wants to pursue his travel, the only think that Faith can do is to bless him and ask for his return. However, though Goodman Brown is blessed by his wife in his journey, he knows that evil exists because on his way to the forest, he said: “There may be a devilish Indian behind every tree. What if the devil himself should be at my very elbow!” (191) Due to his unstable mind, Goodman Brown is prone to evil thoughts. Even if he has a faith and belief in his religion, he cannot stop thinking of negativity because his path leads him to evil.

Conflict between good and evil exists when Goodman Brown begins his distrust to the people around him. As he thinks about the devil and his wife, Goodman Brown asked the traveler: “Friend, my mind is made up. Not another step will I budge on this errand. What if a wretched old woman do choose to go to the devil when I thought she was going to heaven: is that any reason why I should quit my dear Faith and go after her?” (195) As Goodman Brown walks into the forest, he encounters different people taking their journey to the congregation. They are the respected and prayerful individual in his community. As he sees them, he starts distrusting them, which makes him think of going back to his wife. Goodman Brown does not know how to identify the difference between good and evil in the middle of his journey, so when he sees Faith into the congregation, he said: “My Faith is gone! There is no good on earth; and sin is but a name. Come, devil; for to thee is this world given” (197). Faith is not only the protagonist’s wife, but also his belief in his religion. When he says his Faith is gone, it means that his faith to his community is gone because evil builds a devilish thought against people around him.

Goodman Brown experiences conflict of good versus evil due to his inconsistent faith. The forest is a symbolism of evil because there is “no church had ever been gathered or solitary Christian prayed” (196)—and Goodman Brown takes this path as a sign of his union with the devil. Despite of his wife’s disapproval, the protagonist continues his journey, which proves his inconsistent faith to his religion. When he is about to see the congregation and feel the evil spirit within his midst, Goodman Brown shouted: “With heaven above and Faith below, I will yet stand firm against the devil!” (196) The protagonist is trying to use his faith to keep him away from harm, but his soul is offered to the evil. Seeing his community being part of the congregation is a justification of his inconsistent faith because he does not trust anyone around him, even his faith that should only be his source of strength. As he demonstrates his inconsistent faith, his evil attacks his body, mind, and soul.

Goodman Brown is a good man, but he fails to bring his faith in his journey to the forest. The conflict of good versus evil emerges when he decides to leave Faith and takes his journey alone. He leaves his faith in his house and thinks that he can overcome any obstacle in his path, but he is unsuccessful because unstable mind, inconsistent faith, and distrust to the people around him become the instrument of evil to own his mind, body, and soul. As a result, Goodman Brown’s mind, body, and soul is eaten by the evil—and no matter how he try to keep his faith, he cannot return from his belief because the evil lies within his wholeness.

Work Cited

Hawthorne, Nathaniel. “Young Goodman Brown.” 190-203.

27 Jun 2012

Essay Topic: Waiting for the [Medical] World to Change

Specific Purpose: To discuss the significance of waiting times in the Emergency Department (ED) and the best management options for the problem.

Central Idea: The worsening problem of patient waiting time in the ED is a multilevel problem and as such requires a multilevel solution that includes elements of Lewin’s model of change

INTRODUCTION

I.Studies have shown that just staying longer than 8 hours in the Emergency Department has been shown to increase your chances of a heart attack or myocardial infarction. This of course only applies to patients that present in the ED with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction. (Horwitz, Green, Bradley, 2010).

II. Reveal Topic:However this nonetheless highlights the increasing problem of waiting time in the ED, a problem that requires urgent attention and solution

III. Credibility Statement:As a student involved in the healthcare industry, and as a decent human being, I know how frustrating it is to lose a patient in the ED just because of long waiting times, especially since these are patients who in the first were rushed there for immediate care. I would like to share therefore the insights I have gleaned in searching for solutions to this problem.

IV. Relevancy Statement:Prolonged waiting times can greatly increase the likelihood of adverse outcomes and complications and the number of people who leave the ED before being attended to, and can decreases patient satisfaction. Addressing the problem can therefore improve the quality of care that these patients receive.

