26 Nov 2012

Sample Essay: Legal Prostitution as a Form of Unethical Business

Introduction

Prostitution is a controversial topic with a faction of the society arguing that the ancient trade should be legalized whereas the opponents insist that prostitution should be an illegal business because it is unethical. The commercial sex effects and its nature elicit divided opinion because legalizing prostitution as a trade affects its characteristic as a gendered institution and social nature. A section of the society perceives prostitution as an unequivocal exercise of patriarchal control over women. The opponents of legalized prostitution business argue that the business is intrinsically sexually violent, which implies that it is an avenue of exploiting women. On the other hand, the proponents of prostitution state that it is an inevitable market exchange; thus, a form of business. Notwithstanding, prostitution has also been perceived as an expression of own sexual agency of women in the society.

The varied ethical and unethical dimensions of legalizing prostitution have been the contributing factors to the passionate exchanges on the position of prostitution as a form of business. The challenge in prostitution is that it is not a unitary business with standardized social exchange, and it is also persistently a gendered institution in the society. The practice of prostitution has social, economic and cultural connotations that vary, depending on multiple factors such as culture. Consequently, the varied opinions and debates arising out of prostitution take the form of ethical and unethical underpinnings. Legalized prostitution as a form of unethical business is discussed critically and in detail, presenting both sides of the argument.

An Analysis of Legalizing Prostitution as an Ethical Business

All legal employments do not operate under similar work environments and conditions. Various workplaces have diverse environments, depending on the management, occupational regulations, business owners and informal culture among the employees. Similarly, prostitution is an ethical form of business with similar workplace challenges as other legal professions. Prostitutes, whether legal or illegal, do not operate their business services under similar work conditions. Moreover, their reasons to engage in this business are varied for each individual just like other individuals engaged in other business occupations. Different businesses and institutions interact and handle their customers in different ways. Handling of the effects of customer interactions in businesses cannot be same. As a result, prostitution is an ethical business practice with workplace challenges similar to other businesses and occupations (Brents and Hausbeck 7).

The dangers experienced by illegalized prostitutes in form of abuses and violence are reduced if the business is legalized. The business transactions between the stakeholders are often negotiated and offered within brothels. The prices are negotiated between customers and the sex workers in the rooms of the prostitutes. There is an organized management and rules of engagement, which help in curbing such vices portraying legalized prostitution as unethical. As such, the proponents of legalized prostitution business argue that research have indicated that prostitutes who work in the legalized brothels are much safer and experience  less instances of sexual and physical violence from their customers (Carver and Mottier 179).

The dangers and abuses touted to make legalized prostitution business unethical are handled effectively within brothels because the institutions have in place particular practices, which work to guarantee employee’s health and safety. The brothels have structured negotiation process and monitoring rooms to abate cases of sexual violence and physical abuses. Preventing services are enhanced in the business and customers’ behaviors are regulated (Brents and Hausbeck 11).

Legalized prostitution business cannot be regarded unethical because, like other business operations, prostitutes work as self-regulating contractors permitted to work only after satisfying the background checks approved by the state and counties. The business requires that participants pay for their license fees and pass health tests among other required regulations. Like other business occupations that are legalized, sex trade is ethical because the formal and informal rules subjected to the workers are different, the clients they deal with are different, their cultures and daily practices are also not similar. The business cannot, therefore, be balkanized to be unethical undertaking (Brents and Hausbeck 7).

It is ethical for prostitution to be legitimized because of the benefits and order that accompany such processes. According to Weitzer, legalization of business would offer the workers improved working conditions and employment satisfaction they may require. There would be less fear about the kind of business they engage in because of increased confidence. The regulations and structures governing the process would help in eliminating the challenges and problems that this business industry encounter. Police harassments of sex workers would decline. Legal businesses and occupations are safe and perceived to be ethical as opposed to illegalized operations and practices. Policing of customers in legalized prostitution would help protect the workers against violence and assaults, making the practice more ethical (Weitzer 92).

Legalized prostitution business would be considered ethical because the sex workers would not go through police harassments, possible sexual violence and injuries, fines as well as incarcerations. The sex workers in legitimate sex trade would experience stable social support networks and experience reduced cases of unethical acts like robbery, human trafficking and kidnappings. Legalized sex business would enhance the moral support in the commercial sex workers to identify with the business and reduce instances of reluctance to report illegal and unethical acts and practices within the business that brothel managers and owners expose these workers to. The unethical acts like hiring and manipulation of young girls and women to work in sex industry would decline. The reluctance to report the unethical acts and practices within sex business is partly of unwillingness by sex workers to identify publicly with the trade (Weitzer 92).

An Analysis of Legalized Prostitution as an Unethical Business

Danger and Violence

Legalized prostitution as a business takes place in legal brothels within the business industry. Legalized brothel business has certain indicators of exploitation that makes the business unethical to practice. Prostitution as a business is unethical because of the sexual violence and danger. According to the opponents of legalized prostitution business, the trade involves unfair and abusive labor conditions as well as continual social dishonor (Brents and Hausbeck 2).

Women working in the prostitution business are exposed to increased danger and injuries during their business engagements. The physical injuries and dangers in prostitution business include acts of sexual violence against the customers, which involve physical injuries. Furthermore, legalized prostitution as a business is an avenue to increased diseases among other crimes and abuses. The attitude towards the customers in legalized brothel by the involved stakeholders is often discriminatory based on psychological or physical abuse (Brents and Hausbeck 3).

The business of prostitution is unethical because it creates an environment where crime against the involved actors is commercialized. The sex workers are at times compelled to engage in sexual practices they do not approve for their payments to be executed. The commercial sex workers are forced to comply with these practices instead of consenting on the services offered or exchanged in business operations like other formal or legal operations. Exchange of services in sex business may be controlled by other third parties involved, such as the managers. The additional dynamics, which sex workers encounter in determining the services to offer to their clients, are forms of exploitations in these business engagements (Brents and Hausbeck 16). Despite the economic needs cited as the contributing factors to engage in this business, it can never be perceived to be legitimate because of the vices related to the business, including sexual exploitations and criminal acts.

The prostitution business is more inclined towards coercing the workers psychologically, unlike other forms of businesses because of the predominant position of the society on the practice. The sex workers in need of economic empowerment undergo psychological coercion when engaging in sexual acts. Further, they become more vulnerable to making genuine decisions and choices in life. The psychological coercions that this form of business exposes the vulnerable sex workers to make the rational interest of the prostitutes to comply with demands of the exploitative brothel owners (Roth 267).

Work Conditions and Control

In addition, the brothels where commercial sex work takes place have the authority to order the place and time of the service delivery in such businesses. The brothels could determine the clients that the sex workers carry out business with regardless of the position of the worker. The unethical aspects in this form of business are exemplified in controls and workplace settings in which clients who require business services can be turned down based on their race and the service preferences (Gleeson 12).