V. Preview of Body: To help you understand how to best tackle the problem of prolonged waiting times, I would like to discuss first the nature and causes of the problem, and then offer solutions that have been proven effective in research studies. I would also talk about the importance of evaluating the results of interventions through Lewin’s model of change and SWOT analysis

BODY

I.The Magnitude of the Problem

A. Growing rates of patient consults at the Emergency Department (Forero, McCarthy, Hillman, K. 2011)

B. The decreasing number of hospitals that meet the recommended wait times for Emergency patients (Horwitz, L. I., Green, Bradley, E. H. 2009)

II. The underlying causes of the Problem (Forero et al. 2011)

A. Access block and overcrowding

B. Three levels of the problem

1. patient-centered factors

2. Hospital factors

3. Clinical factors

III. Fine-tuning the Emergency Department

  1. Lewin’s model of change
  2. The three-leveled approach (Forero et al. 2011)
  3. Triage-related solutions (Oredsson, Jonsson, Rognes, Lind, Göransson, Ehrenberg, Asplund, Castrén, Farrohknia 2011)
  4. Applying Lean Manufacturing Principles in the ED (Ng, Vail, Thomas, Schmidt 2010)
  5. The UK National Health Service example and the importance of reevaluation (Pimlott 2010)

CONCLUSION

I. Summary Statement: Most hospitals face a challenge to attend to the rising number of patients being brought to the ED and still maintain acceptable waiting times. After going through some of the underlying causes of the problem and possible interventions, it is clear that there is no clear cut solution to the problem. Emergency departments therefore have to adopt appropriate measures while at the same time monitoring their programs to fine tune and optimize patient waiting times.

II. Memorable Closing Statement: At the end of the day, the interventions I just presented are not simply to address long waiting time, but most importantly to offer patients a chance of a long lifespan.

References:

Forero, R., McCarthy, S., Hillman, K. (2011). Access block and emergency department overcrowding.Critical Care, 15(2), 216.

Forster, A.J., Stiell, I., Wells, G., Lee, A.J. and Walraven, C.V. (2008). The effect of hospital occupancy on emergency department length of stay and patient disposition. Academic Emergency Medicine, 10(2), pages 127–133.

Horwitz, L.I.., Green, J., Bradley, E.H. (2010). US emergency department performance on wait time and length of visit.Annals of Emergency Medicine, 55(2), 133-141.

Ng, D., Vail, G., Thomas, S., Schmidt, N. (2010). Applying the Lean principles of the Toyota Production System to reduce wait times in the emergency department.Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine, 12(1), 50-57.

Oredsson, S., Jonsson, H., Rognes, J., Lind, L., Göransson, K. E., Ehrenberg, A., Asplund, K., Castrén, M., Farrohknia, N. (2011). A systematic review of triage-related interventions to improve patient flow in emergency departments.Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation, and Emergency Medicine, 19(43).

Pimlott, N. (2010). Waiting. Canadian Family Physician, 56(7), 624.

Tidd, J., Bessant, J. and Pavitt, K., 2005. Managing innovation tools: SWOT Analysis. [Pdf] Available at: <http://www.managing-innovation.com/tools/SWOT%20Analysis.pdf>. [Accessed 20th May, 2012]

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27 May 2012

Essay Topic: Things People Say by Neil Degrasse Tyson

For Tyson, “people undervalue the role of evidence in formulation an internal belief system” and that they “hold fast to ideas and notions based purely on supposition.” Although the author cannot find any reason for this, the fact remains that people simply describe what is “simply true no matter what.” Nevertheless, the point is that whatever we have to say, it must be accounted for by concrete evidence resulting from accurate observation, just like what Aristotle had done when he observed certain elements of space.

Most of the false things that people say are actually influenced by several factors. One of these is a false way of proving things, such as the one used by Aristotle when he concluded that heavy things fall faster than light ones. This is wrong since gravitational force is constant but the difference in the time it takes for things to fall to the ground first is affected by air resistance.

Another thing that influences the things that people say, especially the false ones, is religion. The author gives an example of the belief of the Catholic Church which states that “stars don’t change.” Thus, there is no record of a supernova in Catholic Europe in 1054.