Prostitution business cannot be legitimized in any way because of the moral and ethical positions within the society that the trade goes against. The chances of women engaging in the business contracting venereal and sexually transmitted diseases are very high because the nature of the work conditions for the business entails sexual acts with several partners. Some commercial sex workers are infected with sexually transmitted diseases, and they may pass them easily to the clients they deal with. According to Murphy, 40% of sex workers in some regions in America are infected with AIDS virus (Murphy 33).

The business of prostitution is a continual explicit body-enslavement instance in which the workers are perceived generally as working animals. These commercial sex workers are reduced to needs of the body stringently. Legitimizing prostitution as a business does not eliminate the unethical practice in which the brothel owners are concerned more with the capacity of the sex workers to deliver more returns at the expense of their health. The practice of testing the sex workers regularly to determine their level of antibodies is for instance, carried out primarily for the brothels to ensure that their customers are safe. This exemplifies the practice of the business using the workers for financial gains. Infected sex workers may also be hindered from participating in the business on the grounds that they may drive away the customers (Murphy 33).

Women engaged in prostitution business have limited economic options to pursue. Prostitution in itself is associated with deeper social problems regarding marketing of human sexuality and bodies. The view of accepting prostitution as a legal business is challenging. It is unethical to expose humans to social ills and injustices because of payments or economic reasons. Procuring prostitutes is an act of exploitation and unethical for that matter. This form of labor to the society is unnecessary and inconsistent with the need to preserve human dignity. Legalized prostitution is absolutely unethical because it endorses all the ills, abuses and injustices perpetrated through prostitution (Murphy 34).

Solutions to the Prostitution Business

The most effective approach or strategy to end the business of legitimized or illegal prostitution is through instituting viable economic options, such as employment trainings for former and present sex workers who may have opted for this practice because of economic reasons (Murphy 34). Many sex workers engage in this unethical business because of the economic needs. Providing alternative viable economic options for these workers would help in cubing the rate of individuals involved in the business. Viable ethical businesses and legitimate occupations would serve in empowering the potential sex workers economically and deprive them of the need to engage in the illegitimate practice. The majority of the sex workers are not engaged in the practice because of the love of their occupation but because they needed to make ends meet and prostitution is the only easier option they could access.

The society should take upon itself to educate men and women of the right values, morals and dignity that make up respectable individuals within the society. The sex workers should be made to know that the society mainly decries the practice and business of sexual exchange for money such that women and men who engage in similar acts are deprived of the attention and ultimate love that morally upright people can get. The sex workers should be appealed to and convinced through constant interactions, explaining to them the dangers and problems that commercial sex work exposes them to. Through such actions, they would be taken in for reformation and rehabilitation programs and offered better alternative businesses to engage in (Nguyen).

Humans should be reminded and taught to value their self-dignity and respect. These women and men should be made to understand that they can offer the society clean, ethical, moral and safer services in life through businesses. They must be made to understand that the society has moral standards that its members should participate in upholding, and that unethical business engagements, such as legalized prostitution, do not contribute to establishing these societal standards. Instead, prostitution business only succeeded in providing a wrong and misleading example to the society. These sex workers should be engaged in reaching out to other sex workers and highlighting the vices that sex business contributes in the society (Nichols 107).

The religious institutions within the society should come out strongly in impacting their teachings and doctrines to the faithful and followers. Churches and mosques should influence the society in the right direction in accordance to the Bible and Quran teachings. None of the religious teachings support the practice or business of prostitution. If the society or the community adheres to the religious teachings and beliefs, the rate of prostitution and sexual acts within sex industry will decline. The church leaders should carry out awareness campaigns and teachings to ensure that the community abides by some beliefs and standards. Further, the government should conduct crack down on brothels and sex business owners who engage or put their employees through unethical acts considered illegal by the business rules and state or county laws. This approach would help the sex industry eliminate the business practices that contribute to the criminal deviances in the society. Nevertheless, the moral aspect of legitimized prostitution and human dignity for those who engage in the business will not be addressed through this method (Nichols 107).

Conclusion

Despite the justifications provided that legalized prostitution help to eradicate the negative and unethical problems associated with the sex industry, the business still remains an unethical because of lack of human dignity, exploitative work conditions, trading human sexuality for money and the moral decadence associated with engaging in sexual acts with multiple partners. The societal standards disregard sex business as an immoral and unethical engagement, which should be avoided. The problems brought about by legalized sex trade can be resolved through economic empowerment of the sex workers and rehabilitation of those workers. Religious and government institutions should come together in enhancing awareness and empowerment of the society against the ills and injustices experienced in sex industry. These actions would help in eliminating the sex business through minimizing the population of sex workers in the society.

Works Cited

Brents, Barbara and Kate Hausbeck. “What is Wrong with Prostitution? Assessing Dimensions of Exploitation in Legal Brothels.” Conference Papers — American Sociological Association. Montreal,: University of Nevada, 2006 . 1-24.

Carver, Terrell and Veronique Mottier. Politics of Sexuality: Identity, Gender, Citizenship. New York: Routledge , 2005.

Gleeson, Kate. “Budging Sex – What’s Wrong with the Pimp?” Australasian Political Studies Association Conference. Adelaide: University of New South Wales, 2004. 1-25.

Murphy, Julien S. The Constructed Body: AIDS, Reproductive Technology, And Ethics. Albany, NY : State University of New York Press , 1995.

Nguyen, Linda. “Laws against prostitution ‘unethical,’ court told; Sex workers’ safety ‘jeopardized’ lawyer argues.” The Ottawa Citizen 16 June 2011.

Nichols, Jeffrey D. Prostitution, Polygamy, and Power: Salt Lake City, 1847-1918. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2008.

Roth, Venla. Defining human trafficking and identifying its victims : a study on the impact and future challenges of international, European and Finnish legal responses to prostitution-related trafficking in human beings. Boston : Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2012.

Weitzer, Ronald John. Legalizing Prostitution: From Illicit Vice to Lawful Business. New York : New York University Press, 2012.

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11 Nov 2012

Essay Topic: The Healers: Varieties of Experience in Doctoring

This article discuses different reasons why people may decide to specialize in medical practice. It is a fact that there are different reasons why people socialize in medical practices. Moreover, there are different fields of medicine that a person may decide to specialize in. Specialization in different fields in medicine depends with a person. There are some people who specialize in medical practice for the purpose of stabilizing financially, while there are some people who specialize in medicine due to past experiences with diseases or health condition. The article has clearly illustrated different reasons why people may decide to specialize in different fields of medicine, for example, the illustration on Dr. Paul. Medical practice involves handling people’s lives, and specialists should not use the profession as a way of making money because it might lead to loss of lives due to incompetency. Therefore, medical specialists should engage in medical practices for the purpose of providing quality health services, and not concentrate on the high rewards associated with the profession (Kleinmann 209-227).

For God’s sake shake your booty: The Second original mystery

This article discusses the relationship between God and man and how God expects man to behave to enhance their relationship. The arguments of the author are clear and concise. However, the language the author has used does not fully comply with the expectorations of the target group. The article is targeting Christians and religious groups, while it has used terms such as shake your booty, which are not considered religious. The author should consider using religious terms to enhance credibility and appeal to the target group. The words used in the article ought to be in line with religious expectation on language use (Keene

Works Cited

Keeney. “The Second Original Mystery.” Keeney. For God’s sake shake your booty. New York: Plutarch, 1996. 25-55.

Kleinmann. “Eight Medical Lives.” Kleinmann. The Ealers: The Varieties of experience in doctoring. New Orleans: ACM Press, 1987. 209-227.

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Sample Essay: Affirmative Action: Ethics and Colleges

Introduction

The practices of different institutions for giving priority to the ethnic minorities, women, or students are known as Affirmative Action. This action can be related to the recruitment of employees in different organizations or admitting students in various colleges or universities (Daigle). The affirmative action was designed for providing benefits to those people that do not have the advantage to take admission in any specific college due to their background. Affirmative action works on the assumption that if minority applicants were striving to take admission in colleges, then there would be some limitations or constraints attached with the applicants. Therefore, a system in which an additional weight granted to applicants for their race or ethnicity was made. At the initial stage of this system, it only involved racial quotes but now it has been considering different factors such as gender, sexual status, and economic backgrounds (Moore).

The two US states that are considered as a pioneer for implementing affirmative actions are Texas and California, because they have forcefully implemented affirmative action in their system. The basic problem for affirmative action is that most of the people relate this system with individual’s color, despite the fact that admission granted to the applicant is based on other considerations. The people against and in favor of this system have valid reasons to support their arguments (Moore). Some people argue that this system is not fair for all the students, where other think that people having disadvantages for their race, color or gender should be provided certain advantage for taking admission in colleges. There is no proper measurement of evaluating and calculating opinions of the people regarding affirmative action, and this is the reason that there are issues and reservations for this system (Daigle).

Background and History

The affirmative action can be evaluated based on its wider context, but history of this system is only documented for education and academic terms. The President of USA signed an executive order in 1961, where affirmative action used as a term related to civil rights. The reference of affirmative action initially made for dealing with the contractors, but with the passage of time, this system further moved forward. US President signed another Act in which discrimination in education towards racism was strictly prohibited (Anderson).

The Supreme Court heard a case of “Odegaard and DeFunis” in 1974, but the timing of this case made it debatable, and this is the reason that no comment was given on racial preference in this case. Another case of “Bakke and Regents of the University of California” commenced in Supreme Court in which decision was given that no minority candidate can be judged separately. This ruling was not helpful to reach diversity for racism considerations, as this case carried for more than 20 years. An appeal court gave a decision for “Texas and Hopwood” case in 1996, where order was given that admission on racism cannot be granted at “Texas University Law School” (Sherpa).

Florida State in 2000 prohibits admissions in the state colleges based on racial preferences, and students were only allowed to take admission based on their percentages. Nevertheless, it was revealed that the intended outcomes of these programs were not according to expectations of the authorities. The Supreme Court heard another two cases related to affirmative action in 2003, where the first case was between “Bollinger and Gratz”, while other case was “Bollinger and Grutter”. For the first case, decision was made that policies of affirmative actions were not constitutional, and they must be abandoned, whereas other case gave judgment that minority students should be given preference for getting admission in law school (Sherpa).

People against Affirmative Actions

Thomas Sowell wrote the book “Affirmative Action around the World” in which he has criticized that affirmative action does not work according to the intention of authorities, and it causes harm to a society (Anderson). He further states that if one individual or group get benefits from this system, the other individual or group will be damaged, which means that this system is damaging for the society as a whole. Ward Connerly, founder of American Civil Rights Institute, wrote in his bio that affirmative action is responsible for increasing discrimination and racial disparity in US, no matter this system is made for helping those people who have faced racial discrimination in US. An associate justice named Clarence Thomas said that his law degree was not valuable in front of the employees, because he was black. According to a South African judge, significance of law degree from Yale was different for black people and different for white people. Carol Costello points out that there are many people thinking that this is the right time to end affirmative action because it is not suitable for the society (Dworkin).

People in Favor of Affirmative Actions

Deidre Bowen conducted a research in 2009 in which benefits of affirmative action are explained. He stated that this system is useful to eliminate discrimination for the admissions in colleges, as racism is prevailing in the education system, and students of color have to face difficulties for getting admission in colleges (Sherpa). Anthony Marx, president of Amherst College stated that high-class colleges are not superior nor terrible, because they do not admit lower income students. The co-director of Civil Rights Projects Gary Orfield argued that affirmative action is useful for the people, but policymakers need to listen to the court verdict. Gary found out that he is not a part of the region where racial problems are common, but he feels that this system has many strong benefits related to the education of students. Michael Martinson supported affirmative action that this system did not affect white students to get admission in colleges and universities, and it is useful for black students who have faced discrimination for getting admission in their desired colleges (Sherpa).

Attempts for addressing this Issue

This system is a continuous debate for policymaking decision regarding admission in the education system. The authorities and policymakers have previously used many approaches to increase the number of lawsuits and proposals that have been rejected for affirmative action (Moore). Some policymakers try to increase minority students in their colleges by applying different methods, in which the most common method is to guarantee a particular percentage of students to get admission in their colleges. In some colleges, students gaining top marks are guaranteed to get admission as they deserve to get admission in their desired colleges or universities. Many states such as Texas, California, and New York have tried to decrease racism in education, as many policies regarding black students have been made and implemented. In some states, this system has been successful, but there are many colleges in different states of US where many people have criticized affirmative action (Doverspike, Taylor and Arthur).

Conclusion

The discrimination in education is still a common issue in USA, and strong policies are required that would be helpful to eliminate discriminatory admission practices by different colleges. The best argument for the usage of affirmative action is to promote different students groups so that level of education can be increased (Daigle). The current way of practicing affirmative action is not suitable for many people, as racism cannot be eliminated by overlooking other students that deserve to get admission in colleges. Moreover, if one individual is admitted to the college by affirmative action, then it is evident that the student who has been ignored will suffer from this system. Therefore, the government should take serious measures to address this issue, because discrimination in education can damage future of the students.

Works Cited

Anderson, E. “Integration, affirmative action and strict scrutiny.” NYU Law Review 77 (2002): 1195-1271.