The rest of the false beliefs fall into the category of popular knowledge, which is usually considered as “immune from falsehoods that were easily testable.” According to popular knowledge, the North Star is the brightest but actually the Big Dipper is brighter. The Sun is called a yellow star but actually it is white. Whatever goes up does not necessarily come down again if it has escaped the gravitational pull of the Earth. Many people believe there is no gravity in space but actually the pull of gravity of every heavenly body extends to the space, but “with ever-diminishing strength.” The Earth’s magnetic north pole is actually in the south, and there is actually more frequent solar eclipses than it is possible. Moreover, the equinox is not exactly 12 hours of day and 12 hours of night as what most people believe, because refraction of sunlight would make the sun appear above the horizon even minutes before it actually rises.

Addicted to Health by Robert H. Bork

The government’s irrational policy of controlling tobacco companies is actually caused by “moral self-righteousness, greed for money, and political ambition.”

Such irrational policies of the government extend to forcing smokers to pay huge taxes.

What are the inconsistencies of the government when it comes to these policies? First, the non-smokers simply made the smokers feel guilty and the government is using this particular difference in opinion to their own selfish advantage. Second, there is no guarantee that peace will prevail if the last cigarette smoker stops smoking. Third, automobiles would even kill more people than alcohol but cars are not banned. Fourth, the government is claiming that their strict measures are of benefit to teenagers and children when in fact their rules affect adults more. Fifth, the government bans the advertising but they allow the selling of cigarettes.

Sixth, the government does not restrict the selling of tobacco abroad. Seventh, the state does not actually lose money from cigarettes because smokers die early and thus some of them would not be able to avail of their Medicare and Medicaid and the Social Security pension, thus the government can save so much from them. Eighth, tobacco companies should pay $308 billion for 25 years but these companies in fact win the litigation cases filed against them. Ninth, advertising is banned but people smoke not because of advertisements but because of peer pressure. Tenth, the plaintiffs of these cigarette companies are guaranteed billions of dollars in compensation each year. Without the cigarette companies, the plaintiffs would not be able to earn as much and they would not be able to achieve their goals as the National Association of Aspiring Governors. Eleventh and lastly, the lawmakers proclaim the law against smoking as full of “sobriety, courage, and righteousness” as they show the citizens that they have defeated the evil cigarette companies, when in fact they also have evil motives for their acts.

The author’s point is that if individual responsibility is denied, we allow the government to control our behavior freely.

Writing MLA Papers

If one is to write MLA papers, or papers for the Modern Language Association, one should first develop a supporting thesis. He should then organize the evidence relating to that thesis. After this, he should do his research in order to find sources that support the argument. While doing this, providing the background of the subject is important as well as a definition and explanation of the terms. Claims must also be supported with evidence from authoritative sources. At the same time, objections must be anticipated when writing supporting statements.

Writing an academic paper is also all about avoiding plagiarism. In order to avoid this, one should be able to properly and exactly cite quotations and borrowed ideas, which excludes common knowledge such as Martin Luther receiving the Nobel Prize.  The borrowed information must be enclosed in quotation marks. Moreover, summaries and paraphrases must be expressed in one’s own words bit still need to be cited. In order to do this well, one must carefully try not to copy the same phrases and sentences from the selection being paraphrased.

The gathered sources must then be integrated but at the same time, the use of quotations must be limited and the use of punctuation marks must be carefully done. In the integration of sources, there should be signal phrases that would provide smooth transition between one idea and the next as well as to introduce a direct quotation. While integrating the sources, statistics and facts must be carefully combined with the text and at the same time, authority must be established for the sources.

Lastly, sources must be properly documented not only within the text but also at the end of the paper in the Works Cited section. While in-text citations need only the author and page number if there is any, the Works Cited section would need the date of publication, the publisher, the address of the publisher, and the full name of the author as additional information.

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15 May 2012

Essay Topic: Acknowledgement to the Staff of Laser Quest for Providing the Quest for Success Team Works Program

Background:

The Blue Wolves baseball team has been in a constant losing streak for a period of six months and the managers do not know why. The managers went to a game and found out that the baseball team has constant arguing among themselves and disorganization.