Daigle, S. Affirmative action legality, fairness, and ethical use in college admission in both the graduate and undergraduate levels of federally funded programs. Research Report. Florida: Florida Atlantic University, 2004.

Doverspike, P, M Taylor and W Arthur. Psychological Perspective on Affirmative Action . New York: Nova Science Publishers Inc., 2006.

Dworkin, R. Affirmative Action: Does it work? Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2002.

Moore, J. Race And College Admissions: A Case For Affirmative Action. New York: McFarland, 2005.

Sherpa, T. Is Affirmative Action in College Admissions Ethical? Research Report. Miami: International Center of Ethics, Justice, and Public Life, 2011.

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Essay Topic: Negligent Tort

Introduction

Negligent torts are the most important torts in contemporary law. Negligent torts do not only concern deliberate actions. Instead, they also occur when entities or people fail to act in a reasonable way to individuals they owe a duty to. The action of negligence found in such tort leads to monetary damages or personal injury. This concept of negligence is based on the principle that all persons have to exercise a certain degree of duty care in order to avoid harming others. Everyone has a responsibility of not only caring about the result of their willful actions, but also mind about injuries they occasion to other people by their desire for normal skill or care when managing their properties or other people. Negligence by itself is not a wrong act; what makes it to be legally wrong is the character that defines that act. This study will mainly focus on analysis of the concepts of negligent torts, duty of care, proximate causation, and the different types of available remedies for finding of negligent tort liability.

The concept of negligent tort is a major section of law in the legal system of United States of America. Some laws consider it a breach of a contract in which the legislation gives a remedy in monetary damages.  Additionally, when the law imposes a specific duty on a given individual, and enforces a duty of care to which every similarly situated people have to adhere to, and those people happen to breach that imposed duty, those people become liable when that breach causes injury. In the same manner, a negligent tort represents immoral that is caused by the failure of an actor in adhering to the duty of care that the law requires it to comply with under specific circumstances.  The duty of care that is imposed by law differs based on the relationship and the actions between the victim of the tort and the actor (Egteren & Smith, 2002).

Whereas various negligent torts have different elements based on the different jurisdiction, four essential elements must be proved to confirm the occurrence of a negligent tort: duty, resulting damages, breach, and causation.  In essence, a negligent tort is constituted when an individual owes a service or duty to a victim; the person that owes the specified duty has to violate the obligation or promise; that violation must cause an injury; and the causes of the injury should have been rationally foreseen because of the neglectful actions of that person.

According to Siliciano (1929), the terms of duty of care imposes certain duties and rights on contracting parties. The duty of care in negligence torts can be imposed explicitly or expressly. It defines the obligation of one individual to another. The duty of care binds humans to one another in the community and provides the front door in recovering incurred loss as a result of negligent torts: all claims of negligence have to go through the “duty portal” connecting the scope of recovery of negligent torts with harms from accidents.

Proximate causation exists in negligent torts when the plaintiff suffers injury because of natural conducts of negligence. The only form of remedy available for finding of tort liability is to ensure the plaintiff establishes both the proximate cause and negligence. It is usually not required for liability that the negligence of the defendant to be the last proximate cause of a particular injury. Various types of remedies are available for finding of tort liability: when the plaintiff’s injury has numerous proximate causes, when causes of the injury occur at the same time, or when the causes of the injury of the plaintiff occur in combination (Mallor, Barnes, Bowers & Langvardt, 2010).

In conclusion, negligent torts are product of people failing to do what is expected of them thus resulting in loss or injury, or doing what they are supposed to do in a worn way that causes loss or injury. Elements such as duty of care, and proximate causation are necessary to determine a negligence tort. In settling disputes arising from this tort, several remedies such as compensation are necessary.

References

Egteren, V.H., Smith, R.T. (2002). “Environmental regulations under simple negligence or strict liability.” Environmental and Resource Economics, 21(4), 367-396.

Mallor, J.P., Barnes, A.J., Bowers, T., & Langvardt, A.W. (2010). Business Law: The ethical, global,and ecommerce environment (14th ed.). New York : Irwin/McGraw Hill. ISBN: 978-0-07-337764-3.

Michael, R & Koenig, T. (2005). “Tort of Negligent Enablement of Cybercrime.” Environmental and Research Journal, 15(3), 45-67.

Siliciano, J. A. (1929). “Negligent Accounting and the Limits of Instrumental Tort Reform.” Hein Journal, 30(4), 56-61.

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02 Nov 2012

Essay Topic: Case Study

The most critical project goal on the project path is finalizing test subjects: Fully four tasks (preparing the product and the placebo, creating a data analysis database and hypothetical test data) hinge upon finalizing test subjects alone, with no other element of the project having more than a single presence as a predecessor for the next phase. While normally this project would see an earlier completion time due to having two branching paths for much of the later steps, the limited number of workers available to do the work means that the total duration of the project is equal to the total duration of each task (minus five days for Tony’s test database which can be done in parallel with the subject testing), or 120 units.

The NutroBalance project, to research and produce a safe UltraMAX weight-loss supplement targeted at athletic women, will begin on February 22, 2010. Four employees total have been assigned to the project: Sarah, a test subject recruiter and screener; Robert, the drug analyst; Tony, the IT professional; and Lisa, the statistician. The estimated length of the project is 125 days. Since there is no maximum length, there has been no need to assign overtime; thus, we plan on spending $2000 for compensation for Sarah, $425 for Tony, $2310 for Robert and $500 for Lisa for a total of $5235 in compensation. The assumption for this cost is that these personnel are either not paid when not working or, far more likely, are working on another project for the company: If they have to be paid for twiddling their thumbs, the project cost increases markedly.

The largest resource constraint is the number of personnel by far. There are branching paths in the project: Even if the sixty-five days necessary to test subjects couldn’t be made more efficient in any way through parallel work and specialization of duties, or any other element of the project could be made more efficient similarly, the fact remains that testing the database with hypothetical data is done far earlier than inputting actual data even though there is a split in the mission path. Moreover, Sarah’s work is entirely at the start of the project while Lisa’s is at the end. The only parallel path that is conducted at all is Tony working on the test database while Robert actually tests, and Sarah has ten days after developing hypothetical test data before Tony can even begin using that work. However, this schedule was conducted assuming that there were no other workers available for these tasks.

The primary risk to project completion is that if any worker is sick, if any task takes longer than expected, or if there’s any problems (especially during the sixty-five days of subject testing), the entire project has no redundancies due to its highly linear direction, despite a large amount of available manhours. As it is, if the project gets past the testing with no difficulties, it is not likely to fail.

Executive Summary

The UltraMAX project is ten days and $500 behind schedule due to an unexpected delay in the process of screening test subjects. Doing so appropriately is crucial for the entire project: Improperly cause test subjects can cause the entire sixty-five days of actual testing to produce bad data that has to be thrown out in its entirety. Thus far, identifying target consumers went a day faster than expected, and recruiting test subjects went exactly as quickly as expected. It is especially unfortunate because Sarah’s work is the most expensive and her work is what took longer.

The most crucial way of getting the project back on track would be to assign Sarah or a new resource to Tony or Robert’s work, as their twelve day goals are the major hurdles. If finalizing test subjects could be completed in three days rather than five (a reasonable assumption given how well identifying target consumers went), data-base and subject testing could be completed in fifty days rather than sixty-five (more difficult given that testing must have a minimum time but possible if elements are done in tandem with the workers who are waiting for their next phase of the project), and actual data inputting could be done in five days rather than seven, the project would be back on track.

Sample Essay: Do We Need Proof of God Existence?

Introduction

Every person asks whether God exists or not. Philosophers, theologians and other thinkers have spent a lot of time trying to answer this question but they end up in contradicting answers. There are many questions and issues that are directly related to this question for example why are people believers? Does God exist? What is the essence of religion? There is no specific answer to any of these questions and therefore one would ask why are people asking these questions to begin with? There are two major groups of people in reference to this issue; the believers and atheists. The believers will always raise arguments that prove the existence of God while atheists will always prove that God does not exist. This is a clear implication that there can never be an answer to the question of whether God exists or not. It can neither be proved nor disapproved and therefore this question is futile. The side taken by the atheists and believers is based on faith in which a person believes in something that s/he has no proof of its existence. The argument whether God exists or not is therefore not necessary. This essay is a manifestation that we don’t need proof of God’s existence.

Discussion

Whether God exists or not depends on faith of a person. Believers will always be convinced that God exists and will always abide by the doctrines of their religions (Holley, 2011, p. 750). On the other hand, atheists will always argue that God does not exist and as such there is no need for religion. Faith is therefore the major aspect that determines the stand of an individual person on whether God exists or not. For example in 1943, Sartre in the analysis of Bataille’s L’Expérience intérieure known as, that even for Sartre, Bataille and many others “God is dead” (Hoven, 2010, p. 75). Sartre further asserts that people have not become atheists despite this. Sartre also says that it is not simple to become an atheist since it took him a lot of time to leave Christianity. This happens to many other people and therefore they are held up by the doctrines of their religion. If the religion advocates for people to believe in existence of God, this is what they take. Faith is therefore a strong virtue that determines the stand that one takes about the universe and existence of God. Faith develops gradually from childhood depending on the family and the community in which a person is brought up. A person grows with these virtues and believes in whatever the family and the society believes in, whether backed by evidence or not. In the arguments of Pascal that we all sail in the same boat, it is clear that the arguments of Sartre are based on a strong Christian tradition (Hoven, 2010, p. 76). It has previously been discussed in this essay that it was not simple for Sartre to leave Christianity. This is because he grew up in strong Christian faith that made him believe in God and doctrines of the Christian church. This is the same case with all people whether believers or atheists. Their faith is the major determining factor of whether they believe in existence of God or not. Any arguments by philosophers, theologians and other thinkers will therefore not have a significant impact in shaping the beliefs of people. This proves the thesis of this essay that we don’t need proof of God existence.

People are diverse and will therefore always have different opinions on whether God exists or not. As such, existence of God is not a matter of discussion. In the modern world, there is a de facto debate on religious issues ranging from pluralism, atheism and Islam (Peters, 2007, p. 84). Under Pluralism, the claim of any religion is respected (Siniscalchi, 2010, p. 51). This gives the freedom of worship and therefore any person is given the right to believe in what s/he thinks is the best. As such, there can be many religions and people can opt to believe in God or not. In atheism, the claim of no religion is respected and therefore people will simply say that God does not and have never existed and if he did, he is already dead (Hoven, 2010, p. 75). Islam respects the claims of its religion and that all other religions are not right. Despite these claims, the Christians still believe that their God is gracious and powerful. This means that people are diverse and will always have different views and beliefs about the existence of God. This is a matter that depends on the locations in which people are based and therefore arguments that try to proof whether God exists or not are not necessary. These arguments will always create conflicts and hatred among people since no specific group is ready to go against the beliefs of their religion to follow those of other people. God’s existence will always be a matter of discussion since people are diverse. It would therefore be best if people are allowed to believe in whatever they want since no single religion has been proved to be right or wrong and no thinker has proved the existence of God by facts. Everything discussed about the existence of God is phenomenal and only based on theories that have not been proved yet. The diversity of people and the existence of different religions increase confusion on whether Gods exist or not. Even the atheists have mixed reactions on whether God exists or not for instance religious atheists respect the beliefs of those attached to different religions (Peters, 2007, p. 88). This is clear illustration that people are diverse and will always have different views on religion and existence of God. Believers cannot explain succinctly why they believe and so do non-believers. This shows that matters or religion are phenomenal and no one can explain why some people believe in certain aspects while others do not. This is natural divergence and should be respected at any time. This proves the thesis that we don’t need proof of God’s existence.

Studies that have been conducted about existence of God have not defined one particular way of proving the existence. For instance in Proslogion, Anselm has presented a proof that God exists and this has attracted a lot of researchers since the late medieval period (Schumacher, 2011, p. 88). Anselm argued that it would be impossible to recount all the arguments that have been made on existence of God. Another person who has tried to proof the existence of God is Benedictine monk but his approach is very general and therefore it can be easily criticized. Different philosophers of religion assert that these proves can be accepted especially in cases of priori or ontological proofs. Thomas Aquinas has also attempted to prove existence of God through five ways that are based o the natural order. Different religion philosophers have argued that the statements of atheists are persuasive but there are those who have been opposed to this statement (Schumacher, 2011, p. 87). The different explanations that try to prove existence of God are questionable which implies that the attempt to prove God’s existence is not necessary at all. For instance, all the people who have been discussed in their attempts to prove God’s existence use different arguments which raises questions for example why do they use different explanations to prove the existence of one being? Which of the ways discussed to prove God’s existence should we believe? What is the rationale behind any explanation that attempts to explain God’s existence? The different numbers of explanations that attempt to explain God’s existence create room for criticism among the atheists. They will raise questions that oppose any attempted proof which increase confusion. People should respect that many philosophers and theologians have attempted to prove existence of God but they have always been criticized (Aijaz & Weidler, 2007, p. 7). The arguments of atheists always appear to be stronger than those of believers who always try to convince on issues that have not been proved yet and there are no signs of prove either. It would be to the best interest of human kind if arguments about existence of God do not continue. This is because every person believes in what s/he knows about God despite many explanations. God does not exist and if does, he do not want human beings to be aware of his existence otherwise he would have proved his existence. People should respect this and stop any arguments that try to prove the existence of God as this just increases confusion and hatred. The fact that no single study has absolutely proved the existence of God beyond doubt justifies the thesis of this essay that we don’t need proof of God’s existence.