Aim:

The aim is for the Blue Wolves baseball team to learn how to communicate effectively, learn how to cooperate with each other, and establish organization so as to work together to win more games.

Objectives/Outcomes:

The objective is for the Blue Wolves baseball team to go to a recreational event called Quest for Success Team Works Program that focuses on practicing communication skills, teamwork, effective leadership, and organization. The outcome would be that the Blue Wolves baseball team would play well and win more games.

Development Assets:

X Communication X Organization
X Team Work X Leadership
X Cooperation

Number of participants: 15

Location of program: LazerQuest Downers Grove, IL.

Number of staff: 2

Risk Management:

The staff at LazerQuest will make sure that the game arena is clean and free of objects that will cause harm to the participants.

Charge fee: $170 for group packages

Promotion, partnerships, sponsorships: N/A

Budget: $100 for food and drinks

Method of evaluation:

The training professional for the Quest for Success Team Works Program will evaluate how the Blue Wolves baseball teamwork together in playing lazer tag as a team by video recording the game, and therefore telling them points they need to work on or have achieved after the game.

Program Content:

Quest for Success Team Works Program includes a workbook, video, strategy, and discussion sessions that is used to explore learning concepts. Before the lazer tag game, the Blue Wolves baseball team will watch the video on teamwork skills, which they will then write notes on. After the video, the training professional will pass out workbooks and the Blue Wolves team will answer questions in the workbook that was brought out in the video. Then the training professional would have the coach to map out a game plan for the rest of the team to win the lazer tag competition. He will also allow the rest of the team to have their input on how to go about on the game plan. Then after the Blue Wolves team has finished discussing their game plan, they will go into the Lazer Tag game arena and implement what they have learned from the video and workbook into a team effort to win the game. After the game, the Blue Wolves team will go back into the discussion room and watch the recorded video of them playing. The training professional will ask questions of what they did as a team in order to win the game and will encourage them to implement those same teamwork skills when they are playing baseball games. If the Blue Wolves team has lost a game, then the training professional will ask them what do they think went wrong in the game arena after showing them the recorded video. The Blue Wolves baseball team will then discuss the problems and try to implement those resolved problems into their next baseball game.

Time Line:

The Quest for Success Team Works Program is only half a day, from 1 pm to 6:30 pm on Saturday.

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30 Apr 2012

Essay Topic: Economic Crisis

The thesis projected by Money-Financed Deficits and Political Democracy, chapter 8 of Democracy in Deficit is that of “the continuing confusion generated by a stubborn failure to distinguish carefully between genuine public borrowing and money creation.” (p.79) This failure has caused important shifts not only in monetary policy but on US politics in general, including the current economic crisis and the social and political results of it.  It is very important to note that: “fiscal adjustments—budgetary management, the creation of deficits or surpluses—provide the primary instruments for the implementation of macroeconomic policy.”(p.79)

The authors argue that the Keynesian destruction of pre Keynesian norm, without an adequate replacement, has brought on the situation that has stared to emerge in the late 1970s making budget deficits into a normal course of events. (p.95-96) This has not only had an effect on the monetary system, but the policy of budget deficit as a normal system has caused important political shifts in the United States and worldwide. The politicians have started spending more then tax revenues, which is a problem that is at the root of the current economic crisis.

According to Buchanan and Wagner, purely Keynesian systems cannot work in the neo liberal system, but could work in a mild dictatorship. (p.79-80) The problem of Keynesian economic systems not being able to function in modern democracies lies in the fact that professional politicians have used the possibility of budget deficits to ensure stability during their terms but did not look forward, causing finally the deficit to become too elevated and finally threaten the world economy. The Keynesian system should work in a way that the enlightened few have the control of the monetary policy, but in the modern politics there is no center of power where an enlightened few can effectively isolate themselves from constituency pressures” (p.98) The only way Keynesian policies can work in a macroeconomic system is through a combination of the Keynesian and traditional system in which the technocratic influence should be substantial.

Essay Topic: Personal System of Classroom Management

Philosophy of class room management

Students must believe the fact that school supports learning. Thus, the expectations students hold challenges them in an equitable way. In assessing the effectiveness of the class, the confidence of the teacher in teaching and classroom management abilities form the basis of my classroom management philosophy. If a teacher isn’t confident, then her students wouldn’t be either (Zauss). As far as my philosophy of classroom management is concerned, I will model the learning around the five principles of discipline and a love for learning, curiosity and respect. In order to develop and manage my students, I will make sure that the class is carried out in a professional way, and rules and regulations are present while misbehavior is discouraged. Where the environment of the class would be well organized, it would also act as a sound tool for stirring creativity in my students, engaging them to further in the development arena.

I believe that every child in the class must be involved so that the learning is jointly attained. Evidently the needs might vary, but having discussions with the students about their feelings and experiences within and outside the boundaries of the school as well as the problems they face, would help a lot in creating a classroom community. This way, the students would feel that they are meaningful and will thus make them feel significant and belonged that will reduce the unacceptable behavior. There are also many intervention strategies that I will follow, such as enabling students to identify topics directly related to their culture and background, and helping them, using work samples in the classroom in order to make the students resourceful, along with ensuring that a supportive learning environment is developed having clear expectations from both sides and providing opportunities for all students to be a part of the community.

Basis of the philosophy:

The basis of my philosophy of classroom management lies upon three basic theories of Canter, Glasser and Rudolph Derikurs. This is so, because the system of classroom managementdoes not tolerate any sort of misbehavior which is consistent with the Canter model. This model states that the teacher remains consistent with the treatment of discipline and the students who behave well are recognized. The model also states that misbehavior should not be tolerated at all and must be dealt with accordingly (Sturt). However, the model also states a rather negative approach to begin the year with the students as it states the use of warnings, letters, and detentions. The way misbehavior is being dealt with thus brings in the second theory that my philosophy follows.

Till now, it has been established that if misbehavior is detected in the class, it must be discouraged. However, it must also be understood that in order to reduce misbehavior, the assumptions that the child holds regarding the achievement of the goals must be understood in my philosophy. This statement brings in the model of logical consequences embedded in my philosophy, which states that there are 4 mistaken goals of misbehavior that are:attention seeking,  power seeking, revenge seeking, and appearing inadequate behavior that can be dealt with, provided the student identifies a sense of belonging and significance (Sturt). My philosophy also revolves around the fact that the management system must hold the values of love, respect, and achievement. The theory by Glasser backs up this idea and further states that schools can be developed without failure (Sturt).

The Five Principles

According to the 5 principles of discipline, strict standards of professionalism and ethical considerations will be set when I will interact with my students. The kinds of behavior that I wish to inculcate in my students now and would like to see in the future are a positive attitude, consideration, and taking initiatives. Other than that, personal responsibility and an effort to learn will also be inculcated in the students through establishing strong rules and regulations. As for the moral qualities, I will make sure that the students understand the importance of this through established environment learning, a strong compatibility with their fellow classmates, and their involvement in planning the program. It will be made sure that the environment generated in the class remains compatible with needs, interests, and preferences of the students along with the presence of continual helpfulness, preservation of dignity, and teachers’ charisma to highlight a sense of community.

It also required that my students should conduct themselves in a responsible manner (Roach). Therefore, the provisions included for such contain the likes of:

Managing to reduce the causes of misbehavior.

Establishing a sense of community through collaboration and joint decision making.

Keeping the students informed through open communication that is clear and effective.

Building dignity through speaking and collaborating with them to teach them the art of decision making.

Establishing group spirit.

Bringing in parents so that meaningful participation can be achieved.

Establishing fair and bias free relationships that will aid towards resolving class problems.

There is also a need for intervention when disruptions, neurological-based behaviors or other actions like these are identified. In such situations, the strategies I will use will revolve around interventions that are suitable to both me and my students. I will use the appropriate words and helpful things to say when misbehavior is identified, other than that; I will also make sure to not use words that should not be used and will develop a sound procedure that will be followed when misbehavior is identified that the students will be aware of. In this way, the students will learn the consequences of their behavior and will understand to accept responsibility that will help them avoid any disruptive behavior in future.