Conclusion

The essay is based on a clear thesis that we don’t need proof of God’s existence. This has been discussed through three strong points in the essay. The first point states that people’s beliefs on existence or non-existence of God are based on faith and not theories or arguments that have been developed by philosophers and theologians. For instance Sartre asserts that it took him a lot of time to leave the Christian religion and become an atheist. This is because the doctrines of the Christian church and the belief that the God of Christians is gracious had dominated his mind and thoughts. In addition, it is stated in the essay that most of his arguments were based on the Christian faith. This means that faith plays significant role in determining the belief of a person about God’s existence and hence there is no need of proof.  The other major point that proves the thesis is the fact that people are diverse and will always have different views and opinions about existence of God. The essay has discussed atheists, Muslims, pluralists and Christians who have been found to have different arguments about God. These groups of people will always exist and therefore no need of trying to prove God’s existence. This is because each of the named groups will have its own views and opinions about this issue. The other point that proves the thesis is the fact that different studies have been conducted but no particular one has been able to prove the existence of God absolutely. All the studies are based on phenomenal theories which are always open to criticism. People should therefore be given freedom to believe in what they know about God.

References

Aijaz, I., & Weidler, M. (2007). Some critical reflections on the hiddenness argument. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion , 16 (7), 1-23.

Holley, D. M. (2011). How can a Believer Doubt that God Exists? Philosophical Quarterly , 61 (254), 746-761.

Hoven, A. V. (2010). Sartre and Atheism. Sartre Studies International , 16 (2), 75-84.

Peters, T. (2007). Christian God-Talk While Listening to Atheists, Pluralists, and Muslims. A Journal of Theology , 46 (2), 84-104.

Schumacher, L. (2011). The Lost Legacy of Anselm’s Argument: Re-Thinking the Purpose ff Proofs for the Existence of God. Modern Theology , 27 (1), 87-102.

Siniscalchi, G. B. (2010). Knowing that God Exists: Retrieving the Teaching of Dei Filius. American Theological Inquiry , 3 (2), 45-68.

Filed under: Sample essays — Tags: , , , , — admin @ 4:06 am

17 Oct 2012

Sample Essay: Hamlet’s Ophelia

Ophelia, simply known for being incapable of her own distress, has been known in the history for epitomizing the mystifying woman who is hard to grasp. For the critics of Shakespeare, she has always eluded as a character (Camden). She is depicted as a herione who meets a tragic end. Her character exudes the potential of becoming a tragically devastated woman who finallyloses er mind under the immense pressure by the social norms. Ophelis is a product of her environment, depicting the way a woman was supposed to be in the 16th and 17th century. She was an obedient child , a doting sister and a loyal wife. She played her duty unconditionally and blended into the roles of women of that time so finely that it was hard to find a more perfect woman in those times. The Hamlet’s Ophelia is one of the most distressed, one dimensional characters of its time. She acts out as a tragic herione who has the potential to overcome all the misfortunes wrecked on her, instead she dissolves into craziness, thus encompassing the true essence of tragedy. The character of Ophelia is important because of the dual nature of women that she represents. The purpose of the character is to display the viewpoint of hamlet about women. Hamlet’s twisted view about women as subjects of seduction only makes him hate Ophelia all the more. He takes Ophelia to be amongst all women who he thinks are insensitive sexual predators that lure men into their charms and sexuality and then trap them with their conniving manipulations. So Ophelia plays the role of Hamlet’s whore version of a woman while at the same time remaining a distinctive innocence and virtue that was the chastity of women at that time. Hamlet’s betrayal start with Gertrude and it moves along to Ophelia who becomes the predated under the obligation of being an obedient daughter and a loyal wife. Hamlet is enraged with his mother for being the woman of masked connivance and because of this hatred he projects his sarcasm and loath towards Ophelia.

Ophelia’s character helps us to experience the viewpoint of Hamlet and his gradual evolution into a loathsome man who believes that every woman is a whore. He believed that women who wear a cloak of purity and chastity of character are the ones who are laden with evil from inside. He also tool Ophelia’s father as a pimp who prostituted his daughter to spy on Hamlet and when the purpose was served told her to stop talking or meeting with him. Ophelia’s abject dismay in being torn between the obedience for her father and her love for Hamlet makes her decide to go for her father’s wishes and follow in suit. This is because she depicts a true example of a woman who is obsequious in nature and believes that her life is devoted to her father before marriage and to her husband after marriage. Therefore, Hamlet’s version of whore is a woman who is used not by one but many men. Ophelia is used by her father, brother and hamlet at various events throughout the play. However, what really instigated his view about Ophelia was the apparent innocence she wore in front and the way she presented herself to him in servitude, yet remained loyal to her treacherous father simultaneously. For Ophelia, she was just playing the part of being a daughter, when she decided to seduce Hamlet, she did it out of sheer love for her father and brother, and when she shunned Hamlet away, and she did it because her father told her so. Hamlet’s wrath was pointed towards Ophelia for choosing her father over Hamlet, this reminded Hamlet of Gertrude, his mother, who chose his new father over the old. So to Hamlet, both choices were increasingly “incestuous”.

From an audience point of view, Ophelia represents a quite distinctive character. She is the damsel in distress; a woman so wrought with the pain inflicted on her by her loved ones, that she is unable to take it through the end and loses her sanity. To us, Ophelia depicts the convoluted character of women that still resides in each of women. She is a daughter, a sister and a lover. And she is destined to play all those in the most perfect way possible. She has to be an obedient daughter, when unmarried she must obey her father, and she does not act because she is supposed. In fact, she does it out of the goodness of her character and the demands required by the social norms of that time. Likewise, when she becomes Hamlet’s wife, she does not relieve her loyalties from her father because she was supposed to, but because it was ingrained in her give herself up to her husband, in mind and body. So she strikes as a woman who is an emblem of goodness of heart and mind. She has her childlike loyalties towards her loved ones, clings to them for being hers and she is not aware of the darkness that her small acts could lead to (Mabillard).

Her whole character depicts simplicity and sheer loyalty towards those who care for her. She is an epitome of selfless affection. She is desperately in love with Hamlet but has to hold because of her father. So she stays away from him, but her heart stays pure. Once with Hamlet, she clings to the very memory of Hamlet when he was sweet to her and loves her till the end. She is there to defend him even when his whip like tongue tears her flesh apart. She seems incapable of her own distress and is not able to defend herself in front of hamlet. However, her immense suffering was obvious through her coy responses.

“Hamlet: …I did love you once.
Ophelia: Indeed, my, lord, you made me believe so.
Hamlet: You should not have believed me…I loved you not.
Ophelia: I was the more deceived”
(Mabillard).

A story written on Ophelia takes the play from the account of Ophelia. It divides the whole life of character into three parts and then highlights the key areas which lead to Ophelia’s gradual demise towards insanity. Part one of the book describes the early childhood of Ophelia and her transition towards womanhood and the love affair with Hamlet. The second part describes the sequence of the play as seen through the eyes of Ophelia. Finally the third part depicts the life of Ophelia after the play, thus giving readers food for thought about the escape of woman scorned from the shackles of dismay (Xirena). Ophelia’s slow descent to madness was directly related with the callous attitude of Hamlet and the death of her father took a final toll on her (Hamlet).

In conclusion, there were some very important aspects of Ophelia which need to be highlighted in this review. To start with, she was the archetypal obedient daughter that was the demand of the 16th and early 17th century role of a woman. This filial obedience makes Ophelia vulnerable to the abuse inflicted on her by Hamlet. He accuses her of being deceptive and disloyal towards him. He goes on to accusing her of “breeder of the sinner” and says that if she was to marry she would turn her husband into a monster. Finally, Ophelia gives in to the immense pressure given to her by those who loved her dearly. Her father’s death disturbs her greatly. Besides, given the harshness subjected to her by Hamlet she finally cracks in to the pressure. This comes as a tragic end to a woman who did everything out of purity of heart and selfless love for those she loved dearly. In the days of her insanity, she takes to singing brazen songs in which she described the tale of a woman who was tricked into losing her virginity by a monster. So Ophelia’s madness can be attributed to the immense patriarchal pressure of that time when men used to have the dominance and power on the society norm building. The character of Ophelia displays a woman torn between the love of her father and her lover. She is portrayed as an extremely compassionate woman and is subjected to unfair treatment at the hands of those who loved her dearly. This comes in contrast to the Hamlet’s version of her as someone who feigns insanity and madness. The death of Ophelia’s character is a mystery and many critics still regard as one of the most poorly understood act of the play. She drowns in an offstage sequence which leaves the audience perplexed and lets them ponder on the exact nature of death and its validity. She is taken as an erotic creature even at the time of her death. A mermaid-like woman who spent her like in quite grief and finally gave into insanity lies down with her clothes spread wide in waters which engulf her body in the waves of death and makes her a part of her own distress (Ophelia).

Works Cited

Camden, Carroll. “On Ophelia’s Madness.” Shakespeare Quarterly 15.2 (1964): 247-255.

Hamlet. “The Psychological Pain of Laertes and Ophelia.” 06 August 2011. tryshakespeare. 16 July 2012 <http://www.tryshakespeare.com/articles.php?article_id=29>.

Mabillard, Amanda. “Ophelia.” 20 August 2000. Shakespeare Online. 16 July 2012 << http://www.shakespeare-online.com/plays/hamlet/opheliacharacter.html >.>.

“Ophelia.” n.d. shmoop. 16 July 2012 <http://www.shmoop.com/hamlet/ophelia.html/>.

Xirena. “Book Review: Ophelia.” 25 November 2011. akralena. 16 July 2012 <http://akralena.blogspot.com/2011/11/book-review-ophelia.html#!/2011/11/book-review-ophelia.html>.

Essay Topic: Racist Speech and/or Freedom of Expression

There is one thing regarding human rights issues where the United States are ahead of most democracies, and that is the common law trials where law is established through precedents an where a person is judged by a jury of his or her peers. Nevertheless other countries with British legal tradition share that feature. There is however one issue regarding which the United States respect the freedom speech more then any other democracy in the world, racism and hate talk.  Racists and haters in Canada, UK, Sweden, Bosnia and Russia are not allowed to express or publish their hateful thoughts and opinions directed against people that are different to them, or they will most likely end up in jail. (Bleich, p. 17-18)

Most Canadians and Europeans agree with such laws since they offer a simple solution to a human rights and freedom of speech issue that can and will cause problems and racial tensions. However in the United Sates one has the right to be a racist and a hater and therefore the right to express that opinion. Prohibiting hate talk and racist opinions is unconstitutional in the United Sates, and rightfully so, racists are also humans and have the right to express their opinion  just like anybody else since human rights should be the same for all. (Bleich, p. 17-18)

If a group of White Power members or sympathizers wants to have a rally or speak at the university they should have the same right as the Feminist, Muslim, gay or Hippy speakers. (First Amendment Center) Every public place in which a person can speak publicly should be accessible for all speakers. That is the only way a true democracy can work, anything else is a direct attack against the democratic process. This does not go only for white racists and haters it goes for all races, if an African speaker wants to say that all white people are scum he/she has the right to do it. However in: 2011, “a South African court banned “Dubulu iBhunu (Shoot the Boer),” a derogatory song degrading Afrikaners, on the basis that it violated a South African law prohibiting speech that demonstrates a clear intention to be hurtful, to incite harm, or to promote hatred.” (Benech, p2, 3.) This is an example of free speech limitations where the white community was the object of discrimination.

Many people might object to that view of things and say that racists and haters should not be allowed to express their opinions because they incite hatred and violence. However they are not allowed to publically incite violence. A racist might say that she or would like to see all black people killed but that is only his or her personal opinion. On the other hand if the same racist would incite a mob to lynching that would be a crime.

The Economist speaks about the down side of free speech as it reports about the racist claims by: “Glenn Miller, a write-in candidate to replace the retiring Kit Bond in the Senate.”(The Economist) Namely Mr. Miller does not like the Jews and claims they hold all the media as well as he claims that white people should stop watching “cons” play ball and should fight for their rights instead. The journalist is shocked by the fact that Mr. Miller can broadcast this over the radio but the radio station itself cannot censor the content of the advertisement in any way, it is the federal law. (The Economist)

Racism is bad, whatever race it may stem from, it influences the children negatively who in turn become intolerant adults. It is a very ignorant philosophy that thrives on insignificant physical differences between the people of different races. It is something that should not exist in the age of reason but it exists, and people simply have to deal with it. The only way racism can be eradicated is through education and by setting a good example to the next generation. It is also important for the community to keep up the education programs that will keep the kids off the streets and out of gangs that promote racial hatred. White and black gang leaders tell their soldiers that the other race is at fault for everything and that is why they should fight against them.

There should also be much more concern for the lack of equal opportunities racism then about the fact that a group of skinheads wants to hold a rally in a park. Actually there was quite a scandal back in the 1980s when a group of skinheads wanted to rally through a Jewish neighborhood. All hell broke loose and the Jewish community tried everything to stop the march. The case ended up in court and finally the Nazis decided to do the rally elsewhere, to them it was important that they were in front of  TV cameras for several months and that many have heard what they have to say.