My classroom and its practices:

Through my experiences in the field, I came to realize that system that is central to the assertive discipline model is a classroom discipline plan created by the teacher and implemented at the beginning of the school year or academic term. The plan includes three major components: a set of classroom rules, types of positive recognition for students who obey the rules, and a hierarchy of consequences for students who disobey the rules (Wiley). However, in my own classroom, I use the assertive discipline towards the end of the school year only.

Nevertheless, when this approach is most needed, I give them each a “driver’s license”. I first explain that I came up with the idea by reflecting on how I am held accountable in the “real world”. Together, we list all of the things an adult is responsible for and typically agree that being able to drive is one of the biggest responsibilities a person can have. Even though they aren’t old enough to drive, kids understand the basic rules of the road and what it means when a cop pulls up behind you with his or her siren on. I then explain how a driver’s license works in the classroom. First, like good drivers, they can behave appropriately and be left in peace. It is likely, though, that if a rule is broken, I’ll see it and “pull them over”. We list all of their responsibilities and decide what they can get “pulled over” for. The list is limited to common issues during the last couple months of school – arriving late to class, forgetting supplies, interrupting, being loud or disrespectful, and not following directions. I demonstrate “pulling them over” by putting a single punch in their driver’s license. I am at liberty to decide whether the offense deserves a warning or a citation. The citation is a small sheet of paper with reflection questions and room for a parent signature. The fun part for the kids comes at the end of the week when they receive points for good behavior. Every day they go without getting “pulled over” earns them one point. At the beginning of the following week they can trade in their points for small prizes. Although it is a bit complex, this technique has worked well because the rules are clearly defined and awards are attainable. They end up monitoring and reporting themselves most of the time.

I used Assertive Discipline my first year of teaching but over the years I have found an eclectic approach to work best for my classroom. We establish our expectations as a community of learners from the start of the year. We may change rules during the year if we think it is necessary. We have class meetings where discipline is discussed and suggestions are given. We praise those among us who work hard and deserve a pat on the back. We encourage those who may need encouraging. We focus on the positive. This seems to create a manageable classroom atmosphere that is conducive to the learning environment. For two years now I have been implementing The Nurtured Heart Approach for the more extreme behavior problems. This approach has phenomenal results and benefits the whole class.

In order to create a tone of warmth and safety in the class room, I will make sure to greet students as they enter the classroom, which is both professional and warm; according to Wong (1998),shaking each student’s hand as he or she walks through the door is a great way to achieve this. I will also make sure that I have a sense of humor that will help create a warm, inviting atmosphere. Other than that, my focus would also be on group-building activities during the first few weeks of school, which will help create the trust and safety essential for active, collaborative learning.

During my experience in the field, I have realized that professionalism directly impacts the effectiveness of teaching and also impacts the quality of students’ education. Some examples I have observed of professional behavior by teachers during my internships have been the following which will also be inculcated in my class.

Being prepared with a schedule and lesson plans for the entire day and not having to “ad-lib” or pull something out of a hat.

Teachers who do not become flustered or frustrated in the classroom due to student behavior.  They are able to maintain control of the class without being a “dictator”.

Teachers who maintain their own education by participating in education seminars and classes in order to keep up with changes and ideas in teaching.

Teachers who not only expect respect but who earn it by respecting their own students and peers. They treat their students with the same kindness and respect that they themselves want to receive.

References:

Roach, J. Class management, [Available online] on 6th April, 2012 at:    http://jamesroach.net/education/PETE/classmanagement.html

Sturt, G. Classroom Management, [Available online] on 6th April, 2012 at:    http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:SXZuI7iQVjcJ:homepage.ntlworld.com/gary.sturt/classman.htm+http://homepage.ntlworld.com/gary.sturt/classman.htm&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=pk

Wiley, Manage diversity in your class room, [Available online] on 6th April, 2012 at:    http://media.wiley.com/product_data/excerp.

Wong, H. (1998) The First Days of School: How to be an Effective Teacher,Wong publications.

Zauss, E. A., Educational Philosophy of Classroom Management, Educational Resources for Teachers [Available online] on 6th April, 2012 at:  https://sites.google.com/site/amandazauss/educational-philosophy-of-classroom-management

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