In conclusion it is the best course of action to leave the racists alone and ignore them, the only they will stop doing what they do is if there is no one to listen to them. On the other hand if the state tries to prohibit them things will only get worse and they will go underground.

Works Cited:

Benesch, Susan. “Words as Weapons”. World Policy Journal (Spring 2012).

Bleich, Erik. The freedom to be racist?: how the United States and Europe struggle to preserve freedom and combat racism. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. Print.

Racism and free speech: Congress shall make no law… | The Economist.” The Economist – World News, Politics, Economics, Business & Finance. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Oct. 2012. <http://www.economist.com/node/15911528

First Amendment Center – news, commentary, analysis on free speech, press, religion, assembly, petition. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Oct. 2012. <http://www.firstamendmentcenter.org/free-speech-on-public-college-campuses>.

Filed under: Essay topics — Tags: , , , — admin @ 11:15 am

08 Sep 2012

Essay Topic: Examining the Conflict of Good Versus Evil in Young Goodman Brown

Nathaniel Hawthorne’s short story entitled Young Goodman Brown is about a man who takes a journey to the forest and attends a congregation, but he does not know what is waiting him there. Goodman Brown, the narrative’s protagonist believes that his faith is consistent, true, and immovable, but as he takes his journey to the forest, readers realize that the main character’s faith is too shallow. He himself creates evil thoughts, which makes his faith weaker. As he walks to the forest, he becomes attached to evil and makes his belief disrupted. The conflict of good versus evil is depicted through Goodman Brown’s unstable mind, inconsistent faith, and distrust to the people around him.

The conflict of good versus evil emerges through Goodman Brown’s unstable mind—and only his wife, Faith, is trying to keep his faith still. When Young Goodman Brown is about to leave, his wife said: “Then God bless you! And may you find all well when you come back” (Hawthorne 190). Goodman Brown’s journey is for the benefit of evil, but Faith is trying to restrict her husband to continue his travel. When Goodman Brown wants to pursue his travel, the only think that Faith can do is to bless him and ask for his return. However, though Goodman Brown is blessed by his wife in his journey, he knows that evil exists because on his way to the forest, he said: “There may be a devilish Indian behind every tree. What if the devil himself should be at my very elbow!” (191) Due to his unstable mind, Goodman Brown is prone to evil thoughts. Even if he has a faith and belief in his religion, he cannot stop thinking of negativity because his path leads him to evil.

Conflict between good and evil exists when Goodman Brown begins his distrust to the people around him. As he thinks about the devil and his wife, Goodman Brown asked the traveler: “Friend, my mind is made up. Not another step will I budge on this errand. What if a wretched old woman do choose to go to the devil when I thought she was going to heaven: is that any reason why I should quit my dear Faith and go after her?” (195) As Goodman Brown walks into the forest, he encounters different people taking their journey to the congregation. They are the respected and prayerful individual in his community. As he sees them, he starts distrusting them, which makes him think of going back to his wife. Goodman Brown does not know how to identify the difference between good and evil in the middle of his journey, so when he sees Faith into the congregation, he said: “My Faith is gone! There is no good on earth; and sin is but a name. Come, devil; for to thee is this world given” (197). Faith is not only the protagonist’s wife, but also his belief in his religion. When he says his Faith is gone, it means that his faith to his community is gone because evil builds a devilish thought against people around him.

Goodman Brown experiences conflict of good versus evil due to his inconsistent faith. The forest is a symbolism of evil because there is “no church had ever been gathered or solitary Christian prayed” (196)—and Goodman Brown takes this path as a sign of his union with the devil. Despite of his wife’s disapproval, the protagonist continues his journey, which proves his inconsistent faith to his religion. When he is about to see the congregation and feel the evil spirit within his midst, Goodman Brown shouted: “With heaven above and Faith below, I will yet stand firm against the devil!” (196) The protagonist is trying to use his faith to keep him away from harm, but his soul is offered to the evil. Seeing his community being part of the congregation is a justification of his inconsistent faith because he does not trust anyone around him, even his faith that should only be his source of strength. As he demonstrates his inconsistent faith, his evil attacks his body, mind, and soul.

Goodman Brown is a good man, but he fails to bring his faith in his journey to the forest. The conflict of good versus evil emerges when he decides to leave Faith and takes his journey alone. He leaves his faith in his house and thinks that he can overcome any obstacle in his path, but he is unsuccessful because unstable mind, inconsistent faith, and distrust to the people around him become the instrument of evil to own his mind, body, and soul. As a result, Goodman Brown’s mind, body, and soul is eaten by the evil—and no matter how he try to keep his faith, he cannot return from his belief because the evil lies within his wholeness.

Work Cited

Hawthorne, Nathaniel. “Young Goodman Brown.” 190-203.

Sample Essay: The Cask of Amontillado

Poe weaves a mood of gloom, despondency and grotesque into “The Cask of Amantillado” by using various literary devices such as plot, setting, theme, etc. The plot is diabolical and simple. Planning to take revenge on Fortunato, Montresor lures him to the deep family wine vault and buries him alive in the crypt. “Every action that Montresor takes in order to redress the wrongs he has suffered at the hand of Fortunato strengthens the tale’s tone of impending doom” (Smith 225). The story takes place at dusk in an unnamed European city. It opens at the time of the carnival season and soon shifts into “a deep crypt, in which the foulness of the air caused our flambeaux rather to glow than flame” – setting up the sinister atmosphere of the story.  “The Cask of Amontillado” is a first person narrative and Montresor is the narrator. This approach exposes the workings of a criminal mind and intensifies the sense of shock and horror (Garrity 117). The main theme of story is one of revenge. “I must not only punish but punish with impunity” says Montresor. There is also the theme of reverse psychology in the plot. Montresor says if Fortunato is too busy, he will take Luchesi instead to taste the wine knowing well that Fortunato does not like Luchesi and loves rare wine and these references will persuade him to follow Montresor.

In “The Cask of Amontillado” there is a fusion of a macabre sense of humor with deep irony. Montresor keeps toasting to the health of Fortunato whom he plans to murder, as they both descend to the catacombs.  “It reflects the humor of a mind tickled by its own perversity” (Magistrale 94).  Dramatic irony occurs when Fortunato goes into the cellar unaware that he is moving towards his end. Verbal irony is present when Montresor responds “True—true…” in response to Fortunato’s remark “I will not die of a cough”.  The ultimate irony is that Montresor who seeks peace by killing Fortunato finds himself entrapped in the memories of the crime even fifty years later.

Works Cited

Garrity, Roberts Nancy (2000). Classic Middle School Literature Mystery: Mystery. Good Year Books, 2000

Magistrale, Tony (2001). Student Companion to Edgar Allan Poe. Greenwood Press, Westport, CT

Smith, A. Patrick (2002). Thematic Guide to Popular Short Stories. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002

